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Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534417819

ISBN10:
0534417817
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/25/2005
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
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Summary

In addition to featuring the latest discoveries, MODERN PHYSICS presents a contemporary and comprehensive approach to physics with a strong emphasis on applications. The authors discuss the experiments that led to key discoveries in order to illustrate the process behind scientific advances and to give you a historical perspective. A sound theoretical foundation in quantum theory is included to help you succeed in upper division courses.

Table of Contents

Preface x
The Birth of Modern Physics
1(19)
Classical Physics of the 1890s
2(3)
Mechanics
3(1)
Electromagnetism
4(1)
Thermodynamics
5(1)
The Kinetic Theory of Gases
5(3)
Waves and Particles
8(2)
Conservation Laws and Fundamental Forces
10(4)
Fundamental Forces
11(3)
The Atomic Theory of Matter
14(2)
Unresolved Questions of 1895 and New Horizons
16(4)
On the Horizon
18(1)
Summary
19(1)
Special Theory of Relativity
20(65)
The Need for Ether
21(1)
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
22(5)
Einstein's Postulates
27(3)
The Lorentz Transformation
30(2)
Time Dilation and Length Contraction
32(7)
Time Dilation
32(4)
Length Contraction
36(3)
Addition of Velocities
39(4)
Experimental Verification
43(5)
Muon Decay
43(2)
Atomic Clock Measurement
45(2)
Velocity Addition
47(1)
Testing Lorentz Symmetry
47(1)
Twin Paradox
48(1)
Spacetime
49(4)
Doppler Effect
53(6)
Special Topic: Applications of the Doppler Effect
56(3)
Relativistic Momentum
59(4)
Relativistic Energy
63(7)
Total Energy and Rest Energy
66(1)
Equivalence of Mass and Energy
66(2)
Relationship of Energy and Momentum
68(1)
Massless Particles
69(1)
Computations in Modern Physics
70(5)
Binding Energy
72(3)
Electromagnetism and Relativity
75(10)
Summary
77(8)
The Experimental Basis of Quantum Theory
85(42)
Discovery of the X Ray and the Electron
85(4)
Determination of Electron Charge
89(3)
Line Spectra
92(4)
Special Topic: The Discovery of Helium
94(2)
Quantization
96(1)
Blackbody Radiation
97(6)
Photoelectric Effect
103(8)
Experimental Results of Photoelectric Effect
104(2)
Classical Interpretation
106(2)
Einstein's Theory
108(1)
Quantum Interpretation
109(2)
X-Ray Production
111(3)
Compton Effect
114(4)
Pair Production and Annihilation
118(9)
Summary
122(5)
Structure of the Atom
127(34)
The Atomic Models of Thomson and Rutherford
128(3)
Rutherford Scattering
131(8)
Special Topic: Lord Rutherford of Nelson
134(5)
The Classical Atomic Model
139(2)
The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
141(6)
The Correspondence Principle
146(1)
Successes and Failures of the Bohr Model
147(3)
Reduced Mass Correction
148(1)
Other Limitations
149(1)
Characteristic X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number
150(4)
Atomic Excitation by Electrons
154(7)
Summary
156(5)
Wave Properties of Matter and Quantum Mechanics I
161(39)
X-Ray Scattering
162(5)
De Broglie Waves
167(4)
Special Topic: Cavendish Laboratory
168(2)
Bohr's Quantization Condition
170(1)
Electron Scattering
171(3)
Wave Motion
174(7)
Waves or Particles?
181(4)
Uncertainty Principle
185(5)
Probability, Wave Functions, and the Copenhagen Interpretation
190(3)
The Copenhagen Interpretation
191(2)
Particle in a Box
193(7)
Summary
195(5)
Quantum Mechanics II
200(39)
The Schrodinger Wave Equation
201(7)
Normalization and Probability
203(2)
Properties of Valid Wave Functions
205(1)
Time-Independent Schrodinger Wave Equation
205(3)
Expectation Values
208(3)
Infinite Square-Well Potential
211(4)
Finite Square-Well Potential
215(2)
Three-Dimensional Infinite-Potential Well
217(2)
Simple Harmonic Oscillator
219(6)
