9780130358196

MPLS and Label Switching Networks

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130358196

  • ISBN10:

    0130358193

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-04-09
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Summary

The authoritative, practical introduction to the final MPLS standard! Fully updated to cover the final, official MPLS standard Presents detailed enterprise and service provider example scenarios Includes up-to-the-minute coverage of QoS and MPLS-based VPNs Introduces the new Generalized MPLS and RSVP-TE protocols MPLS will be at the heart of tomorrow's flexible, manageable, and cost-effective networks. MPLS and Label Switching Networks, Second Edition is the authoritative resource you need to understand MPLS technologies-and implement them for competitive advantage. Renowned communications consultant Uyless Black illuminates the final MPLS standard through practical examples and detailed diagrams, offering start-to-finish guidance on using MPLS to maximize network reliability, utilization, and performance. Coverage includes: Integrating MPLS into ATM and Frame Relay networks-and both IPv4 and IPv6 environments Traffic engineering-including RSVP-TE and CR-LDP Building more resilient service provider and ISP backbones Configuring MPLS-based networks for rapid service restoration Deploying and securing MPLS-based VPNs GMPLS for optical networks: accelerating service deployment and improving operational efficiency Whether you're in an enterprise or service provider environment, MPLS and Label Switching Networks, Second Edition gives you insight and clarity for planning, deploying, and succeeding with MPLS technologies-starting today.

Author Biography

Uyless Black is a widely respected telecommunications consultant and lecturer with extensive operations and implementation experience in both public and private networks

