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Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery and Therapeutics,9781118414095
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Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781118414095

ISBN10:
1118414098
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/22/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Scrivener
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Summary

This book describes a broad area of nanomedicine which involves mainly applications, diseases, and diagnostics. The comprehensive coverage provides researchers, academics, and health specialists with a great tool, that includes techniques applicable to various uses.

Author Biography

Ajay Kumar Mishra is currently working as the Director at the Centre for Nanomaterials Science and also as an associate professor at the Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, where he is a group leader of the research area for the composites/nanocomposites, water research, and bio-inorganic chemistry.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part 1: Nanomedicine 1

1 High-technology Therapy Using Biomolecules or Synthetic Compounds for HIV Inhibition 3
Elvis Fosso-Kankeu, Pascaline Fontehand Ajay K.Mishra

1.1 Gene Therapy Including RNAHigh-Technology Against HIV 4

1.1.2 Antisense Sequences Technology 4

1.1.3 Ribozymes Technology 11

1.1.4 RNAInterference Technology 13

1.2 Metals and HIV Therapy 16

1.2.2 Metals and HIV 20

1.2.3 Nanotechnology and HIV 23

1.3 Conclusions 26

References 27

2 Emerging Nanomedicine Approaches for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration 39
Author Lineis Missing

2.1 Introduction 39

2.1.1 Current Surgical Treatments 40

2.2 Emerging NanomedicineApproaches 42

2.2.1 Osteochondroconductive Scaffolds 43

2.2.2 Osteochondrogenic Precursor Cells 50

2.2.3 Osteochondroinductive Signals 51

References 54

3 Synthesis of Poly(Methacrylate) Encapsulated Magnetite Nanoparticles via Phosphonic Acid Anchoring Chemistry and Its Applications Toward Biomedicine 63
B. Kothandapaniand Ajay K. Mishra

3.1 Introduction 64

3.1.1 Magnetic Materials 65

3.1.2 Paramagnetism 66

3.1.3 Ferromagnetism 67

3.1.4 Superparamagnatism and Domain Walls 67

3.1.5 Polymer Brush 68

3.1.6 “Grafting to” Technique 69

3.1.7 “Grafting from” Technique 70

3.1.8 Immobilization of Initiators Using Various Anchoring Chemistry to Nanoparticles 71

3.2 Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles 73

3.2.1 Immobilization ofATRPInitiator onto the Surface of MNs 75

3.2.2 Grafting of Polymer Brushes Using ImmobilizedATRPInitiator 78

3.2.3 Dispersion of MNs 80

3.3 Application in Biomedical Fields 82

3.3.2 Stem-cell Labeling 82

3.3.3 Gene Delivery 83

3.3.4 Drug Delivery 83

3.3.5 Bioseparation 84

3.4 Conclusions 84

References 85

4 Potentiometric PVC Membrane Sensors and Their Analytical Applications in Pharmaceuticals and Environmental Samples at Micro- and Nano-level 87
Gamal Abel-Hafiz Mostafa

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Ion Selective Electrode 88

4.3 Glass Membrane Electrode 89

4.3.1 Solid State Electrode 89

4.3.2 Liquid Membrane Electrode 89

4.4 Characteristics of ISE 90

4.4.2 Detection Limit 91

4.4.3 Response Time 91

4.4.4 Selectivity  91

4.4.5 Sensitivity  93

4.4.6 Lifetime  94

4.4.7 Accuracy and Precision  94

4.5 Preparation of PVC Membrane 94

4.5.2 ISE Membrane Components 94

4.5.3 The Polymeric Matrix 95

4.5.4 The Ionophore (Membrane-active Recognition) 95

4.5.5 The Membrane Solvent (Plasticizer) 95

4.5.6 IonicAdditives 96

4.6 Method of Preparation of the Liquid Membrane ISEs 96

4.6.2 Preparation of ISEs liquid Membranes 97

4.7 Application of Ion Selective Electrodes in Pharmaceutical and Environmental Analysis Using 97

4.7.1 Ion-pair as Electroactive Material 97

4.7.2 Ionophore as Electroactive Material 112

4.7.3 Schiff Base as Electroactive Material 116

4.8 Conclusion 123

References 127

5 Bioceramics: Silica-based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials for Medical Applications 135
Sadanand Pandey and Shivani B. Mishra

