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A Multilevel Approach to the Study of Motor Control and Learning,9780805360318
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A Multilevel Approach to the Study of Motor Control and Learning

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780805360318

ISBN10:
080536031X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/3/2005
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $146.80

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    A Multilevel Approach to the Study of Motor Control and Learning




Summary

This up-to-date book provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles of motor control and motor learning. The authors integrate knowledge from the fields of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to provide readers with a more complete understanding of the multilevel processes that contribute to the acquisition and control of movement skills. Each section of the book introduces the most important theoretical models in each particular area, followed by theoretical principles and illustrations with practical examples drawn from movement, skill, and clinical settings. The breadth of the practical applications will appeal to readers preparing to enter professions that require a strong knowledge of motor control and learning principles.Movement, skill, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, transfer of motor learning, contemporary motor control theories, measurement techniques, application of theory, real-life aspects of motor control and learning.For all readers interested in issues relating to motor learning and control.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
SECTION ONE: MOTOR CONTROL
Introduction to Motor Control
1(30)
Defining Motor Control
2(2)
Open- and Closed-Loop Motor Control
4(3)
Open-Loop Motor Control
4(2)
Use of Open- versus Closed-Loop Motor Control
6(1)
Theories of Motor Control
7(14)
Reflex Theories
7(2)
Hierarchical Theories
9(5)
Dynamical and Ecological Approaches
14(5)
Does One Theoretical Approach Better Explain How Movements Are Controlled?
19(2)
Characteristics of Human Action
21(8)
Flexibility
21(1)
Uniqueness
22(1)
Consistency and Modifiability
23(1)
Does One Theory of Motor Control Better Explain the Characteristics of Skilled Actions?
23(3)
The Degrees-of-Freedom Problem
26(3)
Summary
29(1)
Important Terminology
29(1)
Suggested Further Reading
30(1)
Test Your Understanding
30(1)
Scientific Measurement and Motor Control
31(28)
Psychological Measures
32(19)
Response Outcome Measures
32(9)
Response Process Measures
41(10)
Neurological Measures
51(4)
Intracellular Recordings
52(1)
Lesions and Ablations
52(1)
Brain Mapping and Scanning Techniques
53(2)
Summary
55(1)
Important Terminology
56(1)
Suggested Further Reading
57(1)
Test Your Understanding
57(1)
Practical Activities
58(1)
Somatosensory Contributions to Action
59(34)
General Properties of Sensory Receptors and Affernet Pathways
60(3)
Adequate Stimulation
60(1)
Intensity Coding
61(1)
Sensory Adaptation
61(2)
The Transmission and Integration of Sensory Input
63(2)
Somatosensation
65(7)
Cutaneous Receptors
66(1)
Proprioceptors
67(5)
Transmission of Somatosensory Input
72(5)
Dorsal Column System
72(2)
Spinocerebellar Tract
74(1)
Anterolateral System
74(2)
Somatosensory Cortex
76(1)
Disorders of the Somatosensory System
77(2)
Application of Theory
79(1)
The Conscious Sensation of Movement
80(3)
Afferent Sources of Kinesthesis
80(3)
The Conscious Sensation of Muscular Effort
83(1)
Practical Applications
84(2)
The Role of Feedback in Controlling Actions
86(2)
Knowledge of Body Position
86(1)
Planning and Modification of Action Plans
86(1)
Learning or Relearning Movements
87(1)
Errors in Performance
88(1)
Summary
88(1)
Important Terminology
89(1)
Suggested Further Reading
90(1)
Test Your Understanding
90(1)
Practical Activities
91(2)
Visual and Vestibular System Contributions to Action
93(34)
Neuromotor Processing of Vision
94(5)
Reception of Visual Input
94(2)
Transmission to the Brain
96(1)
Topographic Organization in the Visual System
97(1)
The Control of Eye Movements
97(2)
Two Visual Systems?
99(1)
Two Visual Systems and Motor Control
99(1)
Psychological Studies of Perception and Action
100(3)
Contrasting Theories of Visual Perception
100(3)
Visual Guidance of Action
103(10)
Reaching and Grasping
103(1)
Standing Balance
104(1)
Locomotion
105(2)
Jumping from Different Heights
107(1)
Catching Objects
