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Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress : Chemistry, Mechanisms, and Disease Pathogenesis,9780470572184
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Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress : Chemistry, Mechanisms, and Disease Pathogenesis



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This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 7/15/2013.
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Focusing on the molecular and chemical bases of oxidative stress, which can cause cancer as well as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, Molecular Basis of Oxidate Stress discusses the role of free radicals in disease, diagnosis, and therapeutics. Written by recognized leaders in the field, the book provides in-depth knowledge about the mechanisms of oxidative stress and damage, free radical chemistry, and the role of free radicals in disease, diagnosis, and therapeutics.

Author Biography

FREDERICK A. VILLAMENA, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Pharmacology Department of The Ohio State University. Dr. Villamena performs extensive research to develop radical probes and synthetic antioxidants for the treatment of radical-mediated injury such as myocardial infarction. His research draws from many fields, including computational chemistry, organic synthesis, spectroscopy, and molecular biology.

Table of Contents


About the Contributors

1 Chemistry of Reactive Species
Frederick Villamena

1.1 Redox Chemistry

1.2 Classification of Reactive Species

1.3 Reactivity

1.4 Origins of Reactive Species

1.5 Methods of Detection

2 Lipid Nitration and Peroxidation
Sean S Davies and Lilu Guo


2.1 Peroxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

2.2 Cyclic Endoperoxides and their Products

2.3 Fragmented Products of Lipid Peroxidation

2.4 Epoxy Fatty Acids

2.5 Lipid Nitrosylation


3 Post-Translational Protein Modification
James L Hougland, Joseph Darling, and Susan Flynn


3.1 Oxidative Stress-Related PTMs: Oxidation Reactions

3.2 Amino Acid Modification by Oxidation-Produced Electrophiles

3.3 Detection of Oxidative Stress-Related PTMs

3.4 Role of PTM in Cellular Redox Signaling


4 Nucleotide Oxidation
Dessalegn B Nemera, Amy R Jones and Edward J Merino


4.1 The Context of Cellular DNA Oxidation

4.2 Oxidation of Oligonucleotides

4.3 Examination of Specific Oxidative Lesions

Future Outlook of DNA Oxidative Lesions

5 Down Regulation of Phase 2 Enzymes
Hong Zhu, Jianmin Wang, Arben Santo, and Yunbo Li


5.1 Definitions of Antioxidants and Phase 2 Proteins

5.2 Roles in Oxidative Stress

5.3 Molecular Regulation

5.4 Induction in Chemoprevention

5.5 Downregulation

Conclusions and Perspectives

6 Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Yeong-Renn Chen


6.1 Mitochondria and Submitochondrial Particles

6.2 Energy Transduction

6.3 Mitochondrial Stress

6.4 Superoxide Radical Anion Generation as Mediated by Electron Transport Chain and Disease Pathogenesis


7 NADPH Oxidases: Structure and Function
Mark T Quinn


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase Structure

7.3 Phagocyte ROS Production

7.4 Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase Function

7.5 Non-phagocyte NADPH Oxidase Structure

7.6 Non-Phagocyte ROS Production

7.7 Functions of Non-Phagocyte NADPH Oxidases


8 Cell Signaling and Transcription
Imran Rehmani, Fange Liu and Aimin Liu


8.1 Common Mechanisms of Redox Signaling

8.2 Redox and Oxygen-Sensitive Transcription Factors in Prokaryotes

8.3 Redox Signaling in Metazoans

8.4 Oxygen Sensing in Metazoans

8.5 Medical Significance of Redox and Oxygen-sensing Pathways


9 Cancer
Aracely Garcia-Garcia, Rodrigo Franco, Thomas B Kryston, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Aglaia Pappa and Mihalis I Panayiotidis


9.1 Redox Environment and Cancer

9.2 Oxidative Modifications to Biomolecules and Carcinogenesis

9.3 Measurement of Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Cancer

9.4 Epigenetic Involvement in Oxidative Stress-Induced Carcinogenesis

9.5 Deregulation of Cell Death Pathways by Oxidative Stress and Cancer

Conclusions and Perspective

10 Neurodegeneration from Drugs and Aging-Derived Free Radicals
Annmarie Ramkissoon, Aaron M Shapiro, Margaret M Loniewska and Peter G Wells


10.1 ROS Formation

10.2 Protection Against ROS

10.3 Nrf2 Regulation of Protective Responses

Summary and Conclusions

11 Cardiac Ischemia and Reperfusion
Murugesan Velayutham and Jay L Zweier


11.1 Oxygen in the Heart

11.2 Sources of ROS During Ischemia and Reperfusion

11.3 Modulation of Substrates, Metabolites, and Cofactors during I-R

11.4 ROS-Mediated Cellular Communication During I-R

11.5 ROS and Cell Death During Ischemia and Reperfusion

11.6 Potential Therapeutic Strategies

Summary and Conclusion

12 Atherosclerosis and Lipid Oxidation
Aluganti N Chandrakala, Dmitry Litvinov, Xueting Jiang, Yang Zhaohui, and Sampath Parthasarathy


12.1 Lipid Peroxidation

12.2 Oxidation Hypothesis of Atherosclerosis

12.3 Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

12.4 Aldehyde Generation from Peroxidized Lipids


13 Cystic Fibrosis
Neal S Gould and Brian J Day


13.1 Lung Disease Characteristics in CF

13.2 Role of CFTR in the Lung

13.3 Oxidative Stress in the CFTR Deficient Lung

13.4 Antioxidant Therapies for CF


14 Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Rukhsana Sultana, Giovanna Cenini and D Allan Butterfield


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Biomarkers of Protein Oxidation/ Nitration

14.3 Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation

14.4 Biomarkers of Carbohydrates Oxidation

14.5 Biomarkers of Nucleic Acid Oxidation

15 Synthetic Antioxidants
Grégory Durand


15.1 Endogenous Enzymatic System of Defense

15.2 Metal-Based Synthetic Antioxidants

15.3 Non-Metal Based Antioxidants

15.4 Nitrone-Based Spin Traps as Antioxidants


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