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Natural Hazards : Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes,9780130309570
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Natural Hazards : Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes

by ;
ISBN13:

9780130309570

ISBN10:
0130309575
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $70.20
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Summary

Included free with every text, Hazard City provides meaningful, easy-to-assign, easy-to-grade, class-tested assignments. Based on the idealized town of Hazard City, the assignments put students in the role of a practicing geologist-gathering and analyzing real data, evaluating risk, making assessments and recommendations. The second edition of this widely-used CD contains a new module, Shoreline Property Assessment, and, in response to reviewer requests, there are now three sets of assessment questions for each activity. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Introduction to Natural Hazards
2(28)
Case History: Nevado del Ruiz: A Story of People, Land Use, and Volcanic Eruption
2(3)
Why Studying Natural Hazards Is Important
5(4)
Processes: Internal and External
5(1)
Hazard, Disaster, or Catastrophe
6(2)
Death and Damage Caused by Natural Hazards
8(1)
Role of History in Understanding Hazards
9(1)
Geologic Cycle
9(6)
The Tectonic Cycle
9(4)
The Rock Cycle
13(1)
The Hydrologic Cycle
14(1)
Biogeochemical Cycles
14(1)
Fundamental Concepts for Understanding Natural Processes as Hazards
15(11)
Concept 1: Hazards are predictable from scientific evaluation
16(1)
Science and Natural Hazards
16(1)
Hazards Are Natural Processes
16(2)
Prediction and Warning
18(1)
Concept 2: Risk assessment is an important component of our understanding of the effects of hazardous processes
19(1)
Concept 3: Linkages exist between natural hazards and between hazards and the physical environment
20(1)
Concept 4: Hazardous events that previously produced disasters are now producing catastrophes
20(1)
Examples of Disasters in Densely Populated Areas
20(1)
Human Population Growth
21(1)
Magnitude and Frequency of Hazardous Events
21(1)
Box 1.1 Case Study: Human Population through History
22(1)
Box 1.2 Case Study: The Magnitude-Frequency Concept
23(1)
Concept 5: Consequences of hazards can be minimized
24(1)
Reactive Response: Impact of and Recovery from Disasters
24(1)
Anticipatory Response: Avoiding and Adjusting to Hazards
25(1)
Many Hazards Provide a Natural Service Function
26(1)
Global Climate Change and Hazards
27(3)
Summary
28(1)
Key Terms
28(1)
Review Questions
28(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
29(1)
Selected Web Resources
29(1)
Earthquakes
30(38)
Case History: Earthquakes of Early 2001---Lessons Learned
30(3)
Introduction to Earthquakes
33(3)
Earthquake Magnitude
33(2)
Earthquake Intensity
35(1)
Earthquake Processes
36(6)
Process of Faulting
36(2)
Fault Activity
38(1)
Tectonic Creep
38(3)
Seismic Waves
41(1)
Earthquake Shaking
42(6)
Distance to the Epicenter
42(2)
Depth of Focus
44(1)
Direction of the Epicenter
44(1)
Local Geologic Conditions
44(4)
The Earthquake Cycle
48(1)
Geographic Regions at Risk from Earthquakes
49(3)
Plate Boundary Earthquakes
50(1)
Intraplate Earthquakes
50(2)
Effects of Earthquakes and Linkages with Other Natural Hazards
52(2)
Shaking and Ground Rupture
52(1)
Liquefaction
53(1)
Regional Changes in Land Elevation
53(1)
Landslides
53(1)
Fires
53(1)
Disease
54(1)
Natural Service Functions of Earthquakes
54(1)
Groundwater and Energy Resources
54(1)
Mineral Resources
54(1)
Landform Development
55(1)
Future Earthquake Hazard Reduction
55(1)
Human Interaction with Earthquakes
55(1)
Earthquakes Caused by Human Activity
55(1)
Minimizing the Earthquake Hazard
56(4)
The National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program
56(1)
Estimation of Seismic Risk
57(1)
Short-Term Prediction
57(1)
The Future of Earthquake Prediction
58(1)
Earthquake Warning Systems
59(1)
Box 2.1 Survivor Story: Earthquakes in Canada
60(1)
Perception of and Adjustment to the Earthquake Hazard
60(8)
Perception of the Earthquake Hazard
60(1)
Community Adjustments to the Earthquake Hazard
61(1)
Box 2.2 Professional Profile: Andrea Donnellan, Earthquake Forecaster
62(1)
Personal Adjustments: Before, During, and After an Earthquake
63(1)
Summary
64(1)
Key Terms
65(1)
Review Questions
66(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
