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The Nature and Properties of Soils,9780130167637
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The Nature and Properties of Soils

by ;
Edition:
14th
ISBN13:

9780130167637

ISBN10:
0130167630
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $134.60
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Summary

For eighty years, The Nature and Properties of Soils has delivered a complete, current, and reliable introduction to the study of soils in a manner that is both fascinating and intellectually satisfying. Whether used as the core textbook for college courses introducing the fundamentals of soil science, or as a comprehensive reference on the professional soil scientist's bookshelf, the book is widely recognized as the authoritative source for all of the latest information related to this exciting field. In this same tradition of excellence, this new Thirteenth Edition has been completely updated and expanded to provide fresh and essential new coverage of topics critically important to the future role of soils in natural resource sciences, including wetlands, septic drain fields, salt-affected soils, bioremediation, soil ecology, nutrient and irrigation management, soil hydrology, and new orders in Soil Taxonomy. More specifically, this new volume represents significant expansion to include valuable information with regard to all of the following: the pedosphere concept subaqueous soils ethnopedology x-ray diffraction non-silicate colloids inner/outer sphere complexes nuclear contamination effective CEC lead contamination acid and non-acid cation saturation human-influenced acidity calcium and magnesium in plants/soils irrigation water quality biomolecule binding soil food web ecology forest nutrient management phosphorus site index indicators of soil quality proton balance approach to soil acidity Accompanying this book-and all new to this thirteenth edition-is a companion website containing many unique and engaging opportunities for further study. The URL is http://www.prenhall.com/brady .

