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The Moral Life An Introductory Reader in Ethics and Literature,9780195166088
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The Moral Life An Introductory Reader in Ethics and Literature

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780195166088

ISBN10:
0195166086
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/17/2003
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press

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Summary

The Moral Life: An Introductory Reader in Ethics and Literature , Second Edition, brings together an extensive and varied collection of ninety-two classical and contemporary readings on ethical theory and practice. Integrating literature with philosophy in an innovative way, editor Louis P. Pojman uses literary works to enliven and make concrete the ethical theory or applied issues addressed in each chapter. Literary works by Camus, Hawthorne, Hugo, Huxley, Ibsen, Le Guin, Melville, Orwell, Styron, Tolstoy, and many others lead students into philosophical concepts and issues such as relativism; utilitarianism; virtue ethics; the meaning of life; freedom; sex, love, and marriage; and environmental ethics. Once introduced, these topics are developed further through readings by philosophers including Aristotle, Jane English, Thomas E. Hill, Jr., Jean-Paul Sartre, and Bernard Williams. This unique anthology emphasizes the personal dimension of ethics, which is often ignored or minimized in ethics texts. The second edition offers several new selections including work by Maya Angelou, Kevin Bales, John Benson, Susan Glaspell, C. S. Lewis, R. M. MacIver, Plato, Plutarch, James Rachels, Ayn Rand, Voltaire, and Kurt Vonnegut. It also adds a new chapter on justice and the threat of terrorism featuring material from the Old Testament--in which the equivalent of a jihad occurs--followed by philosophical analyses by Martha Nussbaum and Louis P. Pojman. Featuring expanded part and chapter introductions as well as biographical sketches, abstracts, and study questions for each reading selection, The Moral Life, 2/e , is ideal for introductory ethics courses. It also provides an engaging gateway into personal and social ethics for the general reader.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction: On the Nature of Morality 1(4)
PART I THE NATURE OF MORALITY: Good and Evil 5(218)
1. What Is the Purpose of Morality?
7(47)
William Golding / Lord of the Flies: A Moral Allegory
8(23)
Louis P. Pojman / On the Nature and Purpose of Morality: Reflections on William Golding's Lord of the Flies
31(10)
Thomas Hobbes / On the State of Nature
41(11)
Further Readings for Chapter 1
52(2)
2. Good and Evil
54(101)
Herman Melville / Billy Budd
57(12)
Fyodor Dostoevsky / Why Is There Evil?
69(6)
William Styron / Sophie's Choice
75(8)
Kevin Bales / The New Slavery
83(10)
Philip Hallie / From Cruelty to Goodness
93(15)
Stanley Bern / Wickedness
108(19)
Friedrich Nietzsche / Beyond Good and Evil
127(14)
Richard Taylor / On the Origin of Good and Evil
141(12)
Further Readings for Chapter 2
153(2)
3. Is Everything Relative?
155(68)
Herodotus / Custom Is King
156(1)
Ruth Benedict / The Case for Moral Relativism
157(9)
Louis P. Pojman / The Case Against Moral Relativism
166(25)
Jean Bethke Elshtain / Judge Not?
191(10)
Henrick Ibsen / The Enemy of the People
201(21)
Further Readings for Chapter 3
222(1)
PART II MORAL THEORIES AND MORAL CHARACTER 223(334)
4. Utilitarianism
227(68)
Seaman Holmes and the Longboat of William Brown, Reported by John William Wallace
229(2)
Jeremy Bentham / Classical Utilitarianism
231(6)
Kai Nielsen / A Defense of Utilitarianism
237(15)
Bernard Williams / Against Utilitarianism
252(13)
Ursula Le Guin / The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas
265(7)
Aldous Huxley / The Utilitarian Social Engineer and the Savage
272(21)
Further Readings for Chapter 4
293(2)
5. Deontological Ethics
295(93)
Immanuel Kant / The Moral Law
297(20)
W. D. Ross / Intuitionism
317(15)
R. M. MacIver / The Deep Beauty of the Golden Rule
332(5)
Richard Whatley / A Critique of the Golden Rule
337(3)
Ambrose Bierce / A Horseman in the Sky
340(6)
Charles Fried / The Evil of Lying
346(10)
Susan Glaspell / A Jury of Her Peers
356(14)
Plato / Does Morality Upend on Religion?
370(4)
Thomas Nagel / Moral Luck