Barriers and Tunneling
225(14)
Potential Barrier with E > V0
225(1)
Potential Barrier with E < V0
226(4)
Potential Well
230(1)
Alpha-Particle Decay
230(2)
Special Topic: Scanning Probe Microscopes
232(2)
Summary
234(5)
The Hydrogen Atom
239(29)
Application of the Schrodinger Equation to the Hydrogen Atom
239(1)
Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for Hydrogen
240(6)
Separation of Variables
241(1)
Solution of the Radial Equation
242(2)
Solution of the Angular and Azimuthal Equations
244(2)
Quantum Numbers
246(5)
Principal Quantum Number n
247(1)
Orbital Angular Momentum Quantum Number l
248(1)
Magnetic Quantum Number ml
249(2)
Magnetic Effects on Atomic Spectra---The Normal Zeeman Effect
251(5)
Intrinsic Spin
256(2)
Special Topic: Hydrogen and the 21-cm Line Transition
258(1)
Energy Levels and Electron Probabilities
258(10)
Selection Rules
260(1)
Probability Distribution Functions
261(4)
Summary
265(3)
Atomic Physics
268(26)
Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
268(9)
Inert Gases
272(1)
Alkalis
273(1)
Alkaline Earths
274(1)
Halogens
275(1)
Transition Metals
275(1)
Lanthanides
275(1)
Actinides
275(1)
Special Topic: Rydberg Atoms
276(1)
Total Angular Momentum
277(11)
Single-Electron Atoms
277(4)
Many-Electron Atoms
281(1)
LS Coupling
282(3)
jj Coupling
285(3)
Anomalous Zeeman Effect
288(6)
Summary
291(3)
Statistical Physics
294(40)
Historical Overview
295(2)
Maxwell Velocity Distribution
297(2)
Equipartition Theorem
299(4)
Maxwell Speed Distribution
303(4)
Classical and Quantum Statistics
307(4)
Classical Distributions
308(1)
Quantum Distributions
309(2)
Fermi-Dirac Statistics
311(9)
Introduction to Fermi-Dirac Theory
311(2)
Classical Theory of Electrical Conduction
313(1)
Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction
314(6)
Bose-Einstein Statistics
320(14)
Blackbody Radiation
320(2)
Liquid Helium
322(2)
Special Topic: Superfluid 3He
324(4)
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Gases
328(1)
Summary
329(5)
Molecules and Solids
334(53)
Molecular Bonding and Spectra
334(8)
Molecular Bonds
335(1)
Rotational States
336(1)
Vibrational States
337(2)
Vibration and Rotation Combined
339(3)
Stimulated Emission and Lasers
342(9)
Scientific Applications of Lasers
347(1)
Holography
348(1)
Quantum Entanglement, Teleportation, and Information
349(1)
Other Laser Applications
350(1)
Structural Properties of Solids
351(3)
Thermal and Magnetic Properties of Solids
354(8)
Thermal Expansion
354(2)
Thermal Conductivity
356(2)
Magnetic Properties
358(1)
Diamagnetism
358(2)
Paramagnetism
360(1)
Ferromagnetism
361(1)
Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism
362(1)
Superconductivity
362(15)
The Search for a Higher Tc
369(5)
Special Topic: Low-Temperature Methods
374(2)
Superconducting Fullerenes
376(1)
Applications of Superconductivity
377(10)
Josephson Junctions
377(1)
Maglev
378(1)
Generation and Transmission of Electricity
379(1)
Other Scientific and Medical Applications
380(2)
Summary
382(5)
Semiconductor Theory and Devices
387(37)
Band Theory of Solids
387(5)
Kronig-Penney Model
390(2)
Band Theory and Conductivity
392(1)
Semiconductor Theory
392(9)
Special Topic: The Quantum Hall Effect
396(3)
Thermoelectric Effect
399(2)
Semiconductor Devices
401(14)
Diodes
401(2)
Bridge Rectifiers
403(1)
Zener Diodes
403(1)
Light-Emitting Diodes
403(1)
Photovoltaic Cells
404(3)
Transistors
407(3)
Field Effect Transistors
410(1)
Schottky Barriers
411(1)
Semiconductor Lasers
412(1)
Integrated Circuits
413(2)
Nanotechnology
415(9)
Carbon Nanotubes
416(1)
Nanoscale Electronics
417(1)
Nanotechnology and the Life Sciences
418(1)
Information Science
419(1)
Summary
420(4)
The Atomic Nucleus
424(42)
Discovery of the Neutron
424(3)
Nuclear Properties
427(4)
Sizes and Shapes of Nuclei
428(2)
Intrinsic Spin
430(1)
Intrinsic Magnetic Moment
430(1)
The Deuteron
431(2)
