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The Nature and Properties of Soils,9780138524449
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The Nature and Properties of Soils

by
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780138524449

ISBN10:
0138524440
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

The bible for Introductory Soils courses in agronomy and soil science programs. Emphasizes soils as part of a Geosystem. New/expanded coverage of forests, landscapes, urban ecology, arid soils, irrigation, food and fiber. New vignettes and chapter-end questions. Expanded art program.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi
1 THE SOILS AROUND US
1(28)
1.1 Functions of Soils in Our Ecosystem
2(1)
1.2 Medium for Plant Growth
3(3)
1.3 Regulator of Water Supplies
6(1)
1.4 Recycler of Raw Materials
7(1)
1.5 Habitat for Soil Organisms
7(1)
1.6 Engineering Medium
8(1)
1.7 Soil as a Natural Body
9(2)
1.8 The Soil Profile and Its Layers (Horizons)
11(2)
1.9 Topsoil and Subsoil
13(1)
1.10 Soil: The Interface of Air, Minerals, Water, and Life
14(3)
1.11 Mineral (Inorganic) Constituents of Soils
17(2)
1.12 Soil Organic Matter
19(2)
1.13 Soil Water: A Dynamic Solution
21(1)
1.14 Soil Air: A Changing Mixture of Gases
22(1)
1.15 Interaction of Four Components to Supply Plant Nutrients
23(2)
1.16 Nutrient Uptake by Plant Roots
25(2)
1.17 Soil Quality, Degradation, and Resilience
27(1)
1.18 Conclusion
28(1)
Study Questions
28(1)
Reference
28(1)
2 FORMATION OF SOILS FROM PARENT MATERIALS
29(42)
2.1 Weathering of Rocks and Minerals
29(4)
2.2 Physical Weathering (Disintegration)
33(1)
2.3 Chemical Weathering (Decomposition)
34(3)
2.4 Factors Influencing Soil Formation
37(1)
2.5 Parent Materials
38(3)
2.6 Residual Parent Material
41(1)
2.7 Colluvial Debris
42(1)
2.8 Alluvial Stream Deposits
42(3)
2.9 Marine Sediments
45(1)
2.10 Parent Materials Transported by Glacial Ice and Meltwaters
46(3)
2.11 Parent Materials Transported by Wind
49(2)
2.12 Organic Deposits
51(2)
2.13 Climate
53(2)
2.14 Biota: Living Organisms
55(4)
2.15 Topography
59(2)
2.16 Time
61(1)
2.17 Soil Formation in Action
62(3)
2.18 The Soil Profile
65(4)
2.19 Conclusion
69(1)
Study Questions
69(1)
References
69(2)
3 SOIL CLASSIFICATION
71(46)
3.1 Concept of Individual Soils
72(2)
3.2 Comprehensive Classification System: Soil Taxonomy
74(5)
3.3 Categories and Nomenclature of Soil Taxonomy
79(2)
3.4 Soil Orders
81(4)
3.5 Entisols (Recent: Little If Any Profile Development)
85(2)
3.6 Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features: Inception of B Horizon)
87(1)
3.7 Andisols
88(1)
3.8 Gelisols (Permafrost and Frost Churning)
89(3)
3.9 Histosols (Organic Soils without Permafrost)
92(2)
3.10 Aridisols (Dry Soils)
94(2)
3.11 Vertisols (Dark, Swelling and Cracking Clays)
96(3)
3.12 Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands)
99(3)
3.13 Alfisols (Argillic or Natric Horizon, Medium to High Bases)
102(2)
3.14 Ultisols (Argillic Horizon, Low Bases)
104(1)
3.15 Spodosols (Acid, Sandy, Forest Soils, Low Bases)
105(2)
3.16 Oxisols (Oxic Horizon, Highly Weathered)
107(1)
3.17 Lower-Level Categories in Soil Taxonomy
108(6)
3.18 Conclusion
114(1)
Study Questions
114(2)
References
116(1)
4 SOIL ARCHITECTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
117(54)
4.1 Soil Color
118(1)
4.2 Soil Texture (Size Distribution of Soil Particles)
119(6)