107(1)
Hitting Objects
108(1)
Time-to-Contact Information
108(3)
Visual Dominance
111(1)
Role of Vision in Performance of Sport Skills
111(2)
Disorders of the Visual System
113(1)
Vestibular System
114(7)
Anatomy of the Vestibular System
114(2)
Peripheral Sensory Reception
116(1)
Ascending Pathways
117(1)
Descending Pathways
118(1)
Vestibular-Visual Interactions
119(1)
Adaptability of the Vestibular Ocular Reflex
119(1)
Vestibular Contributions to Equilibrium
120(1)
Disorders of the Vestibular System
121(2)
Summary
123(1)
Important Terminology
124(1)
Suggested Further Reading
125(1)
Test Your Understanding
125(1)
Practical Activities
126(1)
Developing and Executing a Plan of Action
127(39)
Planning the Action
128(2)
Making the Decision to Act
128(1)
Developing a General Plan
129(1)
Adding Details to the Plan
129(1)
Executing the Plan of Action
130(1)
The Neuromotor Level of Analysis
130(14)
The Limbic System
132(1)
The Association Cortex
133(1)
The Projection System
133(7)
Motor Pathways
140(4)
The Spinal System
144(1)
Moment-to-Moment Control
144(14)
Types of Motoneurons
145(1)
Muscle Activation and Force Production
146(4)
Musculoskeletal Contributions to Force
150(1)
Subconscious Control of Movement
151(6)
Solving the Motor Problem
157(1)
Constraints on Action
158(4)
Intrinsic Capabilities of the Performer
158(1)
Task-Related Constraints
159(2)
Environmental Constraints
161(1)
Summary
162(1)
Important Terminology
163(1)
Suggested Further Reading
163(1)
Test Your Understanding
163(1)
Practical Activities
164(2)
SECTION TWO: MOTOR LEARNING
Introduction to Motor Learning
166(28)
Defining Motor Learning
167(4)
Motor Learning Is Inferred from Performance
168(1)
Performance Is Not a Perfect Index of Motor Learning
168(1)
Motor Learning Produces Reliable Performance Changes
169(1)
Motor Learning May Not Lead to Performance Improvement
170(1)
Motor Learning and Instruction, Practice, and/or Experience
171(1)
Theories of Motor Learning
171(7)
Adams' Closed-Loop Theory
172(1)
Schmidt's Schema Theory
172(3)
Ecological Theories of Perception and Action
175(1)
How Does Motor Learning Really Occur?
176(2)
Stages of Motor Learning
178(6)
Fitts' Three Stages of Learning
178(1)
A Neo-Bernsteinian Perspective
179(2)
Gentile's Two-Stage Model
181(2)
Benefits of the Three Models of Motor Learning
183(1)
Readiness for Motor Learning
184(6)
Developmental Qualities
185(1)
Learning Styles
186(3)
Motivational Qualities
189(1)
Summary
190(2)
Important Terminology
192(1)
Suggested Further Reading
192(1)
Test Your Understanding
193(1)
How Motor Learning Is Studied
194(29)
Approaches to the Study of Motor Learning
195(5)
Traditional Approach
195(2)
Method versus Problem-Oriented Approach
197(1)
Doctrine of Disproof Approach
198(1)
Cooperative Approach between Basic and Applied Research
199(1)
Assessing Motor Learning in Acquisition
200(9)
Performance Curves
200(6)
Setting a Criterion of Mastery
206(1)
Over-Learning
207(1)
Level of Automaticity
207(1)
Limitations of Assessing Motor Learning in Acquisition
208(1)
Assessing Motor Learning in Post-Acquisition
209(9)
Retention Tests
209(1)
Maintaining the Learning-Retention Distinction
210(1)
Transfer Tests
210(7)
Development of a Knowledge Base
217(1)
Measuring Learning-Related Changes in Perception and Cognition
218(1)
Expert-Novice Comparisons
212(2)
Visual Occlusion Techniques
214(1)
Eye Movement Recordings
215(1)
Pattern Recognition and Memory Recall Tests
215(2)
Development of a Knowledge Base
217(1)
Measuring Learning-Related Changes in the Dynamics of Action
218(1)
Measures of Metabolic and Mechanical Efficacy
218(1)
Identifying the Learning-Related Changes in Performance
219(1)
Summary
220(1)
Important Terminology
221(1)
Suggested Further Reading
221(1)
Test Your Understanding
221(2)
Setting the Stage for Motor Learning
223(29)
Motivating People to Learn Motor Skills
224(4)
Goal Setting
225(1)
Praise and Criticism
226(1)
Success and Failure
227(1)
Self-Esteem
227(1)
Competition and Cooperation
228(1)
Introducing and Explaining Movement Skills
228(5)
Setting the Stage for the Introduction
228(1)
Delivering the Introduction
229(1)
Delivering the Explanation
229(1)
Select the Best Words to Use in the Explanation
229(1)
Where to Direct the Learners' Focus of Attention
230(1)
Relate What Is Being Taught to the Learners' Background
231(2)
Demonstrating the Skill to Be Learned
233(11)
Variables That Influence the Effectiveness of Modeling
234(8)
Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Model
