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Morality and Moral Controversies : Readings in Moral, Social and Political Philosophy,9780131844049
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Morality and Moral Controversies : Readings in Moral, Social and Political Philosophy

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131844049

ISBN10:
0131844040
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For courses in Ethics, Applied Ethics, Social and Political Ethics, and Ethics and Moral Issues. This comprehensive anthology includes classic and contemporary readings in moral theory a wide array of essays that address today's most philosophically interesting and controversial ethical and political issues. Includes an ethical theory overview; shows relevance of traditional and contemporary writers.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Seventh Edition xii
PART I MORAL THEORY
1 Self-Interest, Religion, and Conscience
1(30)
Leviathan: Morality As Rational Advantage
1(7)
Thomas Hobbes
Morality and Rational Self-interest
8(7)
Baruch Brody
Morality, Religion, and Conscience
15(8)
John Arthur
The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn
23(8)
Jonathan Bennett
2 The Sources and Grounds of Morality
31(19)
The Sources of Moral Ideas: Society, Custom, and Sympathy
31(2)
Edward Westermarck
Trying Out One's New Sword
33
Mary Midgley
Ethics in Relativism
27(13)
William H. Shaw
Morality is Based on Sentiment
40(6)
David Hume
Ethics
46(4)
Thomas Nagel
3 Classical Theories of Morality
50(24)
Nicomachean Ethics
50(6)
Aristotle
The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
56(9)
Immanuel Kant
Utilitarianism
65(9)
John Stuart Mill
4 Contemporary Perspectives
74(21)
Intuitionism
74(4)
W.D. Ross
Kant and Utilitarianism Contrasted
78(5)
Onora O'Neill
The Real and Alleged Problems of Utilitarianism
83(6)
Richard B. Brandt
Feminist Transformations of Moral Theory
89(6)
Virginia Held
PART II ISSUES OF LIFE AND DEATH
5 War and Terrorism
95(22)
Terrorism
95(1)
R.G. Frey and Christopher W. Morris
On the Morality of War
95(5)
Richard A. Wasserstrom
The Morality of Pacifism
100(11)
Cheyney Ryan
Civil Liberties in the Time of War
111(6)
Korematsu v. United States
6 Capital Punishment
117(29)
The Death Penalty
117(7)
Gregg v. Georgia
Desert and Capital Punishment
124(7)
Martin Perlmutter
The Ultimate Punishment
131(5)
Ernest van den Haag
Justice, Civilization, and the Death Penalty
136(6)
Jeffrey H. Reiman
Refuting Reiman
142(4)
Ernest van den Haag
7 Animals and the Natural Environment
146(33)
All Animals Are Equal
146(9)
Peter Singer
Speciesism and the Idea of Equality
155(6)
Bonnie Steinbock
People or Penguins
161(5)
William F. Baxter
The Land Ethic: Animal Liberation and Environmentalism
166(13)
J. Baird Callicott
8 Human Reproduction: Abortion and Genetic Engineering
179(58)
The Constitutional Right to Abortion
179(5)
Roe v. Wade
A Defense of Abortion
184(7)
Judith Jarvis Thomson
On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
191(7)
Mary Anne Warren
Abortion and the Concept of a Person
198(6)
Jane English
An Argument That Abortion is Wrong
204(9)
Dan Marquis
Fathers and Fetuses
213(6)
George W. Harris
The Wisdom of Repugnance
219(11)
Leon Kass
Playing God: Genes, Clones, and Luck
230(7)
Ronald Dworkin
9 Deciding Who Should Live
237
Requiring Medical Treatment
237(3)
JFK Memorial Hospital v. Heston
Comparing Human Lives: The Archbishop and the Chambermaid
240(1)
William Godwin
An Alternative to the Ethic of Euthanasia
241(4)
Arthur J. Dyck
Active and Passive Euthanasia
245(4)
James Rachels
Defective Newborns and the Morality of Termination
249(7)
Richard B. Brandt
Aging and the Ends of Medicine
256(6)
Daniel Callahan
The Survival Lottery
262(7)
John Harris
PART III PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
10 Love, Sex, and Friendship
269(35)
Duties toward the Body in Respect to Sexual Impulse
269(4)
Immanuel Kant
What's Wrong with Homosexuality?
273(2)
John Finnis
Plain Sex
275(8)
Alan H. Goldman
Gay Basics: Some Questions, Facts, and Values
283(9)
Richard D. Mohr
Date Rape: A Feminist Analysis
292(8)
Lois Pineau
An Interview About Date Rape
300(4)
Camille Paglia
11 Marriage and the Family
304(37)
Is Adultery Immoral?
304(7)
Richard A. Wasserstrom
Polygamy Is Good Feminism
311(1)
Elizabeth Joseph
Same-Sex Marriage: A Debate
312(3)
William Bennett and Andrew Sullivan
Surrogate Motherhood as Prenatal Adoption
315(8)
Bonnie Steinbock
Selling Babies
323(5)
Richard A. Posner
Licensing Parents
328(8)
Hugh LaFollette
What Do Grown Children Owe Their Parents?
336(5)
Jane English
PART IV POLITICAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
12 The Ideal State
341(67)
The Second Treatise of Government
342(6)
John Locke
Libertarian Justice
348(10)
Tibor R. Machan
On Liberty
358(8)
John Stuart Mill
On Representative Government
366(5)
John Stuart Mill
The Duties of Well-Being
371(15)
Joseph Raz
A Theory of Justice
386(10)
John Rawls
The Arc of the Moral Universe
396(12)
Joshua Cohen
13 Patriotism, Civil Disobedience, and the Rule of Law
408(41)
Flag Burning as Constitutionally Protected
408(3)
Texas v. Johnson
Is Patriotism a Virtue?
411(8)
Alasdair MacIntyre
Crito
419(4)
Plato
Taking Rights Seriously
423(6)
Ronald Dworkin
Civil Disobedience and the Social Contract
429(9)
John Rawls
On Not Prosecuting Civil Disobedience
438(6)
Ronald Dworkin
The Problem of the Grudge Informer
444(5)
Lon L. Fuller
14 Property and Poverty
449(50)
Of Justice
449(2)
David Hume
The Communist Manifesto
451(8)
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism
459(10)
Michael Novak
The Entitlement Theory
469(8)
Robert Nozick
Rich and Poor
477(6)
Peter Singer
What People Deserve
483(6)
James Rachels
Markets and Hard Work
489(10)
Michael Walzer
15 Liberty
499(49)
The Ethics of Addition: An Argument in Favor of Letting Americans Take Any Drug They Want
499(7)
Thomas Szasz
The Ethics of Smoking
506(9)
Robert E. Goodin
Addiction and Drug Policy
515(6)
Daniel Shapiro
On the Liberty of Thought and Discussion
521(3)
John Stuart Mill
Nazi Marches
524(3)
Village of Skokie v. National Socialist Party
Prohibiting Racist Speech on Campus: A Debate
527(6)
Charles Lawrence and Gerald Gunther
Political Correctness, Speech Codes, and Diversity
533(1)
Alan M. Dershowitz
Pornography, Oppression, and Freedom: A Closer Look
534(6)
Helen E. Longino
Feminism, Pornography, and Censorship
540(5)
Mark R. Wicclair
Pornography
545(3)
American Booksellers v. Hudnut
16 Racial and Sexual Equality
548(38)
The Subjection of Women
548(7)
John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
Sex Equality and Discrimination: Difference vs. Dominance
555(4)
Will Kymlicka
On Racism and Sexism: Realities and Ideals
559(10)
Richard A. Wasserstrom
Social Movements and the Politics of Difference
569(6)
Iris Marion Young
Freedom, Conditioning, and the Real Woman
575(11)
Janet Radcliffe Richards
17 The Multicultural Society
586(29)
Morality and the Liberal Ideal
586(4)
Michael J. Sandel
Multiculturalism: A Liberal Perspective
590(12)
Josph Raz
Reason Before Identity
602(8)
Amartya Sen
Assimilation and Cultural Identity
610(5)
Wisconsin v. Yoder
18 Reparations and Affirmative Action
615
Reparations and "The Debt"
615(11)
John McWhorter
Affirmative Action in Universities
626(4)
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
The Rights of Allan Bakke
630(7)
Ronald Dworkin
Affirmative Racism
637(7)
Charles Murray
Reverse Discrimination
644
James Rachels