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Introduction
1(20)
What is Label Switching?
1(1)
Why Use Label Switching?
2(5)
Speed and Delay
2(1)
Scalability
3(1)
Simplicity
3(1)
Resource Consumption
4(1)
Route Control (Control of the Forwarding Path)
4(1)
Route Control Using IP
5(2)
The ZIP Code Analogy
7(1)
Why a Label Is Not an Address
8(3)
How Label Switching is Implemented and How it Came About
11(1)
Clarification of Terms
11(1)
The Need for a QOS-based Internet
12(2)
Label Switching and QOS
13(1)
The Contribution of Label Switching
14(1)
Label Switching's Legacy: X.25 and Virtual Circuits
14(2)
The Logical Channel Number: Precursor to the Label
15(1)
Frame Relay and ATM: A Rose by Any Other Name is Still a Rose
16(1)
MPLS: Status and Concepts
16(1)
Examples of Label and QOS Relationships
17(2)
Determination of the Physical Path Through the Network: The Label Switched Path (LSP)
19(1)
Summary
20(1)
Label Switching Basics
21(17)
IP and MPLS Control and Data Planes
21(3)
IP Control and Data Planes
22(1)
MPLS Control and Data Planes
23(1)
The Forwarding Equivalence Class
24(3)
Scalability and Granularity
25(1)
Granularity in Terabit Networks
25(1)
Information Used in the Forwarding Decision
26(1)
Label Allocation Methods
27(1)
Local and Remote Binding
27(1)
Downstream and Upstream Binding
27(1)
Control Operations Followed by Data Operations
28(1)
Label Space and Label Assignments
29(1)
Execution of the Control Planes in a Label Switching Domain
30(4)
Scenarios for Label Assignments
32(2)
Relationships Between IP and MPLS Control Planes
34(1)
Examples of FEC and Label Correlations: The Label Switching Tunnel
34(1)
Alternatives for Carrying the Label
35(1)
Label Swapping
35(2)
Summary
37(1)
Switching and Forwarding Operations
38(31)
A Taxonomy of Switching and Forwarding Networks
38(2)
Layer 2 Switching
40(1)
Layer 3 Routing (Actually, Forwarding)
41(1)
Problem with IP Forwarding Operations
41(1)
Layer 3 Switching
42(2)
Cache-Assisted Switching
42(1)
Distributed Switching
42(1)
Example of Layer 3 Switching
42(2)
Layer 4 Switching
44(1)
Label Switching/Swapping/Mapping
44(1)
Layer 3 to Layer 2 Mapping
44(3)
At the Ingress LSR
45(1)
At an Intermediate (Interior) LSR
46(1)
At the Egress LSR
47(1)
MPLS's Relationship to These Operations
47(1)
IP Switching
47(4)
Architecture of the IP Switch
48(3)
Route-Server-Based Relaying
51(3)
Route-Server-Based Operations
51(1)
Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA) and Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)
52(2)
Tag Switching
54(13)
Forwarding Component
55(1)
Tag Encapsulation
56(1)
Control Component
56(3)
Tag Switching with ATM
59(1)
Quality of Service
60(1)
Examples of Tag Switching Operations
60(2)
Border (Edge) TSRs
62(4)
Flow Classification
66(1)
IPv6 Flow Operations
66(1)
IPv4 Codepoint Operations
67(1)
MPLS and LDP
67(1)
IPv6 Label Operations
67(1)
Summary
68(1)
MPLS Key Concepts
69(33)
Major Attributes of MPLS
69(1)
Terminology
70(1)
Network Model for Examples
71(2)
Types of MPLS Nodes
73(1)
Uniqueness of Labels
74(1)
MPLS Startup
75(1)
Assigning Labels to FECs
75(3)
Independent Control
75(2)
Ordered Control
77(1)
Unsolicited and Solicited Label Distribution
78(1)
Example of the Label Information Base (LIB)
78(1)
Example of the Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB)
79(1)
Liberal and Conservative Retention Modes
80(1)
How MPLS Can Recover from Link or Node Failures
80(2)
Discovery of Inoperability
80(2)
Problem with the Topology in the Network Model
82(1)
The MPLS Header
82(1)
The Label Stack
83(4)
Stacking Rules for the Label Switched Path
87(2)
Penultimate Hop Popping
87(1)
Stacks and Encapsulations
88(1)
Reserved Label Values
89(1)
MPLS terms for LIB and LFIB
89(2)
The Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE)
90(1)
FEC-to-NHLFE Map (FTN)
90(1)
Incoming Label Map (ILM)
91(1)
Aggregation
91(1)
Label Merging
92(1)
Scope and Uniqueness of Labels in a Label Space
93(1)
Hop-by-Hop and Explicit Routing
94(1)
Review of the Label Retention Mode
95(1)
Advertising and Using Labels
95(6)
The Downstream LSR (Rd) Procedures
96(3)
The Upstream LSR (Ru) Procedure
99(1)
NotAvailable Procedure
100(1)
Release Procedure
100(1)
Label Use Procedure
101(1)
Summary
101(1)
Label Distribution Operations
102(36)
The Issue of Label Granularity
102(1)
Methods for Label Distribution
103(1)
Advertising and Distributing Aggregated FECs
104(2)
Ru Has Finer Granularity Than That of Rd
104(1)