66(1)
Selected Web Resources
67(1)
Hazard City: Assignments in Applied Geology---Earthquake Damage Assessment
67(1)
Volcanoes
68(34)
Case History: Mt. Unzen, 1991
68(1)
Introduction to Volcanoes
68(10)
Volcano Types
71(3)
Volcanic Features
74(2)
Volcano Origins
76(2)
Geographic Regions at Risk for Volcanoes
78(1)
Effects of Volcanoes
79(11)
Lava Flows
81(1)
Pyroclastic Activity
81(1)
Poisonous Gases
82(2)
Debris Flows, Mudflows, and Other Mass Movements
84(1)
Box 3.1 Case Study: Volcanic Landslides and Tsunamis
85(1)
Mount St. Helens 1980--2005: From Lateral Blasts to Lava Flows
86(4)
Linkages between Volcanoes and Other Natural Hazards
90(1)
Natural Service Functions of Volcanoes
91(1)
Volcanic Soils
91(1)
Geothermal Power
91(1)
Recreation
92(1)
Creation of New Land
92(1)
Human Interaction with Volcanoes
92(1)
Minimizing the Volcanic Hazard
92(5)
Forecasting
92(2)
Box 3.2 Professional Profile: Chris Eisinger, Studying Active Volcanoes
94(2)
Box 3.3 Survivor Story: A Close Call with Mount St. Helens
96(1)
Volcanic Alert or Warning
96(1)
Perception of and Adjustment to the Volcanic Hazard
97(5)
Perception of the Volcanic Hazard
97(1)
Adjustments to Volcanic Hazards
97(1)
Attempts to Control Lava Flows
98(1)
Summary
99(1)
Key Terms
100(1)
Review Questions
100(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
100(1)
Selected Web Resources
100(1)
Hazard City: Assignments in Applied Geology---Volcanic Hazard Assessment
101(1)
Flooding
102(38)
Case History: Great Britain Floods of 2000
102(2)
An Introduction to Rivers
104(5)
Earth Material Transported by Rivers
104(1)
River Velocity, Discharge, Erosion, and Sediment Deposition
104(3)
Channel Patterns and Floodplain Formation
107(2)
Flooding
109(9)
Box 4.1 Case Study: Alluvial Fan Flooding on the Ventura River
110(2)
Upstream and Downstream Floods
112(2)
Box 4.2 Case Study: Magnitude and Frequency of Floods
114(2)
Box 4.3 Survivor Story: Flash Flood
116(2)
Geographic Regions at Risk for Flooding
118(1)
Effects of Flooding and Linkages between Floods and Other Hazards
119(1)
Natural Service Functions
120(2)
Fertile Lands
120(1)
Aquatic Ecosystems
120(1)
Sediment Supply
120(1)
Box 4.4 Case Study: The Grand Canyon Flood of 1996
121(1)
Human Interaction with Flooding
122(4)
Land Use Changes
122(2)
Dam Construction
124(1)
Urbanization and Flooding
124(2)
Box 4.5 Case Study: Flash Floods in Eastern Ohio
126(1)
Minimizing the Flood Hazard
126(6)
The Structural Approach
126(4)
Channel Restoration: Alternative to Channelization
130(2)
Perception of and Adjustment to the Flood Hazard
132(8)
Perception of the Flood Hazard
132(1)
Adjustments to the Flood Hazard
132(2)
Box 4.6 Professional Profile: Walter G. Green, III, Emergency Operations Director
134(1)
Relocating People from Floodplains: Examples from North Carolina and North Dakota
135(1)
Personal Adjustment: What to Do and What Not to Do
135(2)
Summary
137(1)
Key Terms
137(1)
Review Questions
138(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
138(1)
Selected Web Resources
138(1)
Hazard City: Assignments in Applied Geology---Flood Insurance Rate Maps
139(1)
Mass Wasting
140(32)
Case History: Portuguese Bend, California
140(3)
An Introduction to Landslides
143(10)
Slope Processes
143(2)
Types of Landslides
145(1)
Forces on Slopes
146(6)
Snow Avalanches
152(1)
Geographic Regions at Risk from Landslides
153(1)
Effects of Landslides and Linkages with Other Natural Hazards
153(6)
Effects of Landslides
153(1)
Box 5.1 Case Study: La Conchita: Southern California Landslide Disaster of 2005---Lessons Learned
154(3)
Linkages between Landslides and Other Natural Hazards
157(1)
Box 5.2 Survivor Story: Landslide
158(1)
Natural Service Functions of Landslides
159(1)
Human Interaction with Landslides
159(3)
Timber Harvesting and Landslides
159(1)
Urbanization and Landslides
159(2)
Box 5.3 Professional Profile: Bob Rasely, Mass Wasting Specialist
161(1)
Minimizing the Landslide Hazard
162(5)
Identification of Potential Landslides
162(1)
Prevention of Landslides
162(4)
Landslide Warning Systems
166(1)
Perception of and Adjustment to the Landslide Hazard
167(5)
Perception of the Landslide Hazard
167(1)
Adjustments to the Landslide Hazard
167(1)
Personal Adjustments: What You Can Do to Minimize Your Landslide Hazard
167(2)
Summary
169(1)
Key Terms
169(1)
Review Questions
169(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
170(1)
Selected Web Resources
170(1)
