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Nations and Governments: Comparative Politics in Regional Perspective

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780312260422

ISBN10:
0312260423
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $81.00

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This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 8/1/2001.
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Summary

Organized around the 6 major regions of the world--Western Europe, Russia and Slavic Europe, Asia, Latin America, The Middle East, and Sub-Saharan Africa--NATIONS AND GOVERNMENTS reveals patterns of interregional as well as international politics.

Table of Contents

Preface v
Features and Maps xxv
About the Author xxvii
Part I Introduction
Comparative Politics and the Regional Perspective
3(34)
Why Compare?
3(2)
The Logic of Comparative Politics
5(2)
The Scientific Method
6(1)
Inductive versus Deductive Reasoning
7(1)
Politics in Regional Perspective
7(21)
Globalization and the Regional Approach
9(1)
Regional Influences on Politics
10(2)
Climate, Geography, and Natural Resources
12(6)
Language, Culture, Religion, and History
18(6)
Economic Disparities
24(4)
A Conceptual Framework: Three Questions
28(6)
Political Setting: How Do Unique Factors Such as Environment, Culture, and History Influence Politics in Different Countries and Regions?
29(1)
Patterns of Rule: How and Why Do Political Institutions, Patterns, and Trends Vary from One Region of the World to Another and What Are the Forces That Drive Change?
30(2)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects: How Effectively Do the Political Systems under Examination Actually Perform the Functions of Governance?
32(2)
Summary
34(1)
Key Terms
34(1)
Study Questions
34(1)
Suggested Reading
35(1)
Notes
35(2)
Models, Regimes, and Regions
37(38)
The Idea of the State
37(1)
Democracy or Dictatorship: Procrustean Models
38(1)
Constitutional Democracy: Presidential versus Parliamentary
39(6)
Presidential Democracy: The American Model
40(4)
Parliamentary Democracy: The British Model
44(1)
Authoritarian Systems
45(4)
Personal Dictatorships
45(1)
Military Regimes
46(2)
Dynastic Regimes
48(1)
Totalitarian and Post-Totalitarian Regimes
49(2)
Economic Models and Political Systems
51(4)
Market Economies
51(2)
Command Economies
53(1)
Welfare-State Systems
54(1)
Politics and Development
55(1)
The Idea of Progress
55(3)
What Is Development?
56(1)
Development and World Politics
56(1)
How Many Worlds?
57(1)
The Study of Development
58(4)
The Perspective of Political Science
58(1)
Normative versus Scientific Approaches
59(1)
The Perspective of Political Economy
60(1)
Dependency Theory: Underdevelopment as Capitalist Conspiracy
61(1)
Political Stability: A Development Key
62(2)
Closing the Circle: Development and Regime Type
64(1)
Nations and Regions: The New European Model
65(1)
Development through Integration?
65(1)
A Travel Advisory
66(1)
Summary
66(1)
Key Terms
67(1)
Study Questions
68(1)
Suggested Reading
68(2)
Notes
70(5)
Part II Western Europe
Political Setting: The Western Political Heritage
75(37)
Regional Overview
75(1)
Environmental Influences
76(3)
The European Nursery
77(1)
Nature's Benevolence
77(2)
Historical and Cultural Factors
79(5)
Religion: Renaissance and Reformation
80(1)
Mercantilism: The Western Origins of the World Economy
80(1)
Science and Technology: A Revolution of Thought
81(1)
The Enlightenment: Form Science to Secularism
81(1)
The French Revolution
82(1)
The Industrial Revolution and Its Consequences
83(1)
The New Ideological Marketplace
84(3)
Liberalism
84(1)
Socialism
85(1)
Conservatism
85(1)
Social Class and Politics
86(1)
Imperialism and the European System
87(3)
Theories of Colonial Rule
88(1)
The Classical Balance of Power
88(2)
The Demise of the Eurocentric System
90(1)
The Totalitarian Interlude
90(2)
War and Revolution: An Ambiguous Legacy
92(1)
Case Studies: The United Kingdom, France, and Germany
