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Summary

Since the first edition of MRI in Practice was published in 1993, the book has become the standard text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists and even sales representatives on the subject of magnetic resonance imaging. This text is essential reading on postgraduate courses. Furthermore, MRI in Practice has come to be known as the number one reference book and study guide in the areas of MR instrumentation, principles, pulse sequences, image acquisition, and imaging parameters for the advanced level examination for MRI offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) in the USA. The book explains in clear terms the theory that underpins magnetic resonance so that the capabilities and operation of MRI systems can be fully appreciated and maximized. This third edition captures recent advances, and coverage includes: parallel imaging techniques, functional imaging techniques and new sequences such as balanced gradient echo. Building on the success of the first two editions, the authors have now re-conceptualized the design of the book. The third edition contains a wealth of additional illustrations and chapter enhancements draw on the depth of the authors' experience in delivering MRI education and training. To promote accessibility of difficult concepts, extended analogies have been developed to relate the complexities of MRI physics to everyday phenomena. Learning points are clearly articulated, and frequent summaries are included to assist the reader in digesting the information.

Author Biography

Catherine Westbrook is a Senior Lecturer and MRI Field Leader at Anglia Polytechnic University, Cambridge, UK and external examiner, lecturer and advisor on several other postgraduate courses in MRI around the world. In the past, Cathy has been President of the British Association of MR Radiographers, Honorary Secretary of the British Institute of Radiology and Chairperson of the Consortium for the Accreditation of Clinical MR Education.


Carolyn Kaut Roth is the Director of MRI Internship Programs & Continuing Education for Technologists at the University of Pennsylvania Health Systems, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. In the past, Carolyn has served as President of the Section for Magnetic Resonance Technologists (SMRT), and is currently a Fellow of SMRT. She has lectured around the world and has published numerous books, articles and papers on the topic of MRI. Carolyn is also the CEO of Imaging Education Associates (IEA), a company that develops and produces computer-based education modules and educational curricula for radiographers & educators.


John Talbot is a Senior Lecturer at Anglia Polytechnic University, Cambridge UK and a leader in the development and production of e-learning materials. As well as lecturing MRI around the world, John is a gifted illustrator and his vision has been central to the re-shaping of the figures in the book.

