9780534493394

Modern Physics

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780534493394

  • ISBN10:

    0534493394

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-04-15
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning

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Summary

Succeed in physics with MODERN PHYSICS! Designed to provide simple, clear, and mathematically uncomplicated explanations of physical concepts and theories of modern physics, this physics text provides you with the tools you need to get a good grade. Worked examples, exercises, end-of-chapter problems, special topic sections, and the book-specific website give you the opportunity to test your comprehension and mastery of the material. Studying is made easy with QMTools, an online simulation software that provides modeling tools to help you visualize abstract concepts and practice problem solving.

Table of Contents

1 RELATIVITY I
1(40)
1.1 Special Relativity
2(1)
1.2 The Principle of Relativity
3(4)
The Speed of light
6(1)
1.3 The Michelson-Morley Experiment
7(3)
Details of the Michelson-Morley Experiment
8(2)
1.4 Postulates of Special Relativity
10(3)
1.5 Consequences of Special Relativity
13(12)
Simultaneity and the Relativity of Time
14(1)
Time Dilation
15(3)
Length Contraction
18(3)
The Twins Paradox (Optional)
21(1)
The Relativistic Doppler Shift
22(3)
1.6 The Lorentz Transformation
25(6)
Lorentz Velocity Transformation
29(2)
1.7 Spacctime and Causality
31(4)
Summary
35(6)
2 RELATIVITY II
41(24)
2.1 Relativistic Momentum and the Relativistic Form of Newton's Laws
41(3)
2.2 Relativistic Energy
44(4)
2.3 Mass as a Measure of Energy
48(4)
2.4 Conservation of Relativistic Momenttun and Energy
52(1)
2.5 General Relativity
53(12)
Gravitational Radiation, or a Good Wave Is Hard to Find
56(3)
Summary
59(6)
Web Essay The Renaissance of General Relativity
Clifford M. Will
3 THE QUANTUM THEORY OF LIGHT
65(41)
3.1 Hertz's Experiments-Light as an Electromagnetic Wave
66(2)
3.2 Blackbody Radiation
68(9)
Enter Planck
72(2)
The Quantum of Energy
74(3)
3.3 The Rayleigh Jeans Law and Planck's Law (Optional)
77(3)
Rayleigh-Jeans Law 77 Planck's Law
79(1)
3.4 Light Quantization and the Photoelectric Effect
80(6)
3.5 The Coanpton Effect and X-Rays
86(8)
X-Rays
86(3)
The Compton Effect
89(5)
3.6 Particle-Wave Complementarity
94(1)
3.7 Does Gravity Affect Light? (Optional)
95(3)
Summary
98(8)
Web Appendix
Calculation of the Number of Modes of Waves in a Cavity
Planck's Calculation of the Average Energy of an Oscillator
4 THE PARTICLE NATURE OF MATTER
106(45)
4.1 The Atomic Nature of Matter
106(2)
4.2 The Composition of Atoms
108
Millikan's Value olthe Elementary Charge
113(6)
Rutherford's Model of the Atom
119
4.3 The Bohr Atom 1
25(114)
Spectral Series
126(4)
Bohr's Quantum Model of the Atom
130(9)
4.4 Bohr's Correspondence Principle, or Why Is Angular Momentum Quantized?
139(2)
4.5 Direct Confirmation of Atomic Energy Levels: The Franck-Hertz Experiment
141(2)
Summary
143(8)
5 MATTER WAVES
151(40)
5.1 The Pilot Waves of De Broglie
152(2)
De Broglie's Explanation of Quantization in the Bohr Model
153(1)
5.2 The Davisson-Germer Experiment
154(10)
The Electron Microscope
159(5)
5.3 Wave Groups and Dispersion
164(6)
Matter Wave Packets
169(1)
5.4 Fourier Integrals (Optional)
170(3)
Constructing Moving Wave Packets
173(1)
5.5 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
173(5)
A Different View of the Uncertainty Principle
175(3)
5.6 If Electrons Are Waves, What's Waving?
178(1)
5.7 The Wave-Particle Duality
179(7)
The Description of Electron Diffraction in Terms of ψ
179(5)
A Thought Experiment: Measuring Through Which Slit the Electron Passes
184(2)
