9780814766774

Morocco Since 1830 : A History

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780814766774

  • ISBN10:

    0814766773

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-03-01
  • Publisher: New York University Press

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Summary

The first general history in English of Morocco in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Morocco since 1830: A History explores the profound changes that have affected social relations in Morocco over the last 150 years, especially those between the sexes, and between linguistic identities and cultures.Although the country has returned to roughly its pre-colonial boundaries, Morocco still suffers from the effects of colonization by France and Spain. Its current king, like the sultans of the nineteenth century, claims legitimacy through his leadership of the Islamic community, but there is a long tradition of dissent based on Islamic ideals. Morocco's history is also marked by the enduring presence of a large Jewish community.This comprehensive portrait examines the tactics used by Moroccan rulers to cope with European penetration in the nineteenth century and colonialism in the twentieth, and, since the 1950s, to retain control of the independent state. As Pennell points out, however, the ruling dynasty is not sufficiently representative of modern Morocco, nor are political events the only influence on change. Most Moroccans are still poor, and their lives are shaped by their economic circumstances. The influence of harvests, access to land and water, and external trade have always determined the fate of the majority.

Author Biography

C. R. Pennell is al-Tajir Lecturer in Middle Eastern History at the University of Melbourne

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgements xv
Glossary xxiv
Abbreviations xxxiii
Transcription of Arabic xxxiii
1830
1(39)
The face of Morocco
3(4)
Tribes
7(2)
Politics and religion
9(3)
The Sultan
12(2)
Jihad and the right to rule
14(2)
The `ulama
16(2)
The Makhzan
18(3)
The army
21(1)
Finances
22(1)
Trade and commerce
23(1)
Commerce and the British
24(2)
Rebellion
26(2)
Bilad al-siba and bilad al-makhzan
28(1)
Coercion and co-option
29(1)
The towns
30(2)
The slaves
32(2)
The Jews
34(3)
Morocco as mosaic
37(3)
Defeat
40(28)
The European challenge
40(1)
The Algerian challenge
41(2)
The Makhzan's commerce
43(2)
Local commerce
45(1)
Military weakness
46(1)
Revolts
47(1)
Defeat in Algeria
48(1)
The call for reform
49(2)
Military reform
51(1)
The modernisers
52(1)
Disorder
53(2)
British and French rivalry
55(3)
Opening Moroccan markets
58(2)
The rise of John Drummond-Hay
60(2)
The physical environment
62(1)
Moroccan views of Europe
63(1)
War with Spain
64(2)
The moral of defeat
66(2)
Reform
68(43)
The inheritance of the Spanish war
68(2)
The aims of European diplomacy
70(2)
Military reform
72(3)
Economic reform
75(1)
Technological innovation
76(2)
Administration
78(1)
Currency reform
79(1)
Proteges
80(3)
Jews
83(2)
The Madrid conference
85(2)
The Morocco question
87(1)
Trade, protection, diplomacy and self-promotion
88(3)
The rich and powerful
91(3)
Rebels against the Sultan
94(2)
Siba
96(2)
The rise of the big qaids
98(2)
Disorder and resistance
100(3)
The Mahalla
103(2)
Trade, treason and faith
105(3)
The end of the old order
108(1)
The failure of reforms?
109(2)
Collapse
111(43)
Ba Ahmad's Morocco
111(1)
The new Makhzan
111(1)
Rebellion and repression
112(2)
The big qaids
114(1)
Economic problems
115(2)
European diplomacy
117(4)
Abdelaziz's Morocco
121(1)
The new regime
121(1)
Abdelaziz's reforms
122(2)
Morocco and the European Entente
124(1)
A generalised siba
125(1)
The big qaids
126(1)
The revolt of Abu Himara
127(2)
The rise of the French
129(1)
Resistance to French influence
130(2)
The conference at Algeciras
132(1)
The consequences of Algeciras
133(1)
The origins of revolution
134(2)
The revolution of Moulay Abdelhafid
136(2)
Abdelhafid's Morocco
136(2)
The bay'a compromised
138(3)
Salafiyya
141(2)
Constitutional nationalism
143(2)
The Spanish and French advance in the east
145(1)
The economic crisis
146(1)
The French take-over
147(2)
The revolt in the north and the French occupation of Fez
149(1)
The de-internationalisation of the Morocco question
150(1)
The imposition of the French Protectorate
151(1)
The haemorrhaging Makhzan
152(2)
Conquest
154(57)
The Fez mutiny
155(1)
Lyautey in Morocco
156(1)
The abdication of Moulay Abdelhafid
157(1)
El Hiba
157(1)
The theory of Protectorate
158(2)
Government in the French Protectorate
160(3)
The big qaids
163(1)
