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A Multilevel Approach to the Study of Motor Control and Learning

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780024036216

ISBN10:
0024036218
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/1/1996
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 11/1/1996.
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Summary

Finally, an up-to-date textbook that provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles of motor control and motor learning in one text. The author integrates knowledge from the fields of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to provide students with a more complete understanding of the multilevel processes that contribute to the acquisition and control of movement skills. Each section of the book introduces the most important theoretical models in each particular area, followed by theoretical principles and then illustrated with practical examples drawn from movement, skill, and clinical settings. The breadth of the practical applications will appeal to students preparing to enter a variety of professions that require a strong knowledge of motor control and learning principles. The strong contemporary and multilevel review of the literature in both motor control and learning will provide the student with the most comprehensive and user-friendly introduction to two highly integrated areas of study in movement science today.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
SECTION ONE Motor Control
The Nature of Motor Control
2(26)
Defining Motor Control
4(2)
Theories of Motor Control
6(8)
Reflex Theories
6(3)
Hierarchical Theories
9(1)
Highlight Closed-versus Open-Loop Control of Movement
10(3)
Dynamic Systems Theories
13(1)
Characteristics of Human Action
14(6)
Flexibility
15(1)
Uniqueness
16(1)
Consistency and Modifiability
17(3)
Coordination Versus Control of Action
20(5)
Muscle Response Synergies
21(1)
Highlight The ``Degree of Freedom'' Problem
22(2)
Mechanical Properties of Limbs
24(1)
Summary
25(1)
Important Terminology
25(1)
Suggested Further Reading
26(1)
Test Your Understanding
26(1)
About The Quote
27(1)
Scientific Measurement and Motor Control
28(24)
Psychological Measures
29(16)
Response Outcome Measures
30(5)
Highlight Using Chronometry to Measure the Effects of Movement Disorders
35(2)
Response Process Measures
37(8)
Neurological Measures
45(3)
Surface Recordings---Evoked Potentials
46(1)
Intracellular Recordings
46(1)
Lesions and Ablations
46(1)
Brain Scanning Techniques
47(1)
Summary
48(1)
Important Terminology
49(1)
Suggested Further Reading
50(1)
Test Your Understanding
50(1)
About The Quote
51(1)
Developing and Executing a Plan of Action
52(32)
Planning the Action
54(3)
Making the Decision to Act
54(1)
Developing a General Plan
55(1)
Adding Details to the Plan
56(1)
Executing the Plan of Action
56(1)
The Neuromotor Level of Analysis
57(7)
The Limbic System
58(1)
The Association Cortex
59(1)
The Projection System
59(3)
Motor Pathways
62(2)
The Spinal System
64(1)
Moment-To-Moment Control
64(13)
Types of Motoneurons
65(2)
Muscle Activation and Force Production
67(1)
Highlight Central Pattern Generators: Are They Fact or Fiction?
68(3)
Musculoskeletal Contributions to Force
71(1)
Subconscious Control of Movement
72(4)
Solving the Motor Problem
76(1)
Action Planning For Stable And Variable Environments
77(1)
Disorders Of The Motor System That Affect Motor Control
78(2)
Basal Ganglia Disorders
79(1)
Cerebellar Disorders
79(1)
Disorders of Descending Pathways
80(1)
Summary
80(1)
Important Terminology
81(1)
Suggested Further Reading
82(1)
Test Your Understanding
82(1)
About the Quote
83(1)
Sensory Contributions to Action
84(33)
General Properties of Sensory Receptors and Afferent Pathways
86(3)
Adequate Stimulation
86(1)
Intensity Coding
87(1)
Sensory Adaptation
88(1)
The Transmission and Integration of Sensory Input
89(1)
Somatosensation
90(9)
Cutaneous Receptors
91(1)
Proprioceptors
91(1)
Highlight The ``Length-Detecting'' Muscle Spindle
92(7)
Transmission of Somatosensory Input
99(2)
Dorsal Column System (DC)
99(2)
Spinothalamic Tract System (ST)
101(1)
Disorders of the Somatosensory System
101(2)
Application of Theory
103(1)
The Conscious Sensation of Movement
104(4)
Afferent Sources of Kinesthesis
105(3)
Practical Applications
108(2)
The Role of Feedback in Controlling Actions
110(2)
Knowledge of Body Position
110(1)
Planning and Modification of Action Plans
111(1)
Learning or Relearning of Movements
112(1)
Errors in Performance
112(1)
Summary
113(1)
Important Terminology
114(1)
Suggested Further Reading
115(1)
Test Your Understanding
115(1)
About the Quote
116(1)
Vision and Action
117(24)
Neuromotor Processing of Vision
119(3)
Reception of Visual Input
119(1)
Transmission to the Brain
120(1)
Topographic Organization in the Visual System
121(1)
Two Visual Systems?
122(2)
Two Visual Systems and Motor Control
123(1)
Psychological Studies of Perception and Action
124(3)
Contrasting Theories of Visual Perception
124(3)
Visual Guidance of Action
127(9)
Posture and Locomotion
127(4)
Anticipation Timing
131(1)
Time-to-Contact Information
132(2)
Highlight Grasping Tau
134(1)
Visual Dominance
135(1)
Disorders of the Visual System
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
Important Terminology
138(1)
Suggested Further Reading