5.8 A Final Note
186(1)
Summary
186(5)
6 QUANTUM MECHANICS IN ONE DIMENSION
191(40)
6.1 The Born Interpretation
191(3)
6.2 Wavefunction for a Free Particle
194(3)
6.3 Wavefunctions in the Presence of Forces
197(3)
6.4 The Particle in a Box
200(9)
Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)
205(4)
6.5 The Finite Square Well (Optional)
209(3)
6.6 The Quantum Oscillator
212(5)
6.7 Expectation Values
217(4)
6.8 Observables and Operators
221(3)
Quantum Uncertainty and the Eigenvalue Property (Optional)
222(2)
Summary
224(7)
7 TUNNELING PHENOMENA
231(29)
7.1 The Square Barrier
231(7)
7.2 Barrier Penetration: Some Applications
238(15)
Field Emission
239(3)
α Decay
242(3)
Ammonia Inversion
245(2)
Decay of Black Holes
247(1)
Summary
248(5)
Essay The Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Roger A. Freedman and Paul K. Hansma
253(7)
8 QUANTUM MECHANICS IN THREE DIMENSIONS
260(35)
8.1 Particle in a Three-Dimensional Box
260(6)
8.2 Central Forces and Angular Momentum
266(5)
8.3 Space Quantization
271(2)
8.4 Quantization of Angular Momentum and Energy (Optional)
273(4)
lz Is Sharp: The Magnetic Quantum Number
275(1)
L Is Sharp: The Orbital Quantum Number
276(1)
E Is Sharp: The Radial Wave Equation
276(1)
8.5 Atomic Hydrogen and Hydrogen-like Ions
277(10)
The Ground State of Hydrogen-like Atoms
282(2)
Excited States of Hydrogen-like Atoms
284(3)
8.6 Antihydrogen
287(2)
Summary
289(6)
9 ATOMIC STRUCTURE
295(39)
9.1 Orbital Magnetism and the Normal Zeeman Effect
296(6)
9.2 The Spinning Electron
302(7)
9.3 The Spin-Orbit Interaction and Other Magnetic Effects
309(3)
9.4 Exchange Symmetry and the Exclusion Principle
312(4)
9.5 Electron Interactions and Screening Effects (Optional)
316(3)
9.6 The Periodic Table
319(6)
9.7 X-Ray Spectra and Moseley's Law
325(3)
Summary
328(6)
10 STATISTICAL PHYSICS 334(1)
10.1 The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
335(37)
The Maxwell Speed Distribution for
Gas Molecules in Thermal Equilibrium at Temperature T
341(2)
The Equipartition of Energy
343(1)
10.2 Under What Physical Conditions Are Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics Applicable?
344(2)
10.3 Quantum Statistics
346(1)
Wavefunctions and the Bose-Einstein Condensation and Pauli Exclusion Principle
346(1)
Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac Distributions
347(4)
10.4 Applications of Bose-Einstein Statistics
351(1)
Blackbody Radiation
351(1)
Einstein's Theory of Specific Heat
352(4)
10.5 An Application of Fermi-Dirac Statistics: The Free-Electron Gas Theory of Metals
356(4)
Summary
360(6)
Essay Laser Manipulation of Atoms
Steven Chu
366(6)
11 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE 372(1)
11.1 Bonding Mechanisms: A Survey
373(31)
Ionic Bonds
374(1)
Covalent Bonds
374(1)
van der Waals Bonds
375(2)
The Hydrogen Bond
377(1)
11.2 Molecular Rotation and Vibration
377(1)
Molecular Rotation
378(3)
Molecular Vibration
381(4)
11.3 Molecular Spectra
385(5)
11.4 Electron Sharing and the Covalent Bond
390(1)
The Hydrogen Molecular Ion
390(6)
The Hydrogen Molecule
396(1)
11.5 Bonding in Complex Molecules (Optional)
397(2)
Summary
399(5)
Web Appendix Overlap Integrals of Atomic Wavefunctions
12 THE SOLID STATE 404(1)
12.1 Bonding in Solids
405(59)
Ionic Solids
405(3)
Covalent Solids
408(1)
Metallic Solids
409(1)
Molecular Crystals
409(1)
Amorphous Solids
410(3)
12.2 Classical Free Electron Model of Metals
413(1)
Ohm's Law
414(4)
Classical Free Electron Theory of Heat Conduction
418(2)
12.3 Quantum Theory of Metals
420(1)
Replacement of vrmswith vf
421(1)
Wiedemann-Franz Law Revisited
422(1)
Quantum Mean Free Path of Electrons
423(2)
12.4 Band Theory of Solids
425(1)
Isolated-Atom Approach to Band Theory