The origin of the Berber policy
164(2)
The Spanish Protectorate
166(1)
The international zone in Tangier
167(1)
The beginnings of conquest
168(1)
The Spanish zone
169(2)
Land as a commodity
171(1)
New cities
172(1)
The legal facade
172(3)
The First World War
174(1)
The big qaids
175(1)
Social policy of the French Protectorate
176(2)
The wartime economy
178(2)
The Spanish zone
180(2)
Morocco After the First World War
182(1)
Restructuring the administration
182(1)
The end of the big qaids and the rise of Si Thami El Glaoui
183(2)
Reform under colonialism
185(1)
The Free School movement
186(1)
`Useful' and `Necessary' Morocco
186(1)
The boundaries of Morocco
187(1)
The Rif War
188(1)
The attack on El Raisuni
188(4)
The expectations of the Rifis and their leader
192(3)
The international zone reborn
195(2)
Divided economies
197(1)
Taxation and land sales
198(2)
The development of capitalist agriculture
200(1)
Employment
201(2)
The Jews and Zionism
203(2)
The bases of nationalism
205(2)
The Protectorate in question
207(2)
A society of dualities
209(2)
Nationalism
211(43)
The final stages of conquest
216(2)
The roots of future problems
218(1)
The economic crisis
219(5)
How the colons coped
224(3)
Protest and nationalism
227(5)
The Plan de Reformes
232(1)
Politics in the Spanish zone
233(3)
Sport and popular culture
236(3)
The limits of economic growth
239(2)
The strikes of 1936
241(1)
General Nogues as Resident-General
242(1)
Trade unions for the French
242(2)
Economic reform
244(1)
Nogues and the nationalists
245(1)
The policies of the Hizb al-Watani
246(1)
Campaigns and suppression
247(1)
The Spanish Civil War and the Spanish zone
247(3)
Privileged or underprivileged Jews?
250(4)
Wars
254(43)
The Second World War in Morocco
254(2)
The war in the Spanish Zone
256(3)
The third player: the United States
259(2)
The Jews during the Second World War
261(1)
The meeting at Casablanca
262(2)
The Istiqlal manifesto
264(1)
Morocco under the Free French
265(3)
Morocco after the Second World War
268(1)
The liberal experiment
268(3)
The Spanish zone
271(1)
The visit to Tangier, 1947
272(1)
The Indian summer of settler colonialism
272(2)
The broad nationalist coalition
274(2)
The foreign policy of the nationalists
276(1)
Morocco and Israel
277(1)
The campaign against Sidi Mohammed
278(1)
Guillaume as Resident-general
279(1)
The protectorate's coup d'etat
280(3)
The ben Arafa interlude
283(2)
The nationalists in the Spanish zone
285(1)
War in the French zone
285(3)
Aix-les-Bains
288(1)
The Liberation Army
289(1)
The return of the King
290(2)
Independence from Spain
292(2)
Independence undefined
294(3)
Independence
297(20)
The role of the King
299(1)
The levers of coercive power
299(4)
The entrenchment of Istiqlal
303(1)
Rural rebellions
304(1)
The economics of independence
305(2)
Istiqlal undermined
307(2)
Morocco's Place in the World
309(1)
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Moroccan Jews
309(2)
The war in Algeria
311(1)
The Cold War
312(1)
The triumph of the palace
313(4)
Kingship
317(39)
King Hassan's government
319(1)
The politics of elites
319(2)
The regime and its enemies
321(1)
The first constitution
321(3)
The economic crisis
324(3)
The crisis in the rural world
327(2)
The crisis in the cities
329(1)
The second constitution
330(1)
The Skhirat coup
331(1)
The second coup
332(1)
Morocco's expanding limits
333(1)
The Spanish Sahara
334(3)
The road to the International Court
337(2)
The Green March
339(1)
The New Morocco
340(1)
The Saharan war
340(2)
The diplomacy of the new Morocco
342(2)
The Moroccan Jews
344(1)
The economics of the new nationalism
345(2)
A political opening in the new Morocco?
347(1)
A New Society Beyond the State?
348(1)
Women
348(3)
An informal society with informal politics
351(1)
The Islamists
352(2)
The rebellion in Casablanca
354(1)
The need for a new consensus
355(1)
Adjustments
356(36)
The economic crisis
356(5)
Alienation from the political process
361(1)
The Islamic movement
362(2)
Women and power
364(1)
Human rights
365(1)
Arab allies and the Saharan war
366(2)
The alliance with the West and with Israel
368(2)
The Gulf War
370(2)
Rebuilding
372(1)
Liberalising the economy
373(1)
Transition
374(6)
The Return of the Travellers?
380(1)
The shape of the land
380(2)
A mosaic of cultural choices
382(2)
Public mass culture
384(2)
The mass culture of sport
386(1)
A society with women
387(1)
From Sultan to King
388(4)
Appendix Sultans and Kings of Morocco; French Residents-General; High Commissioners of the Spanish Protectorate 392(2)
Bibliography 394(19)
Index 413

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