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Motivation : Theory Research and Applications,9781111841096
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Motivation : Theory Research and Applications

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9781111841096

ISBN10:
1111841098
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/1/2012
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $249.95

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Summary

With its signature focus on evolutionary psychology, MOTIVATION: THEORY, RESEARCH AND APPLICATION, 6E reflects the latest developments from the field in its thorough coverage of the biological, behavioral, and cognitive explanations for human motivation. The book clearly presents the advantages and drawbacks to each of these explanations, allowing students to draw their own conclusions. Relevant and timely, the text helps readers understand the processes that activate their behavior by drawing examples from topics that interest students, including sleep, stress, eating disorders, helping behavior, emotion, and more. Extremely student friendly, the text includes numerous study aids to maximize learner success, while vivid graphic illustrations offer additional insight into key concepts. In addition, its unique thematic approach gives instructors ultimate flexibility.

Table of Contents

Overviewp. 1
Overview: Conceptualizing and Measuring Motivation and the Role of Evolution in Motivationp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Angie's Problemp. 4
The Concept of Motivationp. 4
The Measurement of Motivationp. 4
Characteristics of Motivationp. 6
Activationp. 6
Directionp. 7
The Study of Motivation: Categories of Analysisp. 7
Nomothetic versus Idiographicp. 7
Innate versus Acquiredp. 8
Internal versus Externalp. 8
Mechanistic versus Cognitivep. 9
Levels of Analysisp. 9
Physiological Analysisp. 9
Individual Analysisp. 10
Social Analysisp. 11
Philosophical Analysisp. 12
Analysis of Angie's Problemp. 12
Major Constructs in Motivationp. 13
Energyp. 13
Physiological Mechanismsp. 13
Learningp. 14
Social Interáctionp. 14
Cognitive Processesp. 14
The Activation of Motivationp. 14
Homeostasisp. 14
Hedonismp. 15
Growth Motivationp. 15
Philosophical and Physiological Roots of Motivational Theoryp. 15
Philosophical Antecedentsp. 16
Physiological Antecedentsp. 17
The Flow of Ideas about Motivationp. 19
Evolution and Motivationp. 21
Lifep. 21
Mitosis and Meiosisp. 21
Sexp. 22
The Advantages of Sexual Reproductionp. 23
The Pleasures of Sexp. 23
Interim Summaryp. 25
Higher Motives?p. 25
Evolutionp. 25
Natural Selectionp. 26
Sexual Selectionp. 21
Female versus Male Sexual Strategiesp. 27
Mate Selection in Humansp. 27
Instincts, Emotion, Thoughts and Behaviorp. 28
The Authors' Biasp. 29
Summaryp. 30
Key Termsp. 31
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 32
Web Resourcep. 32
Physiological Mechanisms of Motivationp. 33
Genetic Contributions to Motivated Behaviorp. 35
Early Instinct Theoriesp. 36
William Jamesp. 36
William McDougallp. 37
Criticisms of the Early Instinct Theoriesp. 39
Classical Ethologyp. 39
Ethological Termsp. 40
Intention Movements and Social Releasersp. 43
Motivational Conflictp. 44
Reaction Chainsp. 44
Imprintingp. 45
Criticisms of the Classical Ethological Approachp. 46
Some Modifications to the Basic Ideas of Ethologyp. 47
Human Ethologyp. 48
Additional Innate Behaviorsp. 51
Ethological Concepts Concerning Sex and Aggressionp. 53
Modem Ethological Approachesp. 57
Behavioral Ecologyp. 57
Cognitive Ethologyp. 57
Evolutional Psychologyp. 58
Summaryp. 59
Key Termsp. 60
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 60
Physiological Mechanisms of Arousalp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Arousal Theoryp. 62
The Reticular Activating Systemp. 64
Hebb's Theoryp. 65
Psychophysiological Measuresp. 67
Problems With Arousal Theoryp. 67
Sleepp. 68
General Properties of Sleepp. 68
Stages of Sleepp. 69
Dreamsp. 72
Sleep Deprivationp. 74
Physiology of Sleepp. 75
Brain Stem Mechanisms That Promote Arousalp. 75
Neurotransmitters That Promote Arousalp. 75
Brainstem Regions That Promote NREM Sleepp. 76
Neurotransmitters That Promote Sleepp. 76
Brainstem Regions That Promote REM Sleepp. 76
Brainstem Neural Flip-Flopsp. 77
A Sleep Chemicalp. 77
Possible Functions of Sleepp. 78
Stressp. 82
Definition of Stressp. 82
Systemic and Psychological Stressp. 82