Table of Contents

Preface xv
The Soils Around Us
1(30)
Functions of Soils in Our Ecosystem
2(1)
Medium for Plant Growth
3(3)
Regulator of Water Supplies
6(1)
Recycler of Raw Materials
7(1)
Habitat for Soil Organisms
7(1)
Engineering Medium
8(1)
Soil as Environmental Interface
9(1)
Soil as a Natural Body
10(1)
The Soil Profile and Its Layers (Horizons)
11(4)
Topsoil and Subsoil
15(2)
Soil: The Interface of Air, Minerals, Water, and Life
17(1)
Mineral (Inorganic) Constituents of Soils
18(2)
Soil Organic Matter
20(1)
Soil Water: A Dynamic Solution
21(2)
Soil Air: A Changing Mixture of Gases
23(1)
Interaction of Four Components to Supply Plant Nutrients
24(2)
Nutrient uptake by Plant Roots
26(1)
Soil Quality Degradation, and Resilience
27(2)
Conclusion
29(2)
Study Questions
29(1)
References
30(1)
Formation of Soils from Parent Materials
31(44)
Weathering of Rocks and Minerals
31(5)
Physical Weathering (Disintegration)
36(1)
Biogeochemical Weathering
36(3)
Factors Influencing Soil Formation
39(1)
Parent Materials
40(2)
Residual Parent Material
42(1)
Colluvial Debris
42(1)
Alluvial Stream Deposits
42(3)
Marine Sediments
45(1)
Parent Materials Transported by Glacial Ice and Meltwaters
46(3)
Parent Materials Transported by Wind
49(3)
Organic Deposits
52(2)
Climate
54(1)
Biota: Living Organisms
54(7)
Topography
61(1)
Time
62(2)
Four Basic Processes of Soil Formation
64(5)
The Soil Profile
69(4)
Conclusion
73(2)
Study Questions
73(1)
References
74(1)
Soil Classification
75(46)
Concept of Individual Soils
76(3)
Comprehensive Classification System: Soil Taxonomy
79(5)
Categories and Nomenclature of Soil Taxonomy
84(2)
Soil Orders
86(2)
Entisols (Recent: Little If Any Profile Development)
88(4)
Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features: Inception of B Horizon)
92(1)
Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils)
93(1)
Gelisols (Permafrost and Frost Churning)
94(2)
Histisols (Organic Soils without Permafrost)
96(2)
Aridisols (Dry Soils)
98(2)
Vertisols (Dark, Swelling and Cracking Clays)
100(3)
Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands)
103(2)
Alfisols (Argillic or Natric Horizon, Medium to High Bases)
105(2)
Ultisols (Argillic Horizon, Low Bases)
107(2)
Spodosols (Acid, Sandy Forest Soils, Low Bases)
109(1)
Oxisols (Oxic Horizon, Highly Weathered)
110(1)
Lower-Level Categories in Soil Taxonomy
111(7)
Conclusion
118(3)
Study Questions
119(1)
References
119(2)
Soil Architecture and Physical Properties
121(55)
Soil Color
122(1)
Soil Texture (Size Distribution of Soil Particles)
123(4)
Soil Textural Classes
127(6)
Structure of Mineral Soils
133(3)
Soil Density
136(11)
Pore Space of Mineral Soils
147(5)
Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates
152(8)
Tillage and Structural Management of Soils
160(5)
Soil Properties Relevant to Engineering Uses
165(7)
Conclusion
172(4)
Study Questions
173(1)
References
174(2)
Soil Water: Characteristics and Behavior
176(43)
Structure and Related Properties of Water
177(3)
Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water
180(3)
Soil Water Energy Concepts
183(4)
Soil Water Content and Soil Water Potential
187(8)
The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil
195(5)
Infiltration and Percolation
200(4)
Water Vapor Movement in Soils
204(1)
Qualitative Description of Soil Wetness
205(5)
Factors Affecting Amount of Plant-Available Soil Water
210(3)
Mechanisms by Which Plants Are Supplied with Water
213(2)
Conclusion
215(4)
Study Questions
216(1)
References
217(2)
Soil and the Hydrologic Cycle
219(53)
The Global Hydrologic Cycle
220(2)
Fate of Precipitation and Irrigation Water
222(6)
The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum
228(5)
Efficiency of Water Use
233(2)
Control of Evapotranspiration (ET)
235(1)
Control of Surface Evaporation (E)
236(4)
Liquid Losses of Water from the Soil
240(3)
Percolation and Groundwaters
243(4)
Enhancing Soil Drainage
247(11)
Septic Tank Drain Fields
258(3)
Irrigation Principles and Practices
261(8)
Conclusion
269(3)
Study Questions
270(1)
References
271(1)
Soil Aeration and Temperature
272(44)
Soil Aeration-The Process
273(1)
Means of Characterizing Soil Aeration
274(3)
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potential
277(3)
Factors Affecting Soil Aeration
280(3)
Ecological Effects of Soil Aeration
283(3)
Aeration in Relation to Soil and Plant Management
286(1)
Wetlands and Their Poorly Aerated Soils
287(7)
Processes Affected by Soil Temperature
294(7)
Absorption and Loss of Solar Energy
301(4)
Thermal Properties of Soils
305(4)
Soil Temperature Control
309(4)
Conclusion
313(3)
Study Questions
313(1)
References
314(2)