Table of Contents

Foreword x
Preface to the third edition xi
Acknowledgments xii
Basic principles
1(20)
Introduction
1(1)
Atomic structure
1(2)
Motion in the atom
3(1)
MR active nuclei
4(1)
The hydrogen nucleus
4(1)
Alignment
5(3)
Precession
8(1)
The Larmor equation
9(1)
Resonance
10(5)
The MR signal
15(1)
The free induction decay signal (FID)
15(1)
Relaxation
16(1)
T1 recovery
16(1)
T2 decay
16(3)
Pulse timing parameters
19(1)
Questions
20(1)
Image weighting and contrast
21(40)
Introduction
21(1)
Image contrast
21(1)
Contrast mechanisms
22(1)
Relaxation in different tissues
23(3)
T1 contrast
26(1)
T2 contrast
27(1)
Proton density contrast
27(2)
Weighting
29(8)
T2* decay
37(1)
Pulse sequences
37(23)
Questions
60(1)
Encoding and image formation
61(43)
Encoding
61(20)
Introduction
61(1)
Gradients
62(2)
Slice selection
64(4)
Frequency encoding
68(3)
Phase encoding
71(5)
Sampling
76(5)
Data collection and image formation
81(23)
Introduction
81(1)
K space description
81(2)
K space filling
83(4)
Fast Fourier transform (FFT)
87(4)
Important facts about K space
91(6)
K space traversal and gradients
97(2)
Options that fill K space
99(2)
Types of acquisition
101(2)
Questions
103(1)
Parameters and trade-offs
104(39)
Introduction
104(1)
Signal to noise ratio (SNR)
105(20)
Contrast to noise ratio (CNR)
125(3)
Spatial resolution
128(7)
Scan time
135(2)
Trade-offs
137(1)
Decision making
137(2)
Volume imaging
139(3)
Questions
142(1)
Pulse sequences
143(59)
Introduction
143(2)
Spin echo pulse sequences
145(23)
Conventional spin echo
145(1)
Fast or turbo spin echo
146(10)
Inversion recovery
156(6)
Fast inversion recovery
162(1)
STIR (short tau inversion recovery)
162(3)
FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery)
165(3)
Gradient echo pulse sequences
168(30)
Conventional gradient echo
168(2)
The steady state and echo formation
170(3)
Coherent gradient echo
173(3)
Incoherent gradient echo (spoiled)
176(3)
Steady state free precession (SSFP)
179(5)
Balanced gradient echo
184(5)
Fast gradient echo
189(2)
Echo planar imaging (EPI)
191(7)
Parallel imaging techniques
198(4)
Questions
201(1)
Flow phenomena
202(27)
Introduction
202(1)
The mechanisms of flow
202(2)
Flow phenomena
204(9)
Time of flight phenomenon
204(3)
Entry slice phenomenon
207(5)
Intra-voxel dephasing
212(1)
Flow phenomena compensation
213(16)
Introduction
213(1)
Even echo rephasing
214(1)
Gradient moment rephasing (nulling)
214(3)
Spatial pre-saturation
217(11)
Questions
228(1)
Artefacts and their compensation
229(34)
Introduction
229(1)
Phase mismapping
229(9)
Aliasing or wrap around
238(8)
Chemical shift artefact
246(3)
Chemical misregistration
249(2)
Truncation artefact
251(1)
Magnetic susceptibility artefact
251(4)
Cross excitation and cross talk
255(2)
Zipper artefact
257(1)
Shading artefact
258(1)
Moires artefact
259(1)
Magic angle
260(2)
Questions
262(1)
Vascular and cardiac imaging
263(38)
Introduction
263(1)
Conventional MRI vascular imaging techniques
263(6)
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
269(16)
Perfusion and diffusion imaging
285(1)
Cardiac gating
286(6)
Peripheral gating
292(2)
Pseudo-gating
294(1)
Multi-phase cardiac imaging
294(1)
Cine
295(3)
SPAMM
298(2)
Questions
300(1)
Instrumentation and equipment
301(28)
Introduction
301(1)
Magnetism
302(4)
Permanent magnets
306(1)
Electromagnets
306(3)
Superconducting electromagnets
309(4)
Fringe fields
313(1)
Shim coils
313(1)
Gradient coils
314(7)
Radio frequency coils
321(5)
The pulse control unit
326(1)
Patient transportation system
326(1)
Operator interface
327(1)
Questions
328(1)
MRI safety
329(23)
Introduction
329(1)
The main magnetic field
330(5)
Projectiles
335(1)
Medical emergencies
336(1)
Implants and prostheses
337(5)
Pacemakers
342(1)
Gradient magnetic fields
342(2)
Radio frequency fields
344(2)
Claustrophobia
346(1)
Quenching
346(1)
Safety education
347(1)
Patient monitoring
347(1)
Monitors and devices in MRI
348(2)
Site planning
350(1)
Questions
351(1)
Contrast agents in MRI
352(20)
Introduction
352(1)
Review of weighting
353(1)
Mechanism of action
354(1)
Dipole-dipole interactions
355(1)
Magnetic susceptibility
356(2)
Relaxivity
358(1)
Gadolinium safety
359(2)
Iron oxide safety
361(1)
Current applications of contrast agents
362(9)
Conclusion
371(1)
Questions
371(1)
Functional imaging techniques
372(17)
Introduction
372(1)
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)
373(4)
Perfusion imaging
377(3)
Functional imaging (fMRI)
380(2)
Interventional MRI
382(1)
MR spectroscopy (MRS)
383(3)
Whole body imaging
386(1)
MR microscopy (MRM)
387(1)
Questions
388(1)
Answers to questions 389(4)
Glossary 393(10)
Index 403


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