Ru Has Coarser Granularity Than That of Rd
105(1)
Introduction to LDP
106(1)
LDP Messages
107(1)
FECs, Label Spaces, and Identifiers
107(2)
Mapping Rules
108(1)
Label Spaces and Identifiers
108(1)
LDP Sessions
109(1)
Sessions Between Indirectly Connected LSRs
109(1)
How LSRs Know About Other LSRs
110(1)
LDP Label Distribution and Management
110(4)
Independent Control Mapping
111(1)
Ordered Control Mapping
111(1)
Downstream-on-Demand Label Advertisement
112(1)
Problem Management for the First Three Distribution Methods
113(1)
Downstream Unsolicited Label Advertisement
113(1)
LDP Messages
114(12)
The LDP Header
114(1)
Type-Length-Value (TLV) Encoding
115(1)
The LDP Message Format
115(1)
TLVs: Formats and Functions
116(3)
The LDP Messages: Formats and Functions
119(7)
Loop Detection and Control
126(3)
Buffer Control
127(1)
Time to Live (TTL)
127(1)
Path Vectors
127(1)
Colored Threads
127(2)
RSVP and Label Distribution
129(7)
Aspects of RSVP Pertinent to MPLS
130(2)
The Flow Descriptor
132(1)
Interworking Concepts for MPLS and RSVP
133(2)
More Information About RSVP Extensions
135(1)
BGP and Label Distribution
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
MPLS and ATM and Frame Relay Networks
138(24)
Aspects of ATM of Interest to MPLS
139(8)
Virtual Circuits
139(1)
VPIs and VCIs
139(2)
The ATM Cell Header
141(2)
Permanent Virtual Circuits and Switched Virtual Calls
143(1)
Other Important Fields in the ATM Cell
143(2)
ATM and MPLS: Similarities and Differences
145(2)
Scaling IP/ATM Overlay Networks
147(2)
Principal Traffic Management Issues in and between ATM-LSRs
149(2)
MPLS and ATM Interworking
149(1)
Difficulty of Interleaving AAL5 Traffic
150(1)
VC and VP Merging
151(3)
The Merging Process
151(2)
Reversing the Process with an MPLS Backbone
153(1)
Mapping the MPLS Labels To ATM VPIs/VCIs
154(1)
Types of Merging (or Nonmerging)
155(1)
Interoperation of VC Merge, VP Merge, and Non-merge
155(1)
The Virtual Circuit ID
156(1)
Notification Operation
157(1)
VPI/VCI Values
158(1)
Encapsulation And TTL Operations
158(1)
Aspects of Frame Relay of Interest to MPLS
159(2)
Virtual Circuits and DLCIs
159(1)
The Frame Relay Header
160(1)
Permanent Virtual Circuits and Switched Virtual Calls
161(1)
Running ATM, Frame Relay and Others Over MPLS
161(1)
Summary
161(1)
Traffic Engineering
162(32)
Traffic Engineering Defined
162(1)
Traffic-Oriented or Resource-Oriented Performance
163(1)
The Congestion Problem
163(2)
Problem Description
163(1)
Two Scenarios of Congestion
164(1)
Services Based on QOS Needs and Classes of Traffic
165(1)
Traffic Engineering and Traffic Shaping
166(1)
Queuing the Traffic
167(1)
Problems with Existing Routing Operations
168(1)
The Overlay Network Approach
169(1)
Induced MPLS Graph
170(1)
Traffic Trunks, Traffic Flows, and Label Switched Paths
171(1)
Attractiveness of MPLS for Traffic Engineering
171(1)
Link Capacity: The Ultimate Arbiter
172(1)
Load Distribution
172(1)
Traffic Trunk Attributes
173(5)
Attributes of Traffic Trunks for Traffic Engineering
173(5)
Constraint-Based Routing (CR)
178(3)
Peak Rate
179(1)
Committed Rate
179(1)
Excess Burst Size
179(1)
Peak Rate Token Bucket
179(1)
Committed Data Rate Token Bucket
180(1)
Weight
180(1)
Differentiated Services, MPLS, and Traffic Engineering
181(1)
Average Rate Meter
181(1)
Exponential Weighted Moving Average Meter
181(1)
Token Bucket Meter
181(1)
Ideas on Shaping Operations
182(3)
DS Guaranteed Rate
182(2)
Assured and Expedited Forwarding PHBs
184(1)
Examples of WFQ And MPLS Flows
185(2)
Examples of MPLS Protection Switching
187(6)
Using RSVP to Establish Alternate/Detour LSPs
191(2)
Determining Which Path Protection Method to Use
193(1)
Summary
193(1)
OSPF in MPLS Networks
194(17)
Review of IP-Based Routing Protocols
194(1)
Routing Domains
195(2)
Route Advertising
195(1)
Routing Domains and the ``Flat Network'' Problem
196(1)
Autonomous Systems
197(2)
How Autonomous Systems Are Numbered
197(1)
How a Host Is Made Known to Other Domains
198(1)
Correlation (Binding) of the Prefixes to MPLS Labels
199(1)
Multiple Routing Protocols
200(1)
Overview of the Routing Protocols
201(1)
Overview of OSPF
202(4)
Role of the Router in OSPF
203(1)
Directed Graphs
203(1)
Key Operations
204(1)
OSPF Areas
205(1)
Packet Containment
205(1)
Stub Areas
206(1)
Revising OSPF to Support Constrained Routing and TE
206(1)
General Idea of Using OSPF in MPLS Networks
207(1)
Traffic Engineering Extensions to OSPF
208(2)
The LSA TE Extension