Soil Colloids: Seat of Soil Chemical and Physical Activity
316(47)
General Properties and Types of Soil Colloids
317(4)
Fundamentals of Layer Silicate Clay Structure
321(3)
Mineralogical Organization of Silicate Clays
324(5)
Structural Characteristics of Nonsilicate Colloids
329(4)
Genesis and Geographic Distribution of Soil Colloids
333(3)
Sources of Charges on Soil Colloids
336(3)
Adsorption of Cations and Anions
339(2)
Cation Exchange Reactions
341(4)
Cation Exchange Capacity
345(4)
Exchangeable Cations in Field Soil
349(3)
Anion Exchange
352(2)
Sorption of Pesticides and Groundwater Contamination
354(1)
Binding of Biomolecules to Clay and Humus
355(2)
Physical Implications of Swelling-Type Clays
357(1)
Environmental Uses of Swelling-Type Clays
358(1)
Conclusion
359(4)
Study Questions
360(1)
References
361(2)
Soil Acidity
363(49)
The Process of Soil Acidification
364(5)
Role of Aluminum in Soil Acidity
369(1)
Pools of Soil Acidity
369(5)
Buffering of pH in Soils
374(3)
Determination of Soil pH
377(3)
Human-Influenced Soil Acidification
380(7)
Biological Effects of Soil pH
387(7)
Raising Soil pH by Liming
394(6)
Alternative Ways to Ameliorate the III Effects of Soil Acidity
400(3)
Lowering Soil pH
403(1)
Calcium and Magnesium as Plant Nutrients
404(4)
Conclusion
408(4)
Study Questions
409(1)
References
410(2)
Soils of Dry Regions: Alkalinity, Salinity, and Sodicity
412(37)
Causes of Alkalinity: High Soil pH
413(2)
Characteristics and Problems of Alkaline Soils
415(4)
Development of Salt-Affected Soils
419(3)
Measuring Salinity and Sodicity
422(4)
Classes of Salt Affected Soils
426(4)
Growth of Plants on Salt-Affected Soils
430(4)
Water-Quality Considerations for Irrigation
434(2)
Reclamation of Saline Soils
436(5)
Reclamation of Saline-Sodic and Sodic Soils
441(4)
Management of Reclaimed Soils
445(1)
Conclusion
445(4)
Study Questions
446(1)
References
447(2)
Organisms and Ecology of the Soil
449(49)
The Diversity of Organisms in the Soil
450(2)
Organisms in Action
452(5)
Organism Abundance, Biomass, and Metabolic Activity
457(2)
Earthworms
459(4)
Ants and Termites
463(3)
Soil Microanimals
466(4)
Roots of Higher Plants
470(3)
Soil Algae
473(1)
Soil Fungi
473(8)
Soil Bacteria
481(1)
Soil Actinomycetes
482(1)
Conditions Affecting the Growth of Soil Microorganisms
483(1)
Beneficial Effects of Soil Organisms
484(3)
Soil Organisms and Damage to Higher Plants
487(3)
Ecological Relationships Among Soil Organisms
490(3)
Genetically Engineered Microorganisms
493(2)
Conclusion
495(3)
Study Questions
495(1)
References
495(3)
Soil Organic Matter
498(45)
The Global Carbon Cycle
498(3)
The Process of Decomposition in Soils
501(4)
Factors Controlling Rates of Decomposition and Mineralization
505(7)
Humus: Genesis and Nature
512(3)
Composts and Composting
515(3)
Direct Influences of Organic Matter on Plant Growth
518(1)
Influence of Organic Matter on Soil Properties and the Environment
519(2)
Management of Amount and Quality of Soil Organic Matter
521(3)
Carbon Balance in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System
524(2)
Factors and Practices Influencing Soil Organic Matter Levels
526(7)
Soils and the Greenhouse Effect
533(4)
Organic Soils (Histosols)
537(2)
Conclusion
539(4)
Study Questions
540(1)
References
541(2)
Nitrogen and Sulfur Economy of Soils
543(49)
Influence of Nitrogen on Plant Growth and Development
544(2)
Origin and Distribution of Nitrogen
546(1)
The Nitrogen Cycle
546(1)
Immobilization and Mineralization
546(3)
Soluble Organic Nitrogen
549(1)
Ammonium Fixation by Clay Minerals
550(1)
Ammonia Volatilization
551(1)
Nitrification
552(1)
The Nitrate Leaching Problem
553(6)
Gaseous Losses by Denitrification
559(5)
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
564(2)
Symbiotic Fixation with Legumes
566(4)
Symbiotic Fixation with Nonlegumes
570(2)
Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
572(1)
Addition of Nitrogen to Soil in Precipitation
572(1)
Reactions of Nitrogen Fertilizers
573(1)
Practical Management of Soil Nitrogen in Agriculture
574(1)
Importance of Sulfur
575(3)
Natural Sources of Sulfur
578(3)
The Sulfur Cycle
581(2)
Behavior of Sulfur Compounds in Soils
583(1)
Sulfur Oxidation and Reduction
584(2)
Sulfur Retention and Exchange
586(1)
Sulfur and Soil Fertility Maintenance
587(2)
Conclusion
589(3)
Study Questions
589(1)
References
590(2)
Soil Phosphorus and Potassium
592(46)
Role of Phosphorus in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility
593(2)
Effects of Phosphorus on Environmental Quality
595(6)
The Phosphorus Cycle
601(3)
Organic Phosphorus in Soils
604(2)
Inorganic Phosphorus in Soils
606(3)
Solubility of Inorganic Phosphorus in Acid Soils
609(3)
