9780814731727

Modern Romania : The End of Communism, the Failure of Democratic Reform, and the Theft of a Nation

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780814731727

  • ISBN10:

    0814731724

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-05-30
  • Publisher: New York Univ Pr

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Summary

Since the 1989 fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, Romania, arguably the most regimented of states in the Soviet bloc, has struggled with the transition from totalitarian state to democratic nation. In this insightful examination of modern Romania, Tom Gallagher provides an overview of Romania's unique political and social history, focusing on both its national identity as well as the legacy of Soviet rule. Gallagher provides an in-depth look at Romania since 1989, focusing on the government's attempts at economic reform, engagement with democracy, problems with corruption among the ruling elite, as well as the weakness of civil society and the resilience of implacable expressions of nationalism. Ultimately, Gallagher argues that thus far democracy has essentially failed in Romania. In fact, he warns that Romania is on its way to becoming one of the most unequal states in Europe and quite possibly a future trouble-spot unless efforts to resume much-needed reforms are undertaken.

Author Biography

Tom Gallagher holds the Chair of Ethnic Conflict and Peace at Bradford University.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xi
Biographies xiii
Acronyms xix
Maps xxii
Introduction 1(307)
1. Democracy constrained by Backwardness, 1866-1945
18(26)
A legacy of backwardness
18(2)
The road to independence
20(2)
A promising début: constitutional monarchy
22(2)
Oligarchy and the masses
24(2)
Reformist stirrings and peasant rage
26(2)
The First World War and the onset of Greater Romania
28(1)
Old habits undermine the new Romania
29(2)
Absence of consensus
31(2)
Romania's intellectuals: foes of liberty
33(2)
The rise of the Iron Guard
35(1)
The road to dictatorship and war
36(8)
2. Return to Underdevelopment: the Imposition and Consequences of Communist Rule, 1945-1989
44(26)
Romanian Communism: from sect to ruling force
44(2)
Sovietization
46(2)
Aspects of political culture conducive to takeover
48(3)
Dej and the emergence of a Romanian brand of communism
51(2)
Moving out of the Soviet orbit
53(2)
Guarded openings to the West
55(1)
The triumph of the Biggest Zero
56(2)
Deceiving gullible democracies
58(1)
Communist pharaoh on the Danube
59(1)
Family power and catastrophic policy errors
60(2)
Playing the ethnic card
62(1)
Socialism in one family, totalitarianism at all levels
62(3)
Orthodox Church compliance
65(1)
Party regulars challenge Ceausescu
66(4)
3. Comrades Discard the Ideology but Conserve the Power, 1990-1992
70(40)
The fall of the Ceausescus
70(1)
Enter the FSN
71(4)
Minority rights overshadows the agenda for change
75(3)
The FSN becomes a contender for power
78(4)
Manufacturing inter-ethnic conflict
82(2)
The violence in Tirgu Mures and its aftermath
84(5)
Romania's stormy electoral début
89(3)
A broken-backed opposition
92(2)
The FSN's poll triumph
94(1)
Post-electoral violence and international isolation
95(2)
The authoritarian spirit persists
97(1)
The September 1991 crisis and the fall of Roman
98(1)
The imperative of unity
99(1)
The 1991 constitution and the collapse of FSN unity
100(1)
Nationalist advances
101(3)
The September 1992 elections and a new political balance
104(6)
4. Romania Adrift, 1992-1996
110(32)
Iliescu's management style
110(1)
The men around Iliescu
110(3)
Virgil Maagureanu-man of secrets
113(1)
Hostility to reform at the top
114(2)
The new oligarchy
116(3)
The PDSR and the nationalists
119(2)
Slow emergence from international isolation
121(4)
The strengthening of Romanian democracy
125(2)
Normalisation of Romanian-Hungarian relations and Euro-Atlantic integration
127(3)
Nationalists rebel as social hardships increase
130(2)
The taint of corruption
132(3)
Electoral defeat
135(4)
Anatomy of Romania's 1996 electoral shift
139(3)
5. 'In Office but not in Power': Constantinescu's Honeymoon, 1996-1998
142(36)
The CDR makes itself electable
142(2)
The coalition takes shape
144(1)
Ciorbea and Constantinescu
145(3)
Reconciliation is the watchword
148(2)
Slaying the dragon of corruption
150(2)
Bringing the Hungarians in from the cold
152(3)
The alogorithim principle
155(3)
The NATO chimera
158(4)
Introspection and dissension
162(2)
Capitulation before vested interests
164(4)
Death agonies of the Ciorbea government
168(2)
Radu Vasile
170(2)
Quis custodet custodes? Tigareta II
172(6)
6. A Broken-backed Coalition
178(34)
External disillusionment
178(1)
An unyielding IMF
179(2)
Who governs Romania? The case of Renel
181(1)
Slow-motion privatization
182(1)
Government adrift
183(2)
A judiciary ambivalent about a law-based state
185(2)
Confronting totalitarian legacies
187(5)
The UDMR: a constructive force in government
192(2)
The PD: Trojan horse of the coalition
194(2)
Society loses patience with the coalition
196(3)
The mishandling of the Jiu Valley miners
199(3)
The fifth mineriada
202(3)
Post-mineriada anxieties
205(7)
7. Staggering to the Finishing Line
212(27)
No fresh start after the Mineriada
212(1)
Romania and the Kosovo conflict: the coalition's finest hour?
213(3)
Romania and Kosovo: a missed opportunity
216(3)
The Stability Pact: less than meets the eye?
219(1)
Kosovo prompts a PDSR comeback
220(2)
Constantinescu at bay
222(1)
The IMF adds to Romania's woes
222(3)
Privatisation's new lease of life
225(1)
Deposing Vasile
226(1)
Mugur Isaarescu and Romania's EU application
227(2)
EU pressure for reform bears fruit
229(3)
Isarescu's approach to government
232(2)
Isarescu at bay: the FNI scandal
234(1)
Iliescu shrugs off the Costea affair
235(4)
8. Taking Things to Extremes: the 2000 Elections and their Outcome
239(28)
The June 2000 local elections
239(1)
Constantinescu's bombshell
240(2)
Suicide of the centre
242(2)
Grassroots alienation at danger level
244(6)
The new look PDSR
250(2)
The PRM taps into mass alienation
252(4)
Romania's new electoral landscape
256(3)
Stopping Vadim
259(2)
Romania draws back from the brink
261(6)
9. A Messiah for Romania? Corneliu Vadim Tudor and the Greater Romania Party
267(41)
Vadim in the gallery of European extremism
268(4)
The PRM and the communist heritage
272(3)
A world full of anti-Romanian conspiracies
275(2)
Grievances to be exploited
277(3)
Irresolute opponents and ruthless allies
280(3)
Vadim escapes from his sponsors' control
283(3)
Recurring anti-Semitism
286(2)
România Mare: the formula for success
288(3)
Vadim and Iliescu
291(3)
Vadim's Achilles Heel
294(6)
Post-2000 successes and controversies
300(8)
10. Looters of the State by Appointment of Brussels: Return of the Social Democrats, 2001-2003 308(23)
11. Conclusion: the Crucial Role of the E.U. 331(26)
Notes 357(46)
Bibliography 403(13)
Index 416

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