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Multicultural Psychology: Understanding our Diverse Communities, Fourth Edition, combines quantitative and qualitative research with anecdotal material to examine multicultural issues and capture the richness of diverse cultures. The text is organized by topics in multicultural psychology rather than by ethnic groups, smoothly integrating important findings across ethnic groups as relevant. The text uses first-person narrative accounts from people of all ages and cultures in order to illustrate compelling topics such as communication, racial and cultural identity, development, racism, differences in worldviews, and immigration. Other issues covered in the text include gender, sexuality, age, and ability.
Jeffery S. Mio is Professor in the Psychology and Sociology Department at California State Polytechnic University Pomona.
Lori A. Barker is Professor in the Psychology and Sociology Department at California State Polytechnic University Pomona.
Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez is Professor of Psychology at Utah State University.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 What Is Multicultural Psychology? What is Multicultural Psychology? Narrow and Broad Definitions of Culture Culture and Worldview What Is Race? Multicultural Psychology versus Cross-Cultural Psychology Multiculturalism as a Philosophy Why Do We Need the Field of Multicultural Psychology? Multiculturalism as the Fourth Force Understanding the Cultural Context of Behavior: The Biopsychosocial Model The Basic Tenets of Multicultural Theory Historical Background Dubious Beginnings We Begin to Define Ourselves Gender Differences Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues The Rise of Multiculturalism Summary
Chapter 2 Multicultural Issues Involving Research and Testing Research Methods in Psychology The General Research Model The White Standard Internal versus External Validity Quantitative versus Qualitative Research Quantitative Approaches Qualitative Approaches Equivalence of Measures Qualitative Approaches and Gender Qualitative Approaches and Older Populations Experimental Designs Psychological Testing Intelligence Testing Intelligence, Context, and Older Adults Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence Personality and Diagnostic Testing Summary
Chapter 3 Cultural Differences in Worldviews Different Perspectives for Looking at Cultures Imposing a Worldview Understanding Differences from Within Male and Female Perspectives Well-Meaning Clashes Individualism versus Collectivism The Individual and Society Guilt versus Shame Face Giving and Social Support Value Orientation and Worldviews Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientation Model Derald Wing Sue's Worldview Model Ethnic Minority Worldview Worldview of Women Worldview of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals Summary
Chapter 4 Cultural Differences in Communication Conversational Rules Nonverbal Aspects of Language Proxemics Kinesics Paralanguage High- versus Low-Context Communication Direct versus Indirect Communication Ethnic Minority Patterns of Communication African Americans Latinos/as American Indians Communication Patterns of the Elderly Gender Differences in Communication Bilingual Communication Cognitive Consequences of Bilingualism Social Consequences of Bilingualism Summary
Chapter 5 Immigrants, Refugees, and the Acculturation Process Immigrants and Refugees Immigrants Refugees Common Experiences of Immigrants and Refugees Language Barriers Support Networks Family Hierarchies New Family Roles Employment Education Acculturation "Old" and "New" Immigrants Models of Acculturation Acculturation of Immigrants Acculturation of Ethnic Minority Populations The Migration Process Ecological Context and Fit Summary
Chapter 6 Stereotyping, Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism Categorizations of Race and Ethnicity Stereotype Threat The Development of Negative Stereotypes Racism Overt versus Covert Racism The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Case of Covert, Unintentional Racism? Aversive Racism Colorblind Ideology Internalized Oppression Racial Microaggressions Microaggressions Broadly Defined White Privilege Summary
Chapter 7 Cultural Identity Development A Model of Personal Identity Racial Identity Development African American Identity Development White Identity Development Chicano/Latino Identity Development Asian American/Pilipino American Identity Development Multiracial Identity Development Gay/Lesbian Identity Development Racial and Cultural Identity Development Model Other Identities A Critique of the Stage Models Multiple Layering of Identities Summary
Chapter 8 Culture and Health Health and Health Behaviors Health Disparities Defined Causes of Health Disparities Racism Poverty Structural Barriers Access to the Health Care System Differential Treatment Mistrust of the Health Care System Why Should We Care? Bringing about Change Sickle Cell Anemia: A Case Study Summary
Chapter 9 Culture and Mental Health Culture and Diagnosis The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: A Classification System Culture and the Expression of Symptoms Cultural Group Differences and Mental Health The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Project (ECA) The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES) Ethnic/Racial Groups Not Well Represented in the Large Epidemiological Studies Critique of the Epidemiologic Studies Conclusions from Existing Data Gender Differences Culture-Bound Syndromes Eating Disorders: An American Culture-Bound Syndrome? Culture and the Treatment of Mental Disorders Underutilization of Mental Health Services Barriers to Treatment Culture-Bound Values as Barriers Class-Bound Values as Barriers Language Variables as a Barrier Experience with Racism Culturally Sensitive Therapeutic Approaches The Training of Mental Health Professionals: Multicultural Competence Cultural Matching Culture-Specific Therapies Example of a Culture-Specific Approach: African-Centered Psychology Treatment Issues and Strategies for Sexual Minorities Summary
Chapter 10 Where Do We Go From Here? Building Multicultural Competence How to Increase Your Multicultural Competence: The Multicultural Competencies Awareness of Your Own Cultural Attitudes The Four F Reactions: Freeze, Flee, Flight, and Fright The Five D's of Difference Distancing Denial Defensiveness Devaluing Discovery The Three S's of Similarity Simple Safe Sane Examining Your Biases, Prejudices, and Stereotypes Learning about Your Own Culture Understanding Other Worldviews Learning Key Historical Events Becoming Aware of Sociopolitical Issues Knowing Basic Values and Beliefs Understanding Cultural Practices Knowing the Dynamics of Racism, Discrimination, and Stereotyping Development of Culturally Appropriate Interpersonal Skills Education and Training Experience and Practice Saying "I Don't Know" and Asking Questions Travel Speaking Up for Others: Being an Ally Speaking Up for Oneself Comfort with Difficult Dialogues Developing Empathy A Change in World View