93(16)
The United Kingdom
95(4)
France
99(6)
Germany
105(4)
Summary
109(1)
Key Terms
109(1)
Study Questions
110(1)
Suggested Reading
110(1)
Notes
111(1)
Institutions and Policies: The Triumph of Parliaments and Pluralism
112(67)
Western Europe's Economic Miracle
113(2)
The Problems of Postindustrial Society
115(3)
Case Studies: The United Kingdom, France, and Germany
118(47)
The United Kingdom: Mother of Parliaments
119(1)
The Unwritten Constitution
119(2)
Westminster: Where the Lower House Has the Upper Hand
121(3)
10 Downing Street: Prime Minister and Cabinet
124(1)
Whitehall: Administrative Nerve Center
125(1)
Parties and Elections
126(5)
Public Opinion and Pressure Groups
131(1)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
132(4)
In Sum...
136(1)
France: The Fifth Republic
136(1)
A Hybrid System
137(1)
Who Rules? President and Prime Minister
138(2)
French Technocracy: The Civil Service
140(1)
The Taming of the Parliament
141(1)
A Multiparty System
142(1)
From de Gaulle to Chirac: Testing the System
143(2)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
145(6)
In Sum...
151(1)
Germany: A Unified Federal Democracy
151(2)
The Basic Law
153(1)
The Chancellor
154(2)
The German Parliament
156(2)
How Laws Are Made
158(1)
Parties and Elections
158(1)
A Limited Government
159(1)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
160(5)
In Sum...
165(1)
The European Union: An Embryonic State?
165(7)
Toward One Europe
170(2)
Summary
172(1)
Key Terms
173(1)
Study Questions
174(1)
Suggested Reading
174(1)
Notes
175(4)
Part III Russia and Slavic Europe
Political Setting: The Other Europe
179(40)
The Slavic Shatter Zone
180(2)
The Influence of Geography
182(3)
Russia and Ukraine
182(1)
Power Vacuum or Empire?
183(2)
The Imprint of History
185(2)
The Decline of the Romanov Dynasty
185(1)
Russia's First Revolution
185(2)
The Bolsheviks: Vanguard of the Proletariat
187(12)
Dress Rehearsal: The February Revolution
188(1)
The October Revolution
189(1)
The Stalin Era: Totalitarianism in Full Swing
189(2)
World War II and the Soviet Phoenix
191(1)
The Cold War Roller Coaster
192(4)
Stalin's Heirs: From Krushchev to Gorbachev
196(3)
Ideology and Political Culture
199(5)
Marxism-Leninism: A Secular Religion
199(2)
Soviet Political Culture: Old Wine, New Wineskins
201(3)
Eastern Europe before 1945
204(1)
Eastern Europe under Soviet Tutelage
205(3)
Case Studies: Beyond Russia-Czechoslovakia (the Czech Republic) and Yugoslavia
208(6)
Czechoslovakia (the Czech Republic)
208(2)
Yugoslavia
210(4)
Summary
214(1)
Key Terms
215(1)
Study Questions
215(1)
Suggested Reading
216(1)
Notes
216(3)
Institutions and Policies: New Order, Old Disorders
219(60)
Transition or Regression?
220(3)
The Legacy of Soviet Communism
223(1)
The Soviet System: A Bird's-Eye (Re)View
223(24)
Soviet ``Democracy'' and Potemkin's Ghost
224(1)
Gorbachev's ``Democratization'' Campaign
225(1)
Stalin's Legacy: Dysfunctional Economies
226(3)
The Gorbachev Reforms
229(4)
Why Gorbachev Failed
233(3)
Postcommunist Russia
236(5)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
241(6)
Eastern Europe: From Stalinism to Pluralism
247(7)
Eastern Europe during the Cold War
247(1)
Moscow's Clones
248(1)
Cloned Economies, Too
249(1)
The Revolutions of 1989
250(2)
Economic Revival in East-Central Europe?
252(2)
Case Studies: Czechoslovakia (the Czech Republic) and Yugoslavia
254(16)
Czechoslovakia (the Czech Republic): Reinventing Democracy
255(1)
The Velvet Revolution
255(1)
A Cumbersome Constitution
255(1)
One Country, Three Governments?
256(1)
One Government, Two Heads?
257(2)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
259(3)
In Sum...
262(1)
Yugoslavia: Rejecting Dictatorship
263(1)
The Yugoslav Experiment
263(1)
The Failure of ``Self-Management''
263(1)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
264(5)
In Sum...
269(1)
Summary
270(1)
Key Terms
271(1)
Study Questions
271(1)
Suggested Reading
272(1)
Notes
273(6)
Part IV Asia