Hazard City: Assignments in Applied Geology---Landslide Hazard Assessment
171(1)
Subsidence
172(24)
Case History: Venice Is Sinking
172(1)
Introduction to Subsidence
172(9)
Karst
174(2)
Thermokarst
176(1)
Box 6.1 Survivor Story: Sinkholes
177(1)
Sediment and Soil Compaction
178(1)
Expansive Soils
179(1)
Earthquakes
180(1)
Deflation of Magma Chambers
181(1)
Regions at Risk for Subsidence-Related Hazards
181(1)
Effects of Subsidence
182(3)
Sinkhole Collapse
182(1)
Groundwater Conditions
182(2)
Damage Caused by Melting Permafrost
184(1)
Coastal Flooding and Loss of Wetlands
184(1)
Damage Caused by Expansive Soils
184(1)
Linkages between Subsidence and Other Natural Hazards
185(1)
Natural Service Functions of Subsidence
185(1)
Water Supply
185(1)
Aesthetic and Scientific Resources
185(1)
Unique Ecosystems
186(1)
Human Interaction with Subsidence
186(4)
Withdrawal of Fluids
186(1)
Underground Mining
187(1)
Melting Permafrost
188(1)
Restricting Deltaic Sedimentation
189(1)
Draining Organic Soils
189(1)
Landscaping Expansive Soils
189(1)
Box 6.2 Professional Profile: Helen Delano, Environmental Geologist
190(1)
Minimizing the Subsidence Hazard
190(2)
Perception of and Adjustment to the Subsidence Hazard
192(4)
Perception of the Subsidence Hazard
192(1)
Adjustment to the Subsidence Hazard
192(1)
Summary
193(1)
Key Terms
193(1)
Review Questions
194(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
194(1)
Selected Web Resources
194(2)
Atmosphere and Severe Weather
196(28)
Case History: Tri-State Tornado, March 18, 1925
196(2)
Energy
198(2)
Types of Energy
199(1)
Heat Transfer
199(1)
Earth's Energy Balance
200(2)
Electromagnetic Energy
200(1)
Radiation, Absorption, and Temperature
201(1)
The Atmosphere
202(1)
Composition of the Atmosphere
202(1)
Structure of the Atmosphere
202(1)
Weather Processes
203(4)
Atmospheric Pressure
203(2)
Unstable Air
205(1)
Coriolis Effect
205(1)
Fronts
205(2)
Hazardous Weather
207(12)
Thunderstorms
207(3)
Box 7.1 Case Study: Lightning
210(1)
Tornadoes
210(2)
Box 7.2 Survivor Story: Struck by Lightning
212(4)
Blizzards and Ice Storms
216(1)
Drought
217(1)
Dust and Sand Storms
217(1)
Heat Waves
218(1)
Human Interaction with Weather
219(1)
Natural Service Functions of Severe Weather
219(1)
Box 7.3 Professional Profile: Tornadoes
220(1)
Minimizing Severe Weather Hazards
220(4)
Forecasting and Prediction of Weather Hazards
220(1)
Adjustment to the Severe Weather Hazard
221(1)
Summary
222(1)
Key Terms
222(1)
Review Questions
222(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
223(1)
Selected Web Resources
223(1)
Coastal Hazards
224(42)
Case History: Hurricane Ivan
224(2)
Introduction to Coastal Processes
226(6)
Waves
226(2)
Box 8.1 Case Study: Rogue Waves
228(1)
Beach Form and Processes
229(3)
Tropical Cyclones
232(3)
Tsunamis
235(5)
Box 8.2 Case Study: Indonesian Tsunami of 2004
236(4)
Box 8.3 Survivor Story: Tsunami in the Lowest Country on Earth
240(1)
Geographic Regions at Risk for Coastal Hazards
240(3)
Effects of Coastal Processes
243(4)
Rip Currents
243(1)
Coastal Erosion
244(2)
Hurricanes
246(1)
Tsunamis
246(1)
Linkages between Coastal Processes and Other Natural Hazards
247(1)
Natural Service Functions of Coastal Processes
248(1)
Human Interaction with Coastal Processes
249(3)
The Atlantic Coast
249(2)
The Gulf Coast
251(1)
The Great Lakes
251(1)
Canadian Seacoasts
252(1)
Minimizing the Effects of Coastal Hazards
252(7)
Coastal Erosion
252(2)
Hurricanes
254(3)
Box 8.4 Professional Profile: The Hurricane Hunters
257(1)
Tsunamis
258(1)
Perception of and Adjustment to Coastal Hazards
259(7)
Perception of Coastal Hazards
259(1)
Box 8.5 Case Study: E-Lines and E-Zones
260(1)
Adjustment to Coastal Erosion
260(1)
Adjustment to Hurricanes
261(1)
Adjustments to Tsunamis
262(1)
Summary
263(1)
Key Terms
263(1)
Review Questions
263(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
264(1)
Selected Web Resources
264(1)
Hazard City: Assignments in Applied Geology---Shoreline Property Assessment
265(1)
Climate and Climate Change
266(26)
Case History: California Threatened by Climate Change
266(2)
Climate and Weather
268(1)
Climate Zones
268(1)
The Koeppen System and Natural Processes
269(1)
The Atmosphere
269(3)
Atmospheric Composition
269(1)
Permanent Gases
269(1)
Variable Gases
270(2)
Structure of the Atmosphere
272(1)
Atmospheric Circulation
272(1)
Climate Change
272(8)
Glaciations
272(1)
The Greenhouse Effect
273(2)
Global Temperature Change
275(3)
Why Does Climate Change?