4.3 Soil Textural Classes
125(5)
4.4 Structure of Mineral Soils
130(1)
4.5 Soil Density
134(10)
4.6 Pore Space of Mineral Soils
144(5)
4.7 Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates
149(5)
4.8 Tillage and Structural Management of Soils
154(7)
4.9 Soil Properties Relevant to Engineering Uses
161(7)
4.10 Conclusion
168(1)
Study Questions
168(1)
References
169(2)
5 SOIL WATER: CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOR
171(42)
5.1 Structure and Related Properties of Water
172(2)
5.2 Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water
174(2)
5.3 Soil Water Energy Concepts
176(7)
5.4 Soil Moisture Content and Soil Water Potential
183(7)
5.5 The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil
190(5)
5.6 Infiltration and Percolation
195(3)
5.7 Water Vapor Movement in Soils
198(2)
5.8 Qualitative Description of Soil Wetness
200(4)
5.9 Factors Affecting Amount of Plant-Available Soil Water
204(4)
5.10 Mechanisms by Which Plants Are Supplied with Water
208(2)
5.11 Conclusion
210(1)
Study Questions
211(1)
References
212(1)
6 SOIL AND THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
213(52)
6.1 The Global Hydrologic Cycle
214(2)
6.2 Fate of Precipitation and Irrigation Water
216(4)
6.3 The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum
220(7)
6.4 Efficiency of Water Use
227(3)
6.5 Control of Evapotranspiration (ET)
230(1)
6.6 Control of Surface Evaporation (E)
231(2)
6.7 Liquid Losses of Water from the Soil
233(3)
6.8 Percolation and Groundwaters
236(5)
6.9 Enhancing Soil Drainage
241(6)
6.10 Septic Tank Drain Fields
247(7)
6.11 Irrigation Principles and Practices
254(8)
6.12 Conclusion
262(1)
Study Questions
263(1)
References
263(2)
7 SOIL AERATION AND TEMPERATURE
265(42)
7.1 The Nature of Soil Aeration
265(1)
7.2 Soil Aeration in the Field
266(2)
7.3 Means of Characterizing Soil Aeration
268(2)
7.4 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potential
270(3)
7.5 Factors Affecting Soil Aeration
273(3)
7.6 Ecological Effects of Soil Aeration
276(3)
7.7 Aeration in Relation to Soil and Plant Management
279(1)
7.8 Wetlands and Their Poorly Aerated Soils
280(6)
7.9 Processes Affected by Soil Temperature
286(7)
7.10 Absorption and Loss of Solar Energy
293(1)
7.11 Thermal Properties of Soils
294(6)
7.12 Soil Temperature Control
300(4)
7.13 Conclusion
304(1)
Study Questions
304(1)
References
305(2)
8 SOIL COLLOIDS: THEIR NATURE AND PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
307(36)
8.1 General Properties of Soil Colloids
308(1)
8.2 Types of Soil Colloids
308(3)
8.3 Adsorbed Cations
311(2)
8.4 Fundamentals of Layer Silicate Clay Structure
313(2)
8.5 Mineralogical Organization of Silicate Clays
315(4)
8.6 Genesis of Soil Colloids
319(3)
8.7 Geographic Distribution of Clays
322(1)
8.8 Sources of Charges on Soil Colloids
323(1)
8.9 Constant Charges on Silicate Clays
323(2)
8.10 pH-Dependent Charges
325(3)
8.11 Cation Exchange
328(1)
8.12 Cation Exchange Capacity
329(6)
8.13 Exchangeable Cations in Field Soils
335(1)
8.14 Cation Exchange and the Availability of Nutrients
335(1)
8.15 Anion Exchange
336(2)
8.16 Sorption of Pesticides and Groundwater Contamination
338(1)
8.17 Physical Properties of Colloids
339(1)
8.18 Environmental Uses of Swelling-Type Clays
339(2)
8.19 Conclusion
341(1)
Study Questions
342(1)
References
342(1)
9 SOIL REACTION: ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY
343(35)
9.1 Sources of Hydrogen and Hydroxide Ions
344(5)
9.2 Classification of Soil Acidity
349(1)
9.3 Colloidal Control of Soil Reaction
350(1)
9.4 Buffering of Soils
351(2)
9.5 Buffering Capacity of Soils
353(1)
9.6 Variability in Soil pH
354(5)
9.7 Soil Reaction: Correlations
359(4)
9.8 Determination of Soil pH
363(1)
9.9 Methods of Intensifying Soil Acidity
364(1)
9.10 Decreasing Soil Acidity: Liming Materials
365(2)
9.11 Reactions of Lime in the Soil
367(1)
9.12 Lime Requirements: Quantities Needed
367(3)
9.13 Practical Considerations
370(4)
9.14 Ameliorating Acidity in Subsoils
374(1)
9.15 Conclusion
375(1)
Study Questions
376(1)
References
376(2)
10 ALKALINE AND SALT-AFFECTED SOILS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
378(26)
10.1 Sources of Alkalinity
378(2)
10.2 Nonsaline Alkaline Soils of Dry Areas
380(2)
10.3 Development of Salt-Affected Soils
382(3)
10.4 Measuring Salinity and Alkalinity
385(2)
10.5 Classes of Salt-Affected Soils
387(4)
10.6 Growth of Plants on Saline and Sodic Soils
391(1)
10.7 Selective Tolerance of Higher Plants to Saline and Sodic Soils
391(2)
10.8 Management of Saline and Sodic Soils
393(2)
10.9 Reclamation of Saline Soils
395(2)
10.10 Reclamation of Saline-Sodic and Sodic Soils
397(4)
10.11 Management of Reclaimed Soils
401(1)
10.12 Conclusion
401(1)
Study Questions
402(1)
References
402(2)
11 ORGANISMS AND ECOLOGY OF THE SOIL
404(42)
11.1 The Diversity of Organisms in the Soil
404(3)
11.2 Organisms in Action
407(3)
11.3 Organism Abundance, Biomass, and Metabolic Activity
410(2)
11.4 Earthworms
412(3)
11.5 Termites
415(3)
11.6 Soil Microanimals
418(4)
11.7 Roots of Higher Plants
422(2)
11.8 Soil Algae
424(1)
11.9 Soil Fungi
425(7)
11.10 Soil Actinomycetes
432(1)
11.11 Soil Bacteria
433(1)
11.12 Conditions Affecting the Growth of Soil Microorganisms
434(1)
11.13 Beneficial Effects of Soil Organisms
435(1)
11.14 Soil Organisms and Damage to Higher Plants
436(3)
11.15 Ecological Relationships Among Soil Organisms
439(3)
11.16 Genetically Engineered Microorganisms
442(2)
11.17 Conclusion
444(1)
Study Questions
444(1)
References
444(2)
12 SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
446(45)
12.1 The Global Carbon Cycle
446(3)
12.2 The Process of Decomposition in Soils
449(4)
12.3 Factors Controlling Rates of Decomposition and Mineralization
453(7)
12.4 Humus: Genesis and Nature
460(3)
12.5 Composts and Composting
463(3)
12.6 Direct Influences of Organic Matter on Plant Growth
466(2)
12.7 Influence of Organic Matter on Soil Properties and the Environment
468(1)
12.8 Management of Amount and Quality of Soil Organic Matter
468(4)
12.9 Carbon Balance in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System
472(2)
12.10 Factors and Practices Influencing Soil Organic Matter Levels
474(8)
12.11 Soils and the Greenhouse Effect
482(3)
12.12 Organic Soils (Histosols)
485(2)
12.13 Conclusion
487(1)
Study Questions
488(1)
References
489(2)
13 NITROGEN AND SULFUR ECONOMY OF SOILS
491(49)
13.1 Influence of Nitrogen on Plant Growth and Development
492(2)
13.2 Origin and Distribution of Nitrogen
494(1)
13.3 The Nitrogen Cycle
495(1)
13.4 Immobilization and Mineralization
495(2)
13.5 Ammonium Fixation by Clay Minerals
497(1)
13.6 Ammonia Volatilization
498(1)
13.7 Nitrification
499(3)
13.8 The Nitrate Leaching Problem
502(4)
13.9 Gaseous Losses by Denitrification
506(6)
13.10 Biological Nitrogen Fixation