Political Setting: Civilizations and Empires
279(28)
Physical Environment and Population
282(2)
Environment
282(1)
Population
282(2)
Economic Development: The Three Faces of Asia
284(3)
Cultural and Historical Patterns
287(5)
Culture and Religion
287(1)
Historical Patterns
288(4)
Case Studies: China, Japan, and India
292(12)
China: The Middle Kingdom
292(3)
Japan: Land of the Rising Sun
295(3)
India: From Raja to Republic
298(6)
Summary
304(1)
Key Terms
304(1)
Study Questions
305(1)
Suggested Reading
305(1)
Notes
306(1)
Institutions and Policies: Continuity and Change
307(62)
The Impact of War and Revolution
307(3)
Patterns and Trends
310(6)
Economic Development in Asia: A Study in Contrasts
311(5)
Case Studies: China, Japan, and India
316(44)
China: The Great Leap Backward
317(1)
Mao's Great Leap Backward
318(1)
The Cultural Revolution
319(1)
The Rise of Deng Xiaoping
320(1)
Democracy Wall
320(1)
How China Is Ruled
321(3)
China's Economic Reforms
324(4)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
328(6)
In Sum...
334(1)
Japan: Land of the Setting Sun?
334(1)
The 1947 Constitution
334(1)
Basic Institutions: Western Style, Japanese Substance
335(2)
Japan's Ruling Party and Its Rivals
337(4)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
341(5)
In Sum...
346(1)
India: Democracy amid Diversity
347(1)
India's Drive for Independence
347(1)
The Indian Constitution
348(1)
Federalism: Overcoming Language Barriers
348(1)
A Centralized Federal Democracy
349(1)
The Judiciary, Civil Liberties, and Social Rights
349(2)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
351(9)
In Sum...
360(1)
Summary
360(1)
Key Terms
361(1)
Study Questions
362(1)
Suggested Reading
362(1)
Notes
363(6)
Part V Latin America
Political Setting: The Spanish Conquest and Its Aftermath
369(30)
Land, Population, and Resources
370(4)
Geogrpahy
370(1)
Population Patterns
371(3)
Natural Resources
374(1)
Historical Background
374(8)
Latin America's Original Civilizations
374(2)
The Spanish Conquest
376(4)
Coming of Age: Independence and Self-Government
380(2)
Political Culture
382(5)
The Lingering Effects of Spanish Rule
383(1)
Religious Conflict and Caudillismo
383(1)
Warlords Unlimited: The Politics of Localismo
384(1)
Damn Yankees: Good Neighbors or Bullies?
384(3)
Latin American Development and Dependency
387(2)
Case Studies: Mexico and Brazil
389(6)
Mexico
389(4)
Brazil
393(2)
Summary
395(1)
Key Terms
396(1)
Study Questions
397(1)
Suggested Reading
397(1)
Notes
398(1)
Institutions and Policies: Caudillos, Coups, and Constitutions
399(46)
The Latin Authoritarian Model
399(3)
Patterns of Military Rule
399(1)
Manipulated Elections
400(1)
Human Rights and Wrongs
400(2)
Democracy and Debt
402(2)
Troubled Transitions: Civilians Take Charge
404(3)
South America
404(2)
Central America
406(1)
Foreign Debt and Domestic Distress
407(3)
Economic Stirrings
408(1)
Losing Interest
408(2)
Reforms, Regionalism, Recession: The 1990s
410(2)
New Trade Blocs
411(1)
The Birth of NAFTA
411(1)
Asymmetric Globalizaiton?
411(1)
Case Studies: Mexico and Brazil
412(27)
Mexico: Winds of Change
413(1)
The Constitution of 1917
413(1)
The Mexican System
414(2)
Political Parties
416(2)
Elections
418(3)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
421(4)
In Sum...
425(1)
Brazil: Toward a New Order
425(1)
A Dualistic Political Tradition
425(2)
The Great Aberatura
427(1)
Brazil's Political System: Federal and Presidential
427(3)
Parties and Elections
430(1)
The Birth of a Party System
430(3)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
433(5)
In Sum...
438(1)
Summary
439(1)
Key Terms
439(1)
Study Questions
440(1)
Suggested Reading
440(1)
Notes
441(4)
Part VI The Middle East
Political Setting: Politics and Religion
445(33)
Geography, Climate, and Natural Resources
445(5)
Climate and Natural Resources
446(2)
Geostrategic Considerations
448(2)
Religion and Culture
450(5)
Judaism
450(1)
Christianity
451(1)
Islam
452(3)
The Imprint of History
455(2)
