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Ideal for introductory ethics courses, The Moral Life: An Introductory Reader in Ethics and Literature, Fifth Edition, brings together an extensive and varied collection of ninety-one classical and contemporary readings on ethical theory and practice. Integrating literature with philosophy in an innovative way, this unique anthology uses literary works to enliven and make concrete the ethical theory or applied issues addressed. It also emphasizes the personal dimension of ethics, which is often ignored or minimized in ethics anthologies. The readings are enhanced by chapter introductions, study questions, suggestions for further reading, and biographical sketches.
The fifth edition adds ten new readings, eight of which appear in two new chapters: Feminist Ethics and the Ethics of Care and Global Economic Justice. An updated Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/pojman provides self-quizzes, essay questions, and helpful links for students and reading summaries, a test bank, and PowerPoint-based lecture slides for instructors.
The late Louis P. Pojman was Professor of Philosophy at the United States Military Academy at West Point. He is the author or editor of more than thirty books including Classics of Philosophy, Third Edition (OUP, 2010).
Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books including Bioethics, Second Edition, and Contemporary Moral Arguments, Second Edition, both published in 2012 by Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents
*=New to this Edition Each chapter ends with Further Readings. Preface Introduction: On the Nature of Morality PART I. THE NATURE OF MORALITY: Good and Evil 1. What Is the Purpose of Morality? William Golding, Lord of the Flies: A Moral Allegory Louis P. Pojman, On the Nature and Purpose of Morality: Reflections on William Golding's Lord of the Flies Thomas Hobbes, On the State of Nature 2. Good and Evil Herman Melville, Billy Budd Fyodor Dostoevsky, Why Is There Evil? William Styron, Sophie's Choice Philip Hallie, From Cruelty to Goodness Stanley Benn, Wickedness Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil Richard Taylor, On the Origin of Good and Evil 3. Is Everything Relative? Herodotus, Custom Is King Ruth Benedict, The Case for Moral Relativism James Rachels, Why Morality Is Not Relative Jean Bethke Elshtain, Judge Not? Mary Midgley, On Trying Out One's New Sword Henrick Ibsen, The Enemy of the People PART II. MORAL THEORIES AND MORAL CHARACTER 4. Utilitarianism Seaman Holmes and the Longboat of William Brown, Reported by John William Wallace Jeremy Bentham, Classical Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism Refined Kai Nielsen, A Defense of Utilitarianism Bernard Williams, Against Utilitarianism Ursula Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 5. Deontological Ethics Immanuel Kant, iThe Moral Law William K. Frankena, Kant's Theory W. D. Ross, Intuitionism R. M. MacIver, The Deep Beauty of the Golden Rule Richard Whatley, A Critique of the Golden Rule Ambrose Bierce, A Horseman in the Sky Charles Fried, The Evil of Lying Plato, Does Morality Depend on Religion? * James Rachels, The Divine Command Theory * Carl Dennis, New Year's Eve Thomas Nagel,Moral Luck 6. Virtue Ethics Alasdair MacIntyre, The Virtues Aristotle, Virtue Ethics Bernard Mayo, Virtue and the Moral Life J.O. Urmson, Saints and Heroes Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Great Stone Face William Frankena, A Critique of Virtue-Based Ethical Systems Jesus of Nazareth, The Sermon on the Mount; The Good Samaritan Leo Tolstoy, How Much Land Does a Man Need? Greed Immanuel Kant, Jealousy, Malice, and Ingratitude Martin Gansberg, Moral Cowardice Epictetus and Others, The Stoic Catechism Vice Admiral James Stockdale, The World of Epictetus: Courage and Endurance * 7. Feminist Ethics and the Ethics of Care * Alison Jaggar, Feminist Ethics * Jan Crosthwaite, Gender and Bioethics * Annette C. Baier, The Need for More Than Justice * Virginia Held, The Ethics of Care PART III. MORAL ISSUES 8. Ethics and Egoism: Why Should We Be Moral? Plato, The Ring of Gyges Ayn Rand, In Defense of Ethical Egoism Louis P. Pojman, Egoism and Altruism: A Critique of Ayn Rand James Rachels, A Critique of Ethical Egoism 9. Does Life Have Meaning? Voltaire, The Good Brahmin Epicurus, Hedonism Albert Camus, Life Is Absurd Louis P. Pojman, Religion Gives Meaning to Life Viktor Frankl, The Human Search for Meaning: Reflections on Auschwitz Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, The Four Noble Truths Bertrand Russell, Reflections on Suffering 10. Freedom, Autonomy, and Self-Respect Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream Stanley Milgram, An Experiment in Autonomy Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism Is a Humanism Thomas E. Hill, Jr., Servility and Self-Respect Kurt Vonnegut, Harrison Bergeron PART IV. APPLIED ETHICS: Moral Problems 11. Sex, Love, and Marriage Immanuel Kant, On the Place of Sex in Human Existence John McMurtry, Monogamy: A Critique Michael D. Bayles, Marriage, Love, and Procreation: A Critique of McMurtry Bonnie Steinbock, What's Wrong with Adultery? C. S. Lewis, We Have No "Right to Happiness" Jane English, What Do Grown Children Owe Their Parents? Michael Levin, Why Homosexuality Is Abnormal John Corvino, A Defense of Homosexuality 12. Is Abortion Morally Permissible? Don Marquis, Why Abortion Is Immoral Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense of Abortion Mary Anne Warren, Abortion Is Morally Permissible Jane English, The Moderate Position: Beyond the Personhood Argument * Susan Sherwin, Abortion through a Feminist Ethics Lens 13. The Morality of Euthanasia Dan W. Brock, Voluntary Active Euthanasia J. Gay-Williams, The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia James Rachels, Active and Passive Euthanasia 14. Our Duties to Animals George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant Peter Singer, Animal Liberation: All Animals Are Equal Carl Cohen, The Case Against Animal Rights 15. Our Duties to the Environment Robert Heilbroner, What Has Posterity Ever Done for Me? Garrett Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons William F. Baxter, People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution 16. Global Economic Justice * Garrett Hardin, Living on a Lifeboat * William W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten, A Critique of Lifeboat Ethics * Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality * Louis P. Pojman, World Hunger and Population Appendix: How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper Index