Inorganic Phosphorus Availability at High pH Values
612(1)
Phosphorus-Fixation Capacity of Soils
613(5)
Plant Genetics and Phosphorus Availability
618(1)
Practical Control of Phosphorus in Soils
619(2)
Potassium: Nature and Ecological Roles
621(1)
Potassium in Plant and Animal Nutrition
622(1)
The Potassium Cycle
623(4)
The Potassium Problem in Soil Fertility
627(2)
Forms and Availability of Potassium in Soils
629(2)
Factors Affecting Potassium Fixation in Soils
631(2)
Practical Aspects of Potassium Management
633(1)
Conclusion
634(4)
Study Questions
635(1)
References
635(3)
Micronutrients and Other Trace Elements
638(31)
Deficiency Versus Toxicity
639(1)
Role of the Micronutrients
640(2)
Source of Micronutrients
642(2)
General Conditions Conducive to Trace Element Deficiency/Toxicity
644(2)
Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Cations
646(5)
Organic Compounds as Chelates
651(3)
Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Anions
654(6)
Need for Nutrient Balance
660(2)
Trace Element Cleanup and Metal Hyperaccumulators
662(1)
Soil Management and Micronutrient Needs
662(4)
Conclusion
666(3)
Study Questions
667(1)
References
667(2)
Practical Nutrient Management
669(71)
Goals of Nutrient Management
670(3)
Environmental Quality
673(11)
Nutrient Resources and Cycles
684(6)
Recycling Nutrients through Animal Manures
690(6)
Industrial and Municipal By-Products
696(5)
Practical Utilization of Organic Nutrient Sources
701(2)
Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers
703(7)
Fertilizer Application Methods
710(5)
Timing of Fertilizer Application
715(1)
Diagnostic Tools and Methods
716(4)
Soil Analysis
720(5)
Site-Specific Nutrient Management
725(2)
Site-Index Approach to Phosphorus Management
727(6)
Broader Aspects of Fertilizer Practice
733(3)
Conclusion
736(4)
Study Questions
736(1)
References
737(3)
Soil Erosion and Its Control
740(56)
Significance of Soil Erosion and Land Degradation
741(4)
On-Site and Off-Site Effects of Accelerated Soil Erosion
745(5)
Mechanics of Water Erosion
750(3)
Models to Predict the Extent of Water-Induced Erosion
753(1)
Factors Affecting Interrill and Rill Erosion
754(9)
Conservation Tillage
763(5)
Vegetative Barriers
768(2)
Control of Gully Erosion and Mass Wasting
770(2)
Control of Accelerated Erosion on Range and Forest Land
772(3)
Erosion and Sediment Control on Construction Sites
775(4)
Wind Erosion: Importance and Factors Affecting It
779(4)
Predicting and Controlling Wind Erosion
783(4)
Land Capability Classification as a Guide to Conservation
787(2)
Progress in Soil Conservation
789(3)
Real Value of Soil Conservation
792(1)
Conclusion
793(3)
Study Questions
793(1)
References
794(2)
Soils and Chemical Pollution
796(44)
Toxic Organic Chemicals
797(3)
Kinds of Organic Contaminants
800(1)
Behavior of Organic Chemicals in Soil
801(7)
Effects of Pesticides on Soil Organisms
808(2)
Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Organic Chemicals
810(8)
Contamination with Toxic Inorganic Substances
818(3)
Potential Hazards of Chemicals in Sewage Sludge
821(2)
Reactions of Inorganic Contaminants in Soils
823(2)
Prevention and Elimination of Inorganic Chemical Contamination
825(2)
Landfills
827(5)
Radionuclides in Soil
832(2)
Radon Gas from Soils
834(3)
Conclusion
837(3)
Study Questions
837(1)
References
837(3)
Geographic Soils Information
840(31)
Soil Spatial Variability in the Field
840(5)
Techniques and Tools for Mapping Soils
845(4)
Modern Technology for Soil Investigations
849(1)
Remote Sensing Tools for Soils Investigations
850(2)
Air Photos
852(4)
Satellite Imagery
856(3)
Soil Surveys
859(2)
The County Soil Survey Report and Its Utilization
861(2)
Geographic Information Systems
863(3)
GIS, GPS, and Site-Specific Agriculture
866(3)
Conclusion
869(2)
Study Questions
869(1)
References
869(2)
Global Soil Quality as Affected by Human Activities
871(32)
The Concept of Soil Quality/Soil Health
872(4)
Soil Resistance and Resilience
876(1)
Sustaining Biological Productivity
877(1)
The Population Explosion
878(1)
Intensified Agroecosystems-The Green Revolution
879(1)
Effects of Intensified Agroecosystems on Soil Quality or Health
880(4)
Forced Production Intensification
884(3)
Prospects for the Future
887(3)
Modified Intensive Agroecosystems
890(3)
Improving Low Yielding Agricultural Systems
893(1)
Improving Soil Quality in sub-Saharan Africa
893(6)
Improving Soil Quality in Asia and Latin America
899(1)
Conclusion
900(3)
Study Questions
900(1)
References
901(2)
Appendix A Canadian and FAO Soil Classification Systems 903(4)
Appendix B SI Units, Conversion Factors, and Periodic Table of the Elements 907(4)
Glossary 911(26)
Index 937