Endocrine System Activity and Stressp. 83
The General Adaptation Syndromep. 84
Diseases of Adaptationp. 85
Life Change, Stress, and Illnessp. 86
Criticisms of the Hardiness Conceptp. 89
Other Buffers of Stressp. 90
Health Psychologyp. 92
Psychoneuroimmunologyp. 92
Conditioning of Immune Responsesp. 93
Psychosocial Factors and the Immune Systemp. 94
Placebo Effectsp. 95
Sexual Arousalp. 96
Stages of the Human Sexual Response Cyclep. 96
Other Bodily Changes During Sexual Behaviorp. 96
Summaryp. 98
Key Termsp. 99
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 100
Physiological Mechanisms of Regulationp. 101
What Do We Eat: Taste and Smell as Gatekeepersp. 101
Why Do We Eat?p. 102
What Determines How Much We Eat?p. 102
Sensory Specific Satietyp. 102
Basic Metabolismp. 103
Local Theoriesp. 104
Central Theoriesp. 106
Homeostatic Regulationp. 107
Regulation of Hungerp. 107
Short-Term Regulationp. 108
The Glucostatic Theory of Hungerp. 109
Peripheral Detectors for Short-Term Regulationp. 110
Long-Term Regulationp. 112
Energy Regulation: Two Processes or One?p. 114
Nonhomeostatic Eating Behaviorp. 115
Failure of Regulationp. 116
Anorexia Nervosap. 116
Cross-Cultural Evidence of Anorexiap. 117
Neurobiology of Anorexiap. 118
The Serotonin Hypothesisp. 118
Heredity Factorsp. 119
Brain Structures Involved in Anorexiap. 119
Bulimia Nervosap. 120
Obesityp. 124
Obesity Explanationsp. 126
The Role of Habituation in Obesityp. 128
Obesity as Addictionp. 128
Stressp. 129
Hunger Regulation Reconsideredp. 129
Regulation of Thirstp. 130
Mouth Factorsp. 130
Extracellular and Intracellular Mechanismsp. 131
The Kidneyp. 131
Osmometric Thirstp. 131
Volumetric Thirstp. 133
Nonhomeostatic Drinkingp. 134
Inhibitory Control of Drinkingp. 135
Regulation of Sexual Motivationp. 135
Sex Hormones: Organization and Activationp. 135
Sexual Dimorphismp. 136
Hypothalamic Regulation of Sexual Behaviorp. 137
Regulation of Aggressive Motivationp. 139
The Limbic Systemp. 140
Types of Aggressionp. 142
Summaryp. 143
Key Termsp. 145
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 145
Web Resourcesp. 146
The Behavioral Approaches: Learning, Incentives, and Hedonismp. 147
Learned Motives: Classical, Instrumental, and Observational Learningp. 149
Pavlovian Classical Conditioningp. 150
Experimental Neurosisp. 152
Elimination of Motivated Behaviors Through Conditioningp. 153
Interoceptive Conditioningp. 154
Learned Aversionsp. 156
Learned Taste Aversions in Cancer Patientsp. 158
Instrumental Conditioningp. 160
Quantity, Quality, and Contrasts of Reinforcementp. 161
Primary and Conditioned Reinforcementp. 163
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcersp. 163
Tokens and Token Economiesp. 164
Classical-Operant Interactions in Motivationp. 166
Acquired Fearp. 166
Conditioned Emotional Responses (CERs)p. 168
Learned Helplessnessp. 169
Symptoms of Helplessnessp. 170
Causes and Prevention of Helplessnessp. 170
Observational Learning (Modeling)p. 172
Modeling Processes: Attention, Retention, Reproductionp. 173
Modeling Processes: Vicarious Reinforcementp. 173
Learning and Aggressionp. 174
Classical Conditioning and Aggressionp. 174
Instrumental Conditioning and Aggressionp. 175
Modeled Aggressionp. 176
Sexual Motivation and Learningp. 177
Learned Sexual Valuesp. 178
Summaryp. 179
Key Termsp. 180
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 180
Web Resourcep. 180
Incentive Motivationp. 181
Incentives as Energizersp. 182
Incentive Motivation (K)p. 183
The Persistence of Behaviorp. 185
Incentives as Generators of Emotionp. 188
Mowrer: Fear, Hope, Relief, and Disappointmentp. 188
Incentives as Carriers of Informationp. 189
Tolman: Cognitive Formulationsp. 190
Predictabilityp. 191
The Overmier and Lowry Modelp. 192
Klinger: Meaningfulnessp. 194
Incentive Aspects of Sexual Motivationp. 196
Pheromonesp. 196
Learned Sexual Stimulip. 198
Female Attractivenessp. 199
Male Attractivenessp. 201
Incentive Motivation and Physical Addictionsp. 202
Behavioral Addictionsp. 203
Summaryp. 203
Key Termsp. 204
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 205
Web Resourcesp. 205
Hedonism and Sensory Stimulationp. 206
Hedonismp. 206
P. T. Young: Sign, Intensity, and Durationp. 207
Sensory Stimulation and the Hedonic Continuump. 208
The Motivational Influence of Sensationsp. 209
Hedonic Value and Contact Receptorsp. 210
Painp. 210
Novelty, Curiosity, and Exploratory Behaviorp. 212