5.1 Introduction 136

5.1.2 Definitionsof Biocompatibility 138

5.1.3 Properties ofAdvanced Bioceramics 140

5.2 Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials 141

5.3 Tissue Engineering 146

5.3.1 Strong Interactions via Covalent Linkages between 3D-Scaffolds and OsteoinductiveAgents 147

5.4 Other Organic-Inorganic Bioceramics for Medical Applications 150

5.4.1 Drug Delivery 151

5.5 Conclusion 156

5.6 Considerations and Future Directions 157

Acknowledgement 157

References 158

6 Recent Advances of Multifunctional Nanomedicines 163
Pradeep Pratap Singh and Ambika

6.1 Introduction 163

6.2 Nanomaterials of Biomedical Interest 164

6.3 Target-specificPharmacotherapy: Need for Nanocarrier Delivery Systems 165

6.4 Engineering of Pharmaceutical Nanosystems 166

6.4.1 Functional Nanosystems 166

6.4.2 Multifunctional Nanosystems 166

6.5 Applications of Pharmaceutical Nanotools 180

6.6 Nanotoxicity 181

6.7 Future prospects 182

6.8 Conclusion 183

References 184

7 Nanomedicinal Approaches for Diabetes Management 189
Prashant Kumar Raiand Ajay Kumar Mishra

7.1 Introduction: The Motivation behind the Chapter 189

7.2 Type of Diabetes 191

7.2.2 Type 2 or Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) 191

7.2.3 Type 3 Diabetes 191

7.3 Treatments for Diabetes 192

7.4 Why the Interest in Nanomedicine Research? 193

7.5 The Vision of Nanotechnology and its Clinical Applications for Diabetes 194

7.6 Summary 195

Acknowledgements 195

References 195

8 Polymeric Nanofibersin Regenerative Medicine 197
Narayan Chandra Mishra and Sharmistha Mitra (Majumder)

8.1 Introduction 197

8.2 Preparation of Nanofibers 199

8.3 RecentAdvances onApplication of Polymeric Nanofibersin Regenerative Medicine 201

8.3.2 Bone 204

8.3.3 Skin 206

8.3.4 Heart/Cardiac Grafts 208

8.3.5 Liver 210

8.3.6 Teeth 211

8.3.7 Ligament 212

8.3.8 Tendon 213

8.3.9 Cornea 214

8.3.10 Bladder 215

8.3.11 Blood vessel 215

8.3.12 Skeletal Muscle 218

8.3.13 Nerve 219

8.3.14 Esophagus 221

8.3.15 Adipose Tissue 221

8.3.16 Salivary Gland 221

8.4 Conclusions 222

References 222

Part 2: Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 227

9 Multifunctional Nano/Micro Polymer Capsules as Potential 229
Haider Sami, J. Jaishree, Ashok Kumar and Sri Sivakumar

9.1 Introduction 230

9.2 Synthesis of Polymer Capsules 232

9.2.1 Templated Synthesis 232

9.2.2 Templated Synthesis 233

9.3 Properties of Multilayered Polymer Capsules 237

9.4 Loading of Therapeutics 239

9.5 Stimuli-responsive Polymer Capsules 242

9.5.1 pH Responsive Polymer Capsules 243

9.5.2 Glucose Responsive Polymer Capsules 246

9.5.3 Redox responsive Polymer Capsules 248

9.5.4 Salt Responsive Polymer Capsules 249

9.5.5 Enzyme Responsive Polymer Capsules 249