The Ottoman Intrusion
455(1)
European Colonialism
456(1)
The Challenges of Modernity
457(1)
An Arab Awakening?
458(1)
The Arab-Israeli Conflict
459(3)
A Place Called Palestine
460(1)
The Palestinian Arabs
460(2)
The Middle East Chessboard
462(2)
Case Studies: Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia
464(10)
Israel
464(5)
Egypt
469(4)
Saudi Arabia
473(1)
Summary
474(1)
Key Terms
475(1)
Study Questions
475(1)
Suggested Reading
476(1)
Notes
477(1)
Institutions and Policies: Monarchies, Dictatorships, and a Garrison State
478(43)
Modern Arab Regimes
479(5)
The Paradoxes of Arab Politics
480(1)
The Logic of Arab Politics
481(2)
The Arithmetic of Instability
483(1)
Peace and War, 1977-1982
484(2)
A Separate Peace
484(1)
...And Another War
484(2)
The Missing Peace, 1983-1993
486(4)
Full Autonomy or Empty Promises?
486(1)
The Roots of Rebellion
486(2)
A Rebellion in Bloom: The Intifada
488(2)
The Search for Peace, 1993-2000
490(2)
Case Studies: Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia
492(23)
Israel: A Garrison State
493(1)
A Parliamentary System
493(1)
Political Parties
493(2)
Recent Elections
495(1)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
496(6)
In Sum...
502(1)
Egypt: The Mask of Democracy
503(1)
Nasser's Egocentric ``Civilitary'' State
503(1)
Sadat's Soft(er) Dictatorship
503(1)
Mubarak's Egypt: A Paper Democracy
504(1)
Parties and Elections
505(1)
The Challenge of Islamic Fundamentalism
506(1)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
507(2)
In Sum...
509(1)
Saudi Arabia: All in the Family
509(1)
Absolutism and Populism
509(1)
Where Kings Reign and Princes Rule
510(1)
King Faisal's Reforms
511(1)
Games Monarchs Play
511(1)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
512(3)
In Sum...
515(1)
Summary
515(1)
Key Terms
515(1)
Study Questions
516(1)
Suggested Reading
516(1)
Notes
517(4)
Part VII Sub-Saharan Africa
Political Setting: The Legacy of Colonialism
521(27)
Land, Climate, Resources, and Population
521(2)
Ethnicity, Culture, and History
523(9)
Africa's Ethnic and Cultural Kaleidoscope
524(1)
The Language of Politics
525(1)
Religion and Politics
525(2)
Africa's Neglected Precolonial History
527(1)
The Colonial Legacy
527(1)
The Aftershocks of Independence
528(4)
African Unity: The Elusive Ideal
532(4)
The Early Conferences
532(1)
Nkrumah's Vision
533(1)
The Organization of African Unity
534(2)
Case Studies: Nigeria and South Africa
536(8)
Nigeria
536(2)
South Africa
538(6)
Summary
544(1)
Key Terms
545(1)
Study Questions
545(1)
Suggested Reading
545(1)
Notes
546(2)
Institutions and Policies: Faltering Dictatorships?
548(1)
Colonialism and Decolonization
548(1)
Divide and Rule: The Conquest of Africa
549(2)
Political Patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa
551(1)
Single-Party States
552(3)
The Authoritarian Spectrum
555(5)
Roots of Despair: The Economic Crisis
560(1)
The Decade of Decline
560(2)
The Demographics of Decline
562(2)
Reasons for Underdevelopment in Africa
564(1)
Contending Theories
565(2)
Colonialism as the Culprit
567(1)
Development and Self-Reliance
568(1)
African Socialism
568(2)
Neither Communism nor Capitalism
570(1)
Dependency Theory Revisited
571(1)
Diagnosing the Disease
571(1)
A Capital Offense
571(1)
A Market(able) Solution?
572(1)
The Search for a Synthesis
573(1)
Garden of Eden in Decay
573(1)
Too Strong for Hollywood
574(1)
Who (or What) Is To Blame?
575(1)
Conflict, Famine, and the Refugee Problem
575(2)
Case Studies: Nigeria and South Africa
577(1)
Nigeria: A Military Retreat
577(1)
Political Patterns in Nigeria
578(3)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
581(2)
In Sum...
583(1)
South Africa: After Mandela, What?
584(2)
The 1999 National Elections
586(1)
Problems, Policies, and Prospects
586(4)
In Sum...A Democratic Africa?
590(2)
Summary
592(1)
Key Terms
592(1)
Study Questions
593(1)
Suggested Reading
593(2)
Notes
595
Glossary G-1
Index I-1


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