208(1)
The TLVs
209(1)
Role of OSPF in VPNs
210(1)
Summary
210(1)
Constraint-Based Routing with CR-LDP
211(10)
The Basic Concept
211(1)
Explicit Routing
212(1)
LDP and Constraint-based Routing
213(1)
Strict and Loose Explicit Routes
213(1)
Preemption
213(1)
CR Messages and TLVs
214(7)
Label Request Message
214(1)
Label Mapping Message
215(1)
Notification Message
216(1)
Explicit Route TLV
216(1)
Explicit Route Hop TLV
216(1)
Traffic Parameters TLV
216(2)
Preemption TLV
218(1)
LSPID TLV
219(1)
Resource Class TLV
220(1)
Route Pinning TLV
220(1)
CR-LSP FEC TLV
220(1)
Summary
221(1)
MPLS, Optical Networks, and GMPLS
221(16)
WDM and Optical Networks
221(3)
Relationships of Optical and MPLS Operations
222(2)
Multiprotocol Lambda Switching (MPλS)
224(3)
MPLS and Optical Wavelength Mapping
224(2)
Failure of the Optical Connection
226(1)
Views on the MPLS Control Plane and the Optical Switch
227(1)
Control Adaptation
227(1)
Generalized MPLS Use in Optical Networks
228(7)
Considerations for Interworking Layer 1 Lambdas and Layer 2 Labels
229(1)
Examples of GMPLS Operations
230(4)
Suggested Labels for Wavelengths
234(1)
Bidirectional LSPs in Optical Networks
235(1)
Label Contention Resolution
235(1)
Link Protection
235(1)
Summary
236(1)
VPNs with L2TP, BGP, OSPF, and MPLS
237(15)
Overview of VPNs
237(1)
Role of Tunnels in VPNs (by Use of L2TP)
238(3)
Overview of BGP
241(2)
BGP Neighbors
242(1)
BGP Speakers
242(1)
Communities
243(1)
BGP Policy-Based Architecture
243(1)
Path Selection with BGP
244(1)
MPLS Label Stacking in the VPN
244(1)
VPN Architecture
245(2)
Customer Edge (CE) Devices
245(1)
Multiple Forwarding Tables
246(1)
Role of BGP in VPNs
247(1)
The VPN-IP4 Address Family
247(1)
Using BGP to Distribute the Address and the Label
247(1)
Using Route Reflectors
248(1)
Role of OSPF in VPNs
248(2)
Disadvantages and Advantages of Using OSPF in the VPN
248(1)
Principal Rules for Using OSPF in VPNs
249(1)
Role of MPLS in VPNs
250(1)
Keeping VPN Routers Out of P Routers
250(1)
Isolating the VPNs
251(1)
Summary
251(1)
MPLS and DiffServ
252(16)
Diffserv Concepts
252(1)
Per-Hop Behavior
253(1)
The Diffserv Domain
253(1)
Types of Per-Hop Behaviors
254(2)
MPLS and Diffserv Routers
256(1)
Traffic Classification and Conditioning
257(3)
DS Classifiers
258(1)
Behavior Aggregates, Ordered Aggregates, and LSPs
258(2)
Classification Operations
260(1)
Metering Operations
261(1)
The DS Codepoint Revisited
262(2)
Codepoints for Assured Forwarding
264(1)
DSCPs and LSR Use of MPLS Labels
264(1)
The Ordered Aggregate and MPLS LSPS
265(2)
EXP-Inferred-PSC LSPs
265(1)
Label-Only-Inferred-PSC LSPs
266(1)
Bandwidth Reservations for E-LSPs and L-LSPs
266(1)
Summary
267(1)
Appendix A Names, Addresses, Subnetting, Address Masks, and Prefixes 268(23)
Principal Addresses Used in Internet and Intranets
269(12)
MAC Address
270(2)
Network Address
272(2)
IP Address
274(7)
Address Aggregation and Subnet Masks and Prefixes
281(6)
Variable Length Submasks
287(2)
High Overhead of IP Forwarding
289(2)
Appendix B CR-LDP and Traffic Engineering and QOS 291(8)
CR-LDP and ATM QOS
292(3)
Parameters for ATM/CR-LDP Interworking
292(2)
CR-LDP Parameters
294(1)
CR-LDP Interworking with ATM QOS
295(1)
CR-LDP and Frame Relay QOS
295(1)
CR-LDP and RSVP Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE)
295(4)
References 299(2)
Acronyms 301

Excerpts

PrefaceAs the name of this book implies, the focus is on the switching of traffic though a network or networks. The term switching is also known in some parts of the industry as forwarding, relaying, and routing. Internet Drafts: Work in ProgressIn many of my explanations of label switching operations, I have relied on the Internet Request for Comments (RFCs) and draft standards, published by the Internet Society, and I thank this organization for making the RFCs available to the public. The draft standards are "works in progress," and usually change as they wind their way to an RFC (if indeed they become an RFC). A work in progress cannot be considered final, but many vendors use them in creating products for the marketplace. Notwithstanding, they are subject to change.For all the Internet standards and draft standards the following applies:Copyright copy; The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved.This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English.The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

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