Excerpts

I continue to be pleased at the remarkable success of this book. It is being used not only in courses in ethics but also, increasingly, in ones focusing on social and political issues. My objectives in this new edition are the same as past ones: to make the book challenging and at the same time accessible to a wide range of students at many different types of universities; to avoid slanting the book in any specific philosophical or political direction; to provide lively, thought-provoking, and diverse reading on topics that students and teachers enjoy studying; and to include articles that respond to each other by either criticizing what has gone before or by developing on previous themes. I have also maintained the book's flexibility, so that each section stands on its own. This leaves instructors free to pick and choose among the topics and to organize their course in many different ways. The book continues to be used in courses in social and political philosophy as well as ethics and moral philosophy, reflecting perhaps the fact that there is no sharp boundary between the moral and the political. There is therefore more material here than can be used in a normal semester's course, giving instructors the option of varying the content of their courses to suit their own and their students' interests. I have kept all of the readings in this slightly expanded edition that reviewers and friends who have used the book thought important while adding new essays and, in some cases, altogether new topics. In Part I, on moral theory, there are new articles on self-interest and morality, rule-utilitarianism, and the conflict between duty and sentiment. I have added new readings in sections on life and death, including articles on terrorism, internment in time of war, distribution of scarce medical resources, and the survival lottery. The section on social and political relationships includes new essays on democracy, capitalism and its ethos, multiculturalism, identity, and reparations. Among the authors now represented are Amartya Sen, Joseph Raz, John Harris, and Michael Novak. I have continued with the practice of providing a brief introduction to each of the readings along with a set of questions at the end of each essay directing students to the core issues. I again included comparative (and often critical) questions at the end of each of the sections. There is now a second edition ofStudying Philosophythat can be used in conjunction with this book and that Prentice Hall has promised will be available at a sharply reduced price when packaged with this text. It is much expanded and includes advice on studying philosophy, taking exams, writing papers, and managing time. It also gives students the basics of grammar and punctuation along with an expanded discussion of how to improve their writing. Special thanks to reviewers and friends who have provided valuable suggestions and criticisms of this and earlier editions: Jim Abbott, Chesire Calhoun, Irwin Goldstein, Donald C. Hubin, Hugh LaFollette, Sarah Leffler, Elliot Leffler, Paul Menzel, Martin Perlmutter, Bill Shaw, Barbara Spencer, Amy Shapiro, Deni Elliott, David Haslett, Joseph Kupfer, Max Pensky, Joseph J. Tarala, Richard L. Wilson, Larry D. McCargar, Elizabeth Oljar, Nancy A. Stanlick, Richard Volkman, and Harry van der Linden. The reviewers for this edition were David E. W Fenner, University of North Florida and David Drebushenko, University of Southern Indiana. John Arthur Binghamton University


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