Excerpts

Soil is one of our most important natural resources. It is at the heart of terrestrial ecology, and an understanding of the soil system is key to the success and environmental harmony of any human use of the land. This book is designed to help make your study of soils a fascinating and intellectually satisfying undertaking. We are confident that much of what you learn will be of enormous practical value in equipping you to meet the many natural-resource challenges of the 21st century. You will soon find that the soil provides many opportunities to see practical applications for principles from the basic sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics. Our priority in this newest edition ofThe Nature and Properties of Soilsis to explain the fundamental principles of soil science in a manner that you will find relevant to your interests. Throughout, the text emphasizes the soil as a natural resource and highlights the many interactions between the soil and other components of forest, range, agricultural, wetland, and constructed ecosystems. We have sought to craft a book that will serve your needs well, whether you expect this to be your only formal exposure to soil science or you are embarking on a comprehensive soil science education. This new book is meant to provide both an exciting, accessible introduction to the fascinating world of soil science and a reliable, comprehensive reference for your professional bookshelf. Readers who have used earlier editions will notice that in order to serve these two functions, the number of pages in the book has increased with the last few editions. Most of this increase (nearly 80%) is attributable to the new photographs, diagrams, and special "boxes" that have made the text so much more engaging to use. About 20% of the increased length has been in the form of additional text, mainly devoted to expanded coverage of topics critically important to the future role of soils in natural-resource sciences, such as wetlands, septic drain fields, salt-affected soils, bioremediation, soil ecology, nutrient and irrigation management, soil hydrology, and new orders inSoil Taxonomy.In a few areas, we have had to reduce the detail to make room for new topics and information. In doing so we have carefully maintained the level of rigor and thoroughness so valued in previous editions. This edition includes new sections on the pedosphere concept, subaqueous soils, ethnopedology, x-ray diffraction, nonsilicate colloids, inner- and outer-sphere complexes, nuclear contamination, effective CEC, the proton-balance approach to soil acidity, acid and nonacid cation saturation, human-influenced acidity, Ca and Mg in plants and soils, irrigation water quality, biomolecule binding, soil food-web ecology, forest nutrient management, the phosphorus site index, lead contamination, indicators of soil quality, and many other topics of current interest in soil science. In response to their popularity in the previous two editions, we have also added many new boxes that present either fascinating examples and applications or technical details and calculations. These boxes bothhighlightmaterial of special interest and allow the logical thread of the regular text to flow smoothly without digression or interruption. Examples include the stories of hypoxia or oxygen depletion in nutrient-laden water bodies and of the amelioration of selenium pollution in wetlands. In addition to updating many references, we have added a new feature to this edition, a set of World Wide Web universal resource locators (URLs) set in the margins of the relevant chapter sections. These Web sites, developed by colleagues and organizations around the world, expand and elaborate on certain topics in ways that would not be possible in a printed book. We could not have done all this without the many valuable suggestions, ideas, and corrections sent to us by soil scientists, instructors, and student


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