Behaviors Released by Stimulationp. 213
The Need for Stimulationp. 214
Attachmentp. 216
Sensation Seekingp. 223
Opponent-Process Theory: Hedonism Revisitedp. 225
Drug Addiction: An Alternative to the Incentive-Sensitization Viewp. 226
Thrill Seekingp. 227
Social Attachmentp. 228
Summaryp. 229
Key Termsp. 230
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 230
Web Resourcesp. 231
Cognitive Approaches to Motivationp. 233
Cognitive Motivation: Expectancy-Value Approachesp. 235
Tolman's Purposive Behaviorp. 236
Characteristics of Molar Behaviorp. 236
Purpose and Cognitionp. 236
Kurt Lewin's Force Field Theoryp. 239
The Personp. 240
Motivational Properties of the Inner-Personal Region (Tension)p. 240
The Psychological Environmentp. 241
Expectancy-Value Theoryp. 243
Social Learning Theoryp. 243
Expectancy-Value Theory and the Need for Achievementp. 246
Revisions to Need-Achievement Theoryp. 251
Attitudes, Behaviors, and Expectancy-Valuep. 253
The Theory of Planned Behaviorp. 254
Comparing and Contrasting Three Expectancy-Value Theoriesp. 257
Social Loafingp. 257
Expectancy- Value Theory and Social Loafingp. 259
Summaryp. 264
Key Termsp. 266
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 266
Web Resourcesp. 267
Cognitive Consistency and Social Motivationp. 268
Cognitive Consistency Theoryp. 269
Balance Theoryp. 269
Problems With Balance Theoryp. 270
Cognitive Dissonancep. 271
Research on Dissonancep. 272
When Prophecy Failsp. 275
Challenges to Dissonance Theoryp. 276
Self-Perception Theoryp. 276
Dissonance or Self-Perception?p. 277
A Problem for Consistency Theoriesp. 278
Social Motivationp. 278
Social Facilitation and Inhibition: Coaction and Audience Effectsp. 279
Social Influencep. 281
Conformityp. 281
Factors That Affect Conformity Motivationp. 283
Criticisms of Conformity Researchp. 283
Why Do People Conform?p. 285
Compliancep. 285
Obediencep. 288
Why a Motive to Obey?p. 290
Bystander Interventionp. 292
A Model of Interventionp. 293
Factors That Affect Helping Behaviorp. 295
What Motivates Helping?p. 297
Summaryp. 300
Key Termsp. 301
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 301
Web Resourcesp. 302
Cognitive Motivation: Attribution Approachesp. 303
Attribution Theoryp. 304
Heider's Naive Psychologyp. 305
The Jones and Davis Correspondent Inference Theoryp. 306
Kelley's Covariation Theoryp. 308
Weiner's Attributional Analysis of Achievement Behaviorp. 311
Biases in Attributionp. 314
Application of Research on Attributionsp. 323
Summaryp. 329
Key Termsp. 330
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 330
Web Resourcesp. 330
Cognitive Motivation: Competence and Controlp. 331
Carl Rogers and Positive Regardp. 332
The Fully Functioning Individualp. 333
Criticisms of Rogers's Approachp. 333
Abraham Maslow and Self-Actualizationp. 334
Hierarchy of Needsp. 335
A Revised Hierarchy of Needsp. 340
Competencep. 341
Personal Causationp. 342
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory of Human Agencyp. 343
Self Determination Theoryp. 345
The Rise of Positive Psychologyp. 348
Summaryp. 350
Key Termsp. 351
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 352
Web Resourcesp. 352
Emotion and Motivationp. 353
The Emotions as Motivatorsp. 355
Emotion From a Biological Perspectivep. 356
Darwin's Principles of Emotionp. 356
Serviceable Associated Habitsp. 356
Antithesisp. 357
Direct Action of the Nervous Systemp. 357
Recognition of Emotional Statesp. 357
Other Formulations of Emotion After Darwinp. 358
The James-Lange Theoryp. 358
The Cognitive-Physiological Theory of Emotionp. 361
Ethologyp. 363
Brain Mechanisms of Emotionp. 366
The Amygdala, Orbital Frontal Cortex, and Cingulate Cortexp. 366
Emotion from a Learning Perspectivep. 369
Classical Conditioning and Emotionp. 369
Operant/Instrumental Conditioning and Emotionp. 369
Emotional Modelingp. 370
The Preparedness of Emotional Learningp. 372
Emotion from a Cognitive Perspectivep. 373
Attribution of Emotionp. 374
Emotion as Primary and Universalp. 376
The Tomkins Modelp. 377
Izard's Differential Emotions Theoryp. 378
The Circumplex Model of Affectp. 380
Facial Expression and Emotionp. 384
Summaryp. 388
Key Termsp. 390
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 390
Web Resourcesp. 391
Endviewp. 393
Conclusionsp. 395
Referencesp. 399
Name Indexp. 447
Subject Indexp. 465
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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