139(1)
Test Your Understanding
139(1)
About the Quote
140(1)
SECTION TWO Motor Learning
The Nature of Motor Learning
141(28)
Defining Motor Learning
143(2)
Learning Leads to Relatively Permanent Changes
144(1)
Learning Must be Inferred
144(1)
Learning Is Promoted through Practice and Experience
144(1)
Theories of Motor Learning
145(5)
Adams's Closed Loop Theory
146(1)
Schema Theory
146(2)
Ecological Theories of Perception and Action
148(2)
Stages of Motor Learning
150(7)
Fitts's Three Stages of Learning
150(2)
A Neo-Bernsteinian Perspective
152(1)
Gentile's Two Stage Model
153(4)
The Generalizability of Learning
157(3)
Highlight Generalizability of Learning: How Early Does It Begin?
158(1)
Understanding the Relationship between Learning and Transfer
159(1)
Theoretical Views of Transfer
160(3)
Identical Elements Theory
160(1)
Transfer-Appropriate Processing
161(2)
Application of Theory
163(2)
Make Practice Difficult
163(1)
Vary the Type of Practice
163(1)
Reduce the Frequency of Feedback
164(1)
Summary
165(1)
Important Terminology
166(1)
Suggested Further Reading
167(1)
Test Your Understanding
167(1)
About the Quote
168(1)
Scientific Measurement and Motor Learning
169(20)
Measurement and Motor Learning
171(4)
Performance Curves
171(2)
Retention Tests
173(1)
Transfer Tests
174(1)
Measuring Learning-Related Changes in Perception and Cognition
175(9)
Expert-Novice Comparisons
176(1)
Visual Occlusion Techniques
177(1)
Eye Movement Recordings
178(1)
Memory Recall Tests
179(1)
Highlight Do Experts, See Things Differently in a Field of Play?
180(2)
Highlight The Classification of Motor Skills
182(1)
Development of a Knowledge Base
183(1)
Measuring Learning-Related Changes in the Dynamics of Action
184(1)
Measures of Metabolic and Mechanical Efficiency
185(1)
Identifying the Learning-Related Changes in Performance
185(1)
Summary
186(1)
Important Terminology
187(1)
Suggested Further Reading
187(1)
Test Your Understanding
188(1)
About the Quote
188(1)
Memory and Learning
189(25)
Contemporary Models of Memory
191(3)
Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multistore Model
191(1)
Levels-of-Processing Framework
192(2)
Neurobiology of Memory
194(2)
The Limbic Connection
195(1)
Dual-Systems Theory of Memory
196(1)
Types of Memory
196(3)
Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
196(1)
Declarative and Procedural Memory
197(1)
The Relationship between Learning and Memory
198(1)
Factors That Influence Memory Skill
199(4)
Characteristics of the Movement Skill
199(1)
Highlight The Skill of Resuscitation
200(1)
The Initial Learning Environment
201(1)
The Learner
202(1)
Application of Theory
203(6)
Increasing the Amount of Original Learning
203(1)
Highlight The Structure of Skilled Memory
204(2)
Fostering Understanding of the Task to Be Learned
206(1)
Mnemonics (Memory Aids)
206(1)
Contextual Interference during Practice
207(1)
Spacing of Practice
207(1)
Similarity Between Practice and Performance
208(1)
Disorders of Memory
209(2)
Summary
211(1)
Important Terminology
211(1)
Suggested Further Reading
212(1)
Test Your Understanding
212(1)
About the Quote
213(1)
Setting the Stage for Learning
214(22)
Introducing the Skill to be Learned
216(10)
Variables That Influence the Effectiveness of Modeling
216(9)
Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Model
225(1)
Theoretical Explanations of the Modeling Effect
226(2)
Social Learning Theory
227(1)
Direct Perception Approach
227(1)
Discovery Learning
228(4)
Applying the Principles of Discovery Learning
230(2)
Summary
232(1)
Important Terminology
233(1)
Suggested Further Reading
234(1)
Test Your Understanding
234(1)
About the Quote
235(1)
Organizing the Practice Environment
236(27)
Structuring the Practice Session
238(2)
Variability of Practice
238(2)
Organizing the Practice Schedule
240(7)
Introducing Interference
241(1)
Influencing Factors
242(5)
Theoretical Accounts of the Contextual Interference Effect
247(1)
Elaboration View
247(1)
Action-Plan Reconstruction View
248(1)
Spacing/Distribution of Practice
248(4)
Practical Implications
250(2)
Techniques for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Practice
252(7)
Guidance Techniques
252(3)
Whole-Task vs. Part-Task Strategies
255(1)
Part-Task Practice Methods
256(2)
Attentional Cueing and Whole Practice
258(1)
Summary
259(1)
Important Terminology
260(1)
Suggested Further Reading
261(1)
Test Your Understanding
261(1)
About the Quote
262(1)
Augmented Feedback and Learning
263(28)
Form of the Feedback
266(6)
Kinematic and Kinetic Visual Displays
266(1)
Videotape Feedback
267(3)
Augmented Sensory Feedback: Biofeedback
270(2)
Precision of Augmented Feedback
272(2)
Frequency of Augmented Feedback
274(8)
Fading-Frequency Schedules of KR
275(1)
Bandwidth KR
275(2)
Reversed Bandwidth KR
277(1)
Summary KR
278(1)
Average Knowledge of Results
279(1)
Highlight Applying Motor Learning Principles to Clinical Settings
280(2)
Theoretical Explanations of the Frequency Effect
282(1)
Guidance Hypothesis
282(1)
Consistency Hypothesis
283(1)
The Timing of Knowledge of Results
283(3)
Augmented Feedback and Motivation
286(1)
Summary
286(2)
Important Terminology
288(1)
Suggested Further Reading
289(1)
Test Your Understanding
289(1)
About the Quote
290(1)
References 291(24)
Credits 315(2)
Author Index 317
Subject Index xxx


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