425(1)
Conduction in Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors
426(3)
Energy Bands from Electron Wave Reflections
429(4)
12.5 Semiconductor Devices
433(1)
The p-n Junction
433(3)
Light-Emitting and -Absorbing
Diodes-LEDs and Solar Cells
436(1)
The Junction Transistor
437(2)
The Field-Effect Transistor (FET)
439(2)
The Integrated Circuit
441(2)
12.6 Superconductivity
443(4)
12.7 Lasers
447(1)
Absorption, Spontaneous Emission, and Stimulated Emission
447(2)
Population Inversion and Laser Action
449(2)
Semiconductor Lasers
451(3)
Summary
454(10)
Web Essay The Invention of the Laser
S.A. Marshall
Web Essay Photovoltaic Conversion
John D. Meakin
Web Chapter Superconductivity
13 NUCLEAR STRUC TUI
13.1 Some Properties of Nuclei
464(39)
Charge and Mass
465(1)
Size and Structure of Nuclei
466(2)
Nuclear Stability
468(1)
Nuclear Spin and Magnetic Moment
469(1)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
470(2)
13.2 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces
472(4)
13.3 Nuclear Models
476(60)
Liquid-Drop Model
476(2)
Independent-Particle Model
478(1)
Collective Model
479(1)
13.4 Radioactivity
479(5)
13.5 Decay Processes
484(1)
Alpha Decay
484(3)
Bela Decay
487(2)
Carbon Dating
489(2)
Gamma Decay
491(1)
13.6 Natural Radioactivity
492(1)
Four Radioactive Series
492(1)
Determining the Age of the Earth
493(2)
Summary
495(8)
14 NUCLEAR PHYSICS APPLICATIONS 503(1)
14.1 Nuclear Reactions
503(3)
14.2 Reaction Cross Section
506(2)
14.3 Interactions Involving Neutrons
508(2)
14.4 Nuclear Fission
510(3)
14.5 Nuclear Reactors
513(34)
Neutron Leakage
515(1)
Regulating Neutron Energies
515(1)
Neutron Capture
515(1)
Control of Power Level
515(1)
Safety and Waste Disposal
516(1)
14.6 Nuclear Fusion
517(1)
Fusion Reactions
518(3)
Magnetic Field Confinement
521(2)
Inertial Confinement
523(1)
Fusion Reactor Design
524(2)
Advantages and Problems of Fusion
526(1)
14.7 Interaction of Particles with Matter
526(1)
Heavy Charged Particles
526(2)
Electrons
528(1)
Photons
528(2)
14.8 Radiation Damage in Matter
530(2)
14.9 Radiation Detectors
532(4)
14.10 Uses of Radiation
536(3)
Tracing
536(1)
Neutron Activation Analysis
537(1)
Radiation Therapy
538(1)
Food Preservation
539(1)
Summary
539(8)
15 ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 547(1)
15.1 The Fundamental Forces in Nature
548(2)
15.2 Positrons and Other Antiparticles
550(3)
15.3 Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics
553(3)
15.4 Classification of Particles
556
Hadrons
556(1)
Leptons
557(1)
The Solar Neutrino Mystery and Neutrino Oscillations
558(1)
15.5 Conservation Laws
559(1)
Baryon Number
560(1)
Lepton Number
560(1)
15.6 Strange Particles and Strangeness
561(2)
15.7 How Are Elementary Particles Produced and Particle Properties Measured?
563(1)
Resonance Particles
564(4)
Energy Considerations in Particle Production
568(3)
15.8 The Eightfold Way
571(3)
15.9 Quarks
574(1)
The Original Quark Model
574(1)
Charm and Other Developments
575(2)
15.10 Colored Quarks, or Quantum Chromodynamics
577(3)
Experimental Evidence for Quarks
578(1)
Explanation of Nuclear Force in Terms of Quarks
579(1)
15.11 Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model
580(2)
15.12 Beyond the Standard Model
582(1)
Grand Unification Theory and Supersymmetry
582(1)
String Theory--A New Perspective
582(1)
Summary
583(7)
Essay How to Find a Top Quark
590
Melissa Franklin and David Keslenbaum
16 COSMOLOGY (Web Only)
APPENDIX A BEST KNOWN VALUES FOR PHYSICAL CONSTANTS A.1
APPENDIX B TABLE OF SELECTED ATOMIC MASSES A.2
APPENDIX C NOBEL PRIZES A.7
ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS A.12
INDEX I.1

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