242(1)
Guidelines for Using Modeling
243(1)
Theoretical Explanations of the Modeling Effect
244(1)
Social Learning Theory
244(1)
Direct Perception Approach
245(1)
Discovery Learning
245(3)
Applying the Principles of Discovery Learning
247(1)
Summary
248(1)
Important Terminology
249(1)
Suggested Further Reading
250(1)
Test Your Understanding
250(2)
Organizing the Practice Environment
252(39)
Amount of Practice
253(3)
Level of Original Learning
254(1)
Level of Over-Learning
255(1)
Structuring the Practice Session
256(8)
Specificity of Practice
256(6)
Variability of Practice
262(2)
Organizing the Practice Schedule
264(6)
Introducing Interference
264(1)
Influencing Factors
265(5)
Theoretical Accounts of the Contextual Interference Effect
270(2)
Elaboration View
271(1)
Action-Plan Reconstruction View
271(1)
Spacing/Distribution of Practice
272(2)
Techniques for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Practice
274(4)
Guidance Techniques
274(1)
Whole-Task versus Part-Task Practice Strategies
275(2)
Part-Task Practice Methods
277(1)
Attentional Cuing and Whole Practice
277(1)
Mental Practice
278(8)
Mental Practice Conditions
279(3)
Variables Limiting Our Understanding of Mental Practice Effects
282(2)
Physiological Basis of Mental Practice
284(2)
Summary
286(2)
Important Terminology
288(1)
Suggested Further Reading
288(1)
Test Your Understanding
289(1)
Practical Activities
290(1)
Augmented Feedback and Motor Learning
291(30)
Functions of Feedback in Motor Learning
293(4)
Feedback as Information to Correct Performance Errors
293(1)
Feedback as Positive Reinforcement to Strengthen Correct Performance
294(1)
Feedback as Negative Reinforcement to Strengthen Correct Performance
295(1)
Feedback as Punishment to Suppress Errors
296(1)
Feedback as Motivation for Motor Learning
296(1)
Form of the Feedback
297(6)
Kinematic and Kinetic Visual Displays
298(1)
Videotape Feedback
299(2)
Augmented Sensory Feedback: Biofeedback
301(2)
Precision of Augmented Feedback
303(1)
Frequency of Augmented Feedback
303(10)
Fading-Frequency Schedules of Knowledge of Results
305(1)
Bandwidth Knowledge of Results
305(2)
Reversed Bandwith Knowledge of Results
307(1)
Summary Knowledge of Results
307(2)
Average Knowledge of Results
309(3)
Self-Regulated (Controlled) Augmented Feedback Schedules
312(1)
Theoretical Explanations of the Frequency Effect
313(1)
Guidance Hypothesis
313(1)
Consistency Hypothesis
313(1)
The Timing of Knowledge of Results
314(2)
Summary
316(2)
Important Terminology
318(1)
Suggested Further Reading
319(1)
Test Your Understanding
319(2)
Memory and Forgetting
321(36)
Contemporary Concepts of Memory
322(6)
Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multistore Model
323(2)
Levels-of-Processing Framework
325(1)
Neurobiology of Memory
326(2)
Types of Memory
328(1)
Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
328(1)
Declarative and Procedural Memory
328(1)
The Relationship Between Learning and Memory
329(1)
How Memory and Forgetting Are Studied
329(12)
What Retention Test Performance Tells Us
330(2)
Example of How the Retention of Motor Learning Is Studied
332(2)
Controlling for Variables That Produce Contaminating Effects
334(4)
Retention Test Measures
338(3)
Theories of Forgetting
341(4)
Trace Decay Theory
341(1)
Interference Theory
342(2)
Retrieval Theory
344(1)
Which Theory Is Correct?
345(1)
Factors That Influence Memory Skill
345(7)
Characteristics of the Movement Skill
346(4)
The Level of Original Learning
350(1)
The Learner
350(2)
Disorders of Memory
352(1)
Summary
353(1)
Important Terminology
354(1)
Suggested Further Reading
355(1)
Test Your Understanding
355(2)
Transfer of Motor Learning
357(34)
Transfer of Motor Learning Depends on Similarity
358(12)
Direction and Amount of Transfer
359(3)
Extent of Transfer
362(5)
Additional Factors Influencing Transfer
367(3)
Transfer of General Factors
370(2)
Transfer of Principles
370(1)
Learning to Learn
371(1)
Two-Factor Theory
371(1)
Types of Transfer
372(8)
Vertical Transfer
372(2)
Lateral Transfer
374(5)
Near and Far Transfer
379(1)
How Transfer Is Studied
380(6)
Experimental Design to Study Proactive Transfer
380(2)
Experimental Design to Study Retroactive Transfer
382(1)
Measuring Transfer
383(3)
Summary
386(2)
Important Terminology
388(1)
Suggested Further Reading
388(1)
Test Your Understanding
389(2)
References 391(30)
Credits 421(2)
Author Index 423(10)
Subject Index 433


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