9.5.6 Thermoresponsive Polymer Capsules 252

9.5.7 Ultrasound Responsive Polymer Capsules 253

9.5.8 Dual-responsive Polymer Capsules 254

9.6 Multifunctional Hybrid Capsules 255

9.6.1 Nanoparticles-modifiedCapsules 257

9.6.2 Capsosomes 266

9.7 Targeted Polymer Capsules 267

9.7.1 SpecificCell Targeting by Biomolecules 267

9.7.2 Magnetic Targeting 267

9.8 BiomedicalApplications 268

9.8.1 Drug Delivery 270

9.8.2 Bioimaging 271

9.8.3 Biosensing 272

9.9 Outlook and Future Prospects 274

References 274

10 Nanophosphors-Nanogold Immunoconjugates in Isolation of Biomembranes and in Drug Delivery 285
Dwijendra Gupta, Dhruv Kumar, Manish Dwivedi, Vijay Tripathi, Pratibha Phadke-Gupta and Surya Pratap Singh

10.1 Introduction 286

10.2 Nanoparticle Technology 287

10.3 The Versatility of Nanoparticles in Biological Sciences 288

10.3.1 The Biologic Problems – Why should We Study Them? 288

10.3.2 Lysosomal Storage Disorders 289

10.4 Materials and Methods 293

10.4.1 PreparationofNanogoldParticles(5–12nm) andNanogoldImmunoconjugates 293

10.4.2 Generating IgYs (against known cDNAs) in Layer Hens 293

10.4.3 Recombinant Constructs with DKFZp564K2464 (also known as Human Transmembrane protein TMEM22 (accession UGID: 692851) 294

10.4.4 Expression of Fusion Protein GFP-DKFZp564K2464 295

10.4.5 Metabolic Labeling Experiments 295

10.5 Nanotags for Bio-labeling and Targeting: Nanophosphors or Quantum Dots 297

10.5.1 Preparation of Nanophosphors 297

10.6 AFM Study of CdS and BSATagged ZnS-Mn Nanoparticles 302

10.6.2 AFM Imaging 302

10.6.3 AFM ImageAnalysis 304

10.7 Nano-Conjugates in Drug Delivery 304

10.8 Nanoparticle-mediated Drug Delivery and Nanotherapeutics 305

10.9 The Limitations of QDs 306

10.10 Summary 307

Acknowledgements 308

References 309

11 Cyclodextrin-based Nanoengineered Drug Delivery System 313
Jaya Lakkakula and Rui Werner Maçedo Krause

11.1 Introduction 314

11.2 Inclusion Complex Formation 316

11.3 Phase Solubility Relationships 318

11.4 Effect of Cyclodextrin on Drug Formulation 321

11.4.2 Effect on DrugAbsorption and Bioavailability 322

11.4.3 Effect on Drug Stability 323

11.5 Cyclodextrin-based Drug Delivery 324

11.5.1 Oral drug Delivery 326

11.5.2 Nasal Drug Delivery 328

11.5.3 Transdermal Drug Delivery 329

11.5.4 Ophthalmic Drug Delivery 330

11.6 Cyclodextrins in Novel Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) 331

11.6.1 Cyclodextrin in Nanoparticles 331

11.6.2 Liposomes 332

11.6.3 Microspheres 333

11.6.4 Hydrogels 334

11.7 Conclusion 335

Acknowledgements 335

References 338

12 Medicinal Patches and Drug Nanoencapsulation 343
María H. Lissarrague, Hernan Garate, Melisa E. Lamanna, Norma B. D’Accorso and Silvia N.Goyanes