374(12)
Further Readings for Chapter 5
386(2)
6. Virtue Ethics
388(71)
Victor Hugo / The Bishop and the Candlesticks
390(17)
Aristotle / Virtue Ethics
407(16)
Bernard Mayo / Virtue and the Moral Life
423(6)
Nathaniel Hawthorne / The Great Stone Face
429(18)
William Frankena / A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
447(10)
Further Readings for Chapter 6
457(2)
7. Virtues and Vices
459(98)
Jesus of Nazareth / The Sermon on the Mount; The Good Samaritan
460(4)
Leo Tolstoy / How Much Land Does a Man Need? Greed
464(14)
Immanuel Kant / Jealousy, Malice, and Ingratitude
478(8)
Martin Ginsberg / Moral Cowardice
486(4)
Helen Keller / Three Days to See: Gratitude
490(10)
Epictetus and Others / The Stoic Catechism
500(12)
Plutarch / In Consolation to His Wife: Equanimity
512(9)
Vice Admiral James Stockdale / The World of Epictetus: Courage and Endurance
521(14)
The Story of David and Bathsheba: Lust
535(4)
Leo Tolstoy / Where Love Is, There Is God: Love
539(5)
Bertrand Russell / Reflections on Suffering
544(6)
Charles Colson / The Volunteer at Auschwitz: Altruism
550(6)
Further Readings for Chapter 7
556(1)
PART III MORAL ISSUES 557(170)
8. Ethics and Egoism: Why Should We Be Moral?
559(45)
Plato / The Ring of Gyges
561(8)
Ayn Rand / In Defense of Ethical Egoism
569(11)
Louis P. Pojman / Egoism and Altruism: A Critique of Ayn Rand
580(8)
James Rachels / A Critique of Ethical Egoism
588(14)
Further Readings for Chapter 8
602(2)
9. Does Life Have Meaning?
604(44)
Voltaire / The Good Brahmin
606(3)
Epicurus / Hedonism
609(7)
Albert Camus / Life Is Absurd
616(7)
Lois Hope Walker / Religion Gives Meaning to Life
623(7)
Viktor Frankl / The Human Search for Meaning: Reflections on Auschwitz
630(8)
Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha / The Four Noble Truths
638(6)
Robert Nozick / The Experience Machine
644(3)
Further Readings for Chapter 9
647(1)
10. Freedom, Autonomy, and Self-Respect
648(79)
Martin Luther King, Jr. / I Have a Dream
649(4)
Maya Angelou / Graduation
653(13)
Stanley Milgram / An Experiment in Autonomy
666(15)
Jean-Paul Sartre / Existentialism Is a Humanism
681(10)
Thomas E. Hill, Jr. / Servility and Self-Respect
691(12)
John Benson / Who Is the Autonomous Man?
703(16)
Kurt Vonnegut / Harrison Bergeron
719(6)
Further Readings for Chapter 10
725(2)
PART IV APPLIED ETHICS: Moral Problems 727
11. Sex, Love, and Marriage
729(58)
John Barth / Pansexuality
731(1)
Immanuel Kant / On the Place of Sex in Human Existence
732(3)
John McMurtry / Monogamy: A Critique
735(11)
Michael D. Bayles / Marriage, Love, and Procreation: A Critique of McMurtry
746(14)
Bonnie Steinbock / What's Wrong with Adultery?
760(7)
C. S. Lewis / We Have No "Right to Happiness"
767(5)
Hugh LaFollette / Licensing Parents
772(14)
Further Readings for Chapter 11
786(1)
12. Is Abortion Morally Permissible?
787(31)
John T. Noonan, Jr. / Abortion Is Not Morally Permissible
789(8)
Mary Anne Warren / Abortion Is Morally Permissible
797(9)
Jane English / The Moderate Position: Beyond the Personhood Argument
806(11)
Further Readings for Chapter 12
817(1)
13. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Alcohol
818(32)
John Stuart Mill / On Liberty
820(4)
Gore Vidal / Drugs Should Be Legalized
824(3)
William Bennett / Drugs Should Not Be Legalized
827(6)
Yoshida Kenko / On Drinking
833(3)
Bonnie Steinbock / Drunk Driving
836(13)
Further Readings for Chapter 13
849(1)
14. Our Duties to Animals
850(35)
George Orwell / Shooting an Elephant
852(7)
Immanuel Kant / We Have Only Indirect Duties to Animals
859(2)
Peter Singer / Animal Liberation: All Animals Are Equal
861(17)
Carl Cohen / The Case Against Animal Rights
878(6)
Further Readings for Chapter 14
884(1)
15. Our Duties to the Environment
885(39)
Sophocles / On Mankind's Power over Nature
891(1)
Robert Heilbroner / What Has Posterity Ever Done for Me?
892(5)
Garrett Hardin / The Tragedy of the Commons
897(18)
William F. Baxter / People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution
915(8)
Further Readings for Chapter 15
923(1)
16. International Justice and the Threat of Terrorism
924
God's Command to Destroy Jericho and Ai
931(6)
Martha C. Nussbaum / Compassion and Terror
937(25)
Louis P. Pojman / The Cosmopolitan Response to Terrorism
962(22)
Further Readings for Chapter 16
984


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