278(2)
Hazards Associated with Climate Change
280(4)
Climate Patterns
280(1)
Sea Level Rise
280(1)
Changes in the Biosphere
281(1)
Desertification and Drought
281(1)
Box 9.1 Case Study: El Nino
282(2)
Box 9.2 Professional Profile: Moving the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse
284(1)
Wildfires
284(1)
Minimizing the Effects of Global Warming
284(8)
Box 9.3 Survivor Story: Residents of the Maldive Islands
286(1)
International Agreements
287(1)
Manipulation of Carbon Dioxide ``Sinks''
288(1)
Fossil Fuels and the Future Threat of Global Warming
288(1)
Summary
289(1)
Key Terms
289(1)
Review Questions
289(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
290(1)
Selected Web Resources
290(1)
Hazard City: Assignments in Applied Geology---Snowpack Monitoring
291(1)
Wildfires
292(22)
Case History: Wildfires in 2002---Colorado and Arizona
292(2)
Introduction to Wildfire
294(1)
Wildfire as a Process
294(6)
Box 10.1 Case Study: Indonesian Fires of 1997--1998
295(2)
Fire Environment
297(3)
Effects of Wildfires and Linkages with Other Natural Hazards
300(6)
Effects on the Geologic Environment
300(1)
Effects on the Atmospheric Environment
301(1)
Linkages with Climate Change
301(1)
Box 10.2 Case Study: Wildfire in Southern California
302(3)
Box 10.3 Professional Profile: Wildfires
305(1)
Effects on the Biological Environment
306(1)
Natural Service Functions of Wildfires
306(1)
Benefits to Soil
306(1)
Benefits to Plants and Animals
306(1)
Yellowstone Fires of 1988
307(1)
Minimizing the Wildfire Hazard
307(1)
Fire Management
307(1)
Perception of and Adjustment to the Wildfire Hazard
308(6)
Perception of the Wildfire Hazard
308(1)
Adjustments to the Wildfire Hazard
309(1)
Personal Adjustment to the Fire Hazard
310(1)
Box 10.4 Survivor Story: The Cedar Fire
311(1)
Summary
312(1)
Key Terms
312(1)
Review Questions
312(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
312(1)
Selected Web Resources
313(1)
Impacts and Extinctions
314(25)
Case History: The Tunguska Event
314(2)
Earth's Place in Space
316(3)
Asteroids, Meteoroids, and Comets
318(1)
Aerial Bursts and Impacts
319(7)
Impact Craters
320(1)
Box 11.1 Survivor Story: Meterorites in Chicagoland
321(4)
Box 11.2 Case Study: Uniformitarianism, Gradualism, and Catastrophe
325(1)
Mass Extinctions
326(5)
Late Cretaceous: K-T Boundary Mass Extinction
327(4)
Minimizing the Impact Hazard
331(8)
Risk Related to Impacts
331(1)
Box 11.3 Case Study: Near Earth Objects
332(1)
Minimizing the Impact Hazard
332(2)
Box 11.4 Professional Profile: Michael J. S. Shelton, Astronomer
334(2)
Summary
336(1)
Key Terms
336(1)
Review Questions
336(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
336(1)
Selected Web Resources
337(2)
Appendix A Minerals 339(8)
Appendix B Rocks 347(2)
Appendix C Maps and Related Topics 349(8)
Appendix D How Geologists Determine Geologic Time 357(4)
Glossary 361(12)
References 373(10)
Index 383


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