12.1 Introduction 343

12.2 Overview of Passive Skin Permeation (Passive Patches) 344

12.2.1 Human Skin 345

12.2.2 Transdermal Passive Patches 347

12.3 Recent Development on Skin Permeation 357

12.3.1 Passive Permeation Enhancement 358

12.3.2 TransdermalActive Patches 359

12.4 Drug Encapsulation 361

12.4.1 Production of Polymer-based Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery 362

12.4.2 Production of Natural Organic and Protein-based Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery 365

12.4.3 Production of Nanoparticles from Natural Macromolecules: Chitosan Nanoparticles 366

12.4.4 Drug Loading 367

12.5 Triggered Release 369

12.5.1 External Stimuli 370

12.5.2 Transdermal Delivery 373

12.6 Conclusions 374

References 374

13 Dendrimers: AClass of Polymer in the Nanotechnology for the Drug Delivery 379
Sunil K.Singh and Vivek K. Sharma

13.1 Introduction 379

13.2 Historical Origin of Dendrimers 380

13.3 Structure of Dendrimers 381

13.4 Terms Used in Dendrimer Chemistry 383

13.5 Types of Dendrimers 385

13.5.1 Chiral Dendrimers 385

13.5.2 Liquid Crystalline Dendrimers 385

13.5.3 Tecto Dendrimers 386

13.5.4 PAMAM Dendrimers 386

13.5.5 PPI Dendrimers 387

13.5.6 Hybrid Dendrimers 389

13.5.7 Peptide Dendrimers 390

13.5.8 Glycodendrimers 390

13.6 Application of Dendrimers 392

13.6.1 Dendrimers as a Carrier for Drug Delivery  392

13.7 Dendrimers in Oral Drug Delivery 394

13.8 Dendrimers in Transdermal Drug Delivery 396

13.9 Dendrimers in Ocular Drug Delivery 398

13.10 Dendrimers inAnticancer Drug Delivery 399

13.11 Dendrimers in Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment 401

13.11.1 Diagnosis 401

13.11.2 Targeting 403

13.11.3 Treatment 404

13.11.4 Photodynamic Therapy 406

13.11.5 Photothermal Therapy 408

13.11.6 Gene Transfection 408

13.11.7 BoronNeutronCaptureTheraphy(BNCT) 410

13.12 Conclusion 411

References 411

14 Designing Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery 417
Munishwar N. Gupta and Joyeeta Mukherjee

14.1 Introduction 417

14.2 Sizes, Shapes andAdvantages of Nanomaterials 418

14.3 Bioconjugation Strategies 421

14.3.1 Modifying with Polymers 427

14.4 Carbon Nanotubes 429

14.4.1 Noncovalent Functionalization 430

14.4.2 Covalent Functionalization 432

14.5 Drug Targeting 434

14.6 Future Perspectives 436

Acknowledgements 437

References 437

15 Multifunctional Polymeric Micelles for Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 443
Alicia Sawdon and Ching-An Peng

15.1 Introduction 443

15.2 Composition, Formation and Characterization of Polymeric Micelles 444

15.2.1 Polymeric Micelle Formation 445

15.2.2 Preparation of Polymeric Micelles 448

15.2.3 FactorsAffecting Drug Loading and Drug Release from Polymeric Micelles 449

15.3 Polymeric Micelles for Cancer Chemotherapy 450

15.3.1 Biological Significance 450

15.3.2 Passive Targeting 452

15.3.3 Polymeric Micelles in Clinical Trials 452

15.4 Targeting Schemes 457

15.4.1 Active Targeting 458

15.4.2 Angiogenesis-associated Targeting 459

15.4.3 Uncontrolled Cell Proliferation Targeting 460

15.4.4 Stimuli-Sensitivity 463

15.5 Polymeric Micelles for Diagnostics and Imaging 465

15.5.1 Diagnostics 465

15.5.2 Imaging 466

15.6 Conclusions 467

References 467

16 Nanoparticles-based Carriers for Gene Therapy and Drug Delivery 477
Marketa Ryvolova, Jana Drbohlavova, Kristyna Smerkova, Jana Chomoucka, Pavlina Sobrova,Vojtech Adam, PavelKopel, Jaromir Hubalek and Rene Kizek

16.1 Introduction 478

16.2 Targeted Delivery 478

16.2.1 Gene Delivery 479

16.2.2 Drug Delivery 482

16.3 Conclusion 494

References 494



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