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# Modern Physics, 3rd Edition

## 9781118061145

**by**Krane, Kenneth S.

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### Summary

### Table of Contents

1.1 Review of Classical Physics

1.2 The Failure of Classical Concepts of Space and Time

1.3 The Failure of the Classical Theory of Particle Statistics

1.4 Theory, Experiment, Law

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 2. The Special Theory of Relativity

2.1 Classical Relativity

2.2 The Michelson-Morley Experiment

2.3 Einstein's Postulates

2.4 Consequences of Einstein's Postulates

2.5 The Lorentz Transformation

2.6 The Twin Paradox

2.7 Relativistic Dynamics

2.8 Conservation Laws in Relativistic Decays and Collisions

2.9 Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 3. The Particlelike Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation

3.1 Review of Electromagnetic Waves

3.2 The Photoelectric Effect

3.3 Thermal Radiation

3.4 The Compton Effect

3.5 Other Photon Processes

3.6 What Is a Photon?

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 4. The Wavelike Properties of Particles

4.1 DeBroglie's Hypothesis

4.2 Experimental Evidence for DeBroglie Waves

4.3 Uncertainty Relationships for Classical Waves

4.4 Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationships

4.5 Wave Packets

4.6 The Motion of a Wave Packet

4.7 Probability and Randomness

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 5. The Schrödinger Equation

5.1 Behavior of a Wave at a Boundary

5.2 Confining a Particle

5.3 The Schrödinger Equation

5.4 Applications of the Schrödinger Equation

5.5 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator

5.6 Steps and Barriers

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 6. The Rutherford-Bohr Model of the Atom

6.1 Basic Properties of Atoms

6.2 Scattering Experiments and the Thomson Model

6.3 The Rutherford Nuclear Atom

6.4 Line Spectra

6.5 The Bohr Model

6.6 The Franck-Hertz Experiment

6.7 The Correspondence Principle

6.8 Deficiencies of the Bohr Model

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 7. The Hydrogen Atom in Wave Mechanics

7.1 A One-Dimensional Atom

7.2 Angular Momentum in the Hydrogen Atom

7,3 The Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions

7.4 Radial Probability Densities

7.5 Angular Probability Densities

7.6 Intrinsic Spin

7.7 Energy Levels and Spectroscopic Notation

7.8 The Zeeman Effect

7.9 Fine Structure

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 8. Many-Electron Atoms

8.1 The Pauli Exclusion Principle

8.2 Electronic States in Many-Electron Atoms

8.3 Outer Electrons: Screening and Optical Transitions

8.4 Properties of the Elements

8.5 Inner Electrons: Absorption Edges and X Rays

8.6 Addition of Angular Momenta

8.7 Lasers

Summary

Questions Problems

Chapter 9. Molecular Structure

9.1 The Hydrogen Molecule

9.2 Covalent Bonding in Molecules

9.3 Ionic Bonding

9.4 Molecular Vibrations

9.5 Molecular Rotations

9.6 Molecular Spectra

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 10. Statistical Physics

10.1 Statistical Analysis

10.2 Classical and Quantum Statistics

10.3 The Density of States

10.4 The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

10.5 Quantum Statistics

10.6 Application of Bose-Einstein Statistics

10.7 Application of Fermi-Dirac Statistics

Sumary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 11. Solid-State Physics

11.1 Crystal Structures

11.2 The Heat Capacity of Solids

11.3 Electrons in Metals

11.4 Band Theory of Solids

11.5 Superconductivity

11.6 Intrinsic and Impurity Semiconductors

11.7 Semiconductor Devices

11.8 Magnetic Materials

Questions

Problems

Chapter 12. Nuclear Structure and Radioactivity

12.1 Nuclear Constituents

12.2 Nuclear Sizes and Shapes

12.3 Nuclear Masses and Binding Energies

12.4 The Nuclear Force

12.5 Quantum States in Nuclei

12.6 Radioactive Decay

12.7 Alpha Decay

12.8 Beta Decay

12.9 Gamma Decay and Nuclear Excited States

12.10 Natural Radioactivity

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 13. Nuclear Reactions and Applications

13.1 Types of Nuclear Reactions

13.2 Radioisotope Production in Nuclear Reactions

13.3 Low-Energy Reaction Kinematics

13.4 Fission

13.5 Fusion

13.6 Nucleosynthesis

13.7 Applications of Nuclear Physics

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 14. Elementary Particles

14.1 The Four Basic Forces

14.2 Classifying Particles

14.3 Conservation Laws

14.4 Particle Interactions and Decays

14.5 Energy and Momentum in Particle Decays

14.6 Energy and Momentum in Particle Reactions

14.7 The Quark Structure of Mesons and Baryons

14.8 The Standard Model

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 15. Cosmology: The Origin and Fate of the Universe

15.1 The Expansion of the Universe

15.2 The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

15.3 Dark Matter

15.4 The General Theory of Relativity

15.5 Tests of General Relativity

15.6 Stellar Evolution and Black Holes

15.7 Cosmology and General Relativity

15.8 The Big Bang Cosmology

15.9 The Formation of Nuclei and Atoms

15.10 Experimental Cosmology

Summary

Questions

Problems

Appendix A. Constants and Conversion Factors

Appendix B. Complex Numbers

Appendix C. Periodic Table of the Elements

Appendix D. Table of Atomic Masses

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems