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Now more concise, the fourth edition of Louis P. Pojman and Lewis Vaughn's The Moral Life: An Introductory Reader in Ethics and Literature brings together an extensive and varied collection of eighty-four classical and contemporary readings on ethical theory and practice. Integratingliterature with philosophy in an innovative way, the book uses literary works to enliven and make concrete the ethical theory or applied issues addressed in each chapter. Literary works by Camus, Hawthorne, Huxley, Ibsen, Le Guin, Melville, Orwell, Styron, Tolstoy, and many others lead students intosuch philosophical concepts and issues as relativism; utilitarianism; virtue ethics; the meaning of life; freedom and autonomy; sex, love, and marriage; animal rights; and terrorism. Once introduced, these topics are developed further through readings by philosophers including Plato, Aristotle,Kant, Singer, and Sartre. New to this edition are readings by James Rachels, Alasdair MacIntyre, Samuel Butler, Bertrand Russell, James Q. Wilson, John Corvino, and Stephen Nathanson. This unique anthology emphasizes the personal dimension of ethics, which is often ignored or minimized in ethicstexts. It also incorporates chapter introductions, study questions, suggestions for further reading, biographical sketches of the writers, and an appendix about how to write a philosophy paper.
Table of Contents
*=New to this Edition Each chapter ends with Further Readings. Preface Introduction: On the Nature of Morality PART I. THE NATURE OF MORALITY: Good and Evil 1. What Is the Purpose of Morality? William Golding, Lord of the Flies: A Moral Allegory Louis P. Pojman, On the Nature and Purpose of Morality: Reflections on William Golding's Lord of the Flies Thomas Hobbes, On the State of Nature 2. Good and Evil Herman Melville, Billy Budd Fyodor Dostoevsky, Why Is There Evil? William Styron, Sophie's Choice Philip Hallie, From Cruelty to Goodness Stanley Benn, Wickedness Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil Richard Taylor, On the Origin of Good and Evil 3. Is Everything Relative? Herodotus, Custom Is King Ruth Benedict, The Case for Moral Relativism * James Rachels, Why Morality Is Not Relative Jean Bethke Elshtain, Judge Not? Mary Midgley, On Trying Out One's New Sword Henrick Ibsen, The Enemy of the People PART II. MORAL THEORIES AND MORAL CHARACTER 4. Utilitarianism Seaman Holmes and the Longboat of William Brown, Reported by John William Wallace Jeremy Bentham, Classical Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism Refined Kai Nielsen, A Defense of Utilitarianism Bernard Williams, Against Utilitarianism Ursula Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Aldous Huxley, The Utilitarian Social Engineer and the Savage 5. Deontological Ethics Immanuel Kant, The Moral Law William K. Frankena, Kant's Theory W. D. Ross, Intuitionism R. M. MacIver, The Deep Beauty of the Golden Rule Richard Whatley, A Critique of the Golden Rule Ambrose Bierce, A Horseman in the Sky Charles Fried, The Evil of Lying Plato, Does Morality Depend on Religion? Thomas Nagel, Moral Luck 6. Virtue Ethics * Alasdair MacIntyre, The Virtues Aristotle, Virtue Ethics Bernard Mayo, Virtue and the Moral Life J.O. Urmson, Saints and Heroes Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Great Stone Face William Frankena, A Critique of Virtue-Based Ethical Systems 7. Virtues and Vices Jesus of Nazareth, The Sermon on the Mount; The Good Samaritan Leo Tolstoy, How Much Land Does a Man Need? Greed Immanuel Kant, Jealousy, Malice, and Ingratitude Martin Gansberg, Moral Cowardice Epictetus and Others, The Stoic Catechism Vice Admiral James Stockdale, The World of Epictetus: Courage and Endurance PART III. MORAL ISSUES 8. Ethics and Egoism: Why Should We Be Moral? Plato, The Ring of Gyges Ayn Rand, In Defense of Ethical Egoism Louis P. Pojman, Egoism and Altruism: A Critique of Ayn Rand James Rachels, A Critique of Ethical Egoism 9. Does Life Have Meaning? Voltaire, The Good Brahmin Epicurus, Hedonism Albert Camus, Life Is Absurd Louis P. Pojman, Religion Gives Meaning to Life Viktor Frankl, The Human Search for Meaning: Reflections on Auschwitz Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, The Four Noble Truths Bertrand Russell, Reflections on Suffering 10. Freedom, Autonomy, and Self-Respect Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream Maya Angelou, Graduation Stanley Milgram, An Experiment in Autonomy Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism Is a Humanism Thomas E. Hill, Jr., Servility and Self-Respect Kurt Vonnegut, Harrison Bergeron PART IV. APPLIED ETHICS: Moral Problems 11. Sex, Love, and Marriage Immanuel Kant, On the Place of Sex in Human Existence John McMurtry, Monogamy: A Critique Michael D. Bayles, Marriage, Love, and Procreation: A Critique of McMurtry Bonnie Steinbock, What's Wrong with Adultery? C. S. Lewis, We Have No "Right to Happiness" Jane English, What Do Grown Children Owe Their Parents? * Michael Levin, Why Homosexuality Is Abnormal * John Corvino, A Defense of Homosexuality 12. Is Abortion Morally Permissible? Don Marquis, Why Abortion Is Immoral Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense of Abortion Mary Anne Warren, Abortion Is Morally Permissible Jane English, The Moderate Position: Beyond the Personhood Argument 13. The Morality of Euthanasia Dan W. Brock, Voluntary Active Euthanasia J. Gay-Williams, The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia James Rachels, Active and Passive Euthanasia 14. Our Duties to Animals George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant Peter Singer, Animal Liberation: All Animals Are Equal Carl Cohen, The Case Against Animal Rights 15. Our Duties to the Environment Robert Heilbroner, What Has Posterity Ever Done for Me? Garrett Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons William F. Baxter, People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution 16. International Justice and the Threat of Terrorism God's Command to Destroy Jericho and Ai * Stephen Nathanson, Can Terrorism Be Morally Justified? Louis P. Pojman, The Cosmopolitan Response to Terrorism Thomas Nagel, What Is Wrong with Terrorism? * Appendix: How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper Index