Nuclear Forces
433(1)
Nuclear Stability
434(7)
Nuclear Models
439(2)
Radioactive Decay
441(3)
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay
444(11)
Alpha Decay
445(2)
Beta Decay
447(3)
Special Topic: Neutrino Detection
450(4)
Gamma Decay
454(1)
Radioactive Nuclides
455(11)
Time Dating Using Lead Isotopes
457(2)
Radioactive Carbon Dating
459(1)
Special Topic: The Formation and Age of the Earth
460(2)
Summary
462(4)
Nuclear Interactions and Applications
466(42)
Nuclear Reactions
466(5)
Cross Sections
469(2)
Reaction Kinematics
471(2)
Reaction Mechanisms
473(4)
The Compound Nucleus
474(3)
Direct Reactions
477(1)
Fission
477(4)
Induced Fission
478(1)
Thermal Neutron Fission
479(1)
Chain Reactions
480(1)
Fission Reactors
481(7)
Nuclear Reactor Problems
484(1)
Breeder Reactors
485(1)
Special Topic: Early Fission Reactors
486(2)
Fusion
488(6)
Formation of Elements
488(2)
Nuclear Fusion on Earth
490(1)
Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions
491(3)
Special Applications
494(9)
Medicine
495(1)
Archaeology
496(1)
Art
496(1)
Crime Detection
497(1)
Mining and Oil
497(1)
Materials
498(1)
Small Power Systems
499(1)
Special Topic: The Search for New Elements
500(1)
New Elements
501(2)
Summary
503(5)
Elementary Particles
508(36)
Early Discoveries
509(3)
The Positron
509(1)
Yukawa's Meson
510(2)
The Fundamental Interactions
512(3)
Classification of Elementary Particles
515(6)
Leptons
516(1)
Hadrons
517(1)
Particles and Lifetimes
518(3)
Conservation Laws and Symmetries
521(4)
Baryon Conservation
521(1)
Lepton Conservation
522(1)
Strangeness
523(1)
Symmetries
524(1)
Quarks
525(5)
Quark Description of Particles
526(2)
Color
528(1)
Confinement
528(2)
The Families of Matter
530(1)
Beyond the Standard Model
530(3)
Neutrino Oscillations
531(1)
Matter-Antimatter
531(1)
Grand Unifying Theories
532(1)
Accelerators
533(11)
Special Topic: Experimental Ingenuity
534(2)
Synchrotrons
536(1)
Linear Accelerators
536(1)
Fixed-Target Accelerators
537(1)
Colliders
538(2)
Summary
540(4)
General Relativity
544(21)
Tenets of General Relativity
544(5)
Principle of Equivalence
545(2)
Spacetime Curvature
547(2)
Tests of General Relativity
549(4)
Bending of Light
549(1)
Gravitational Redshift
550(1)
Perihelion Shift of Mercury
551(1)
Light Retardation
552(1)
Gravitational Waves
553(2)
Black Holes
555(5)
Frame Dragging
560(5)
Special Topic: Gravity Probe B
561(1)
Summary
562(3)
Cosmology---The Beginning and the End
565
Evidence of the Big Bang
566(6)
Hubble's Measurements
566(3)
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
569(1)
Nucleosynthesis
569(3)
The Big Bang
572(4)
Stellar Evolution
576(5)
The Ultimate Fate of Stars
577(2)
Special Topic: Planck's Time, Length, and Mass
579(2)
Astronomical Objects
581(7)
Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars
581(2)
Gamma Ray Astrophysics
583(1)
Novae and Supernovae
584(4)
Problems with the Big Bang
588(4)
The Inflationary Universe
588(1)
The Lingering Problems
589(3)
The Age of the Universe
592(5)
Age of Chemical Elements
593(1)
Age of Astronomical Objects
593(1)
Cosmological Determinations
594(3)
Universe Age Conclusion
597(1)
The Future
597
The Demise of the Sun
597(1)
Where Is the Missing Mass?
597(1)
Special Topic: Future of Space Telescopes
598(3)
The Future of the Universe
601(1)
Are Other Earths Out There?
601(1)
Summary
601
Appendix 1 Fundamental Constants 1(1)
Appendix 2 Conversion Factors 2(2)
Appendix 3 Mathematical Relations 4(1)
Appendix 4 Periodic Table of Elements 5(1)
Appendix 5 Mean Values and Distributions 6(2)
Appendix 6 Probability Integrals In = ∫∞o xn exp(-ax2) dx A-8 8(2)
Appendix 7 Integrals of the Type ∫∞o xn-1 dx/ex - 1 A-10 10(2)
Appendix 8 Atomic Mass Table 12(24)
Appendix 9 Nobel Laureates in Physics 36(7)
Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems 43
Index 1


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