512(2)
13.11 Symbiotic Fixation with Legumes
514(4)
13.12 Symbiotic Fixation with Nonlegumes
518(1)
13.13 Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
519(1)
13.14 Addition of Nitrogen to Soil in Precipitation
520(1)
13.15 Reactions of Nitrogen Fertilizers
521(1)
13.16 Practical Management of Soil Nitrogen in Agriculture
522(2)
13.17 Importance of Sulfur
524(1)
13.18 Natural Sources of Sulfur
525(4)
13.19 The Sulfur Cycle
529(1)
13.20 Behavior of Sulfur Compounds in Soils
530(2)
13.21 Sulfur Oxidation and Reduction
532(3)
13.22 Sulfur Retention and Exchange
535(1)
13.23 Sulfur and Soil Fertility Maintenance
536(1)
13.24 Conclusion
536(1)
Study Questions
537(1)
References
538(2)
14 SOIL PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM
540(45)
14.1 Role of Phosphorus in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility
541(2)
14.2 Effects of Phosphorus on Environmental Quality
543(6)
14.3 The Phosphorus Cycle
549(3)
14.4 Organic Phosphorus in Soils
552(2)
14.5 Inorganic Phosphorus in Soils
554(4)
14.6 Solubility of Inorganic Phosphorus in Acid Soils
558(3)
14.7 Inorganic Phosphorus Availability at High pH Values
561(1)
14.8 Phosphorus-Fixation Capacity of Soils
562(4)
14.9 Practical Control of Phosphorus Availability
566(3)
14.10 Potassium: Nature and Ecological Roles
569(1)
14.11 Potassium in Plant and Animal Nutrition
570(1)
14.12 The Potassium Cycle
571(3)
14.13 The Potassium Problem in Soil Fertility
574(2)
14.14 Forms and Availability of Potassium in Soils
576(3)
14.15 Factors Affecting Potassium Fixation in Soils
579(1)
14.16 Practical Aspects of Potassium Management
580(2)
14.17 Conclusion
582(1)
Study Questions
582(1)
References
583(2)
15 MICRONUTRIENT ELEMENTS
585(27)
15.1 Deficiency versus Toxicity
586(1)
15.2 Role of the Micronutrients
587(3)
15.3 Source of Micronutrients
590(1)
15.4 General Conditions Conducive to Micronutrient Deficiency
591(2)
15.5 Factors Influencing the Availability of the Micronutrient Cations
593(5)
15.6 Organic Compounds as Chelates
598(4)
15.7 Factors Influencing the Availability of the Micronutrient Anions
602(3)
15.8 Need for Nutrient Balance
605(1)
15.9 Soil Management and Micronutrient Needs
606(3)
15.10 Conclusion
609(1)
Study Questions
610(1)
References
610(2)
16 PRACTICAL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
612(56)
16.1 Goals of Nutrient Management
612(4)
16.2 Environmental Quality
616(5)
16.3 Nutrient Resources
621(1)
16.4 Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Nutrient Cycles
622(3)
16.5 Recycling Nutrients through Animal Manures
625(5)
16.6 Storage, Treatment, and Management of Animal Manures
630(2)
16.7 Industrial and Municipal By-Products
632(1)
16.8 Sewage Effluent and Sludge
633(3)
16.9 Practical Utilization of Organic Nutrient Sources
636(2)
16.10 Integrated Recycling of Wastes
638(1)
16.11 Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers
638(7)
16.12 The Concept of the Limiting Factor
645(2)
16.13 Fertilizer Application Methods
647(4)
16.14 Timing of Fertilizer Application
651(2)
16.15 Diagnostic Tools and Methods
653(1)
16.16 Plant Symptoms and Field Observations
653(1)
16.17 Plant Analysis and Tissue Testing
653(3)
16.18 Soil Analysis
656(3)
16.19 Site-Specific Nutrient Management
659(2)
16.20 Broader Aspects of Fertilizer Practice
661(3)
16.21 Conclusion
664(1)
Study Questions
664(2)
References
666(2)
17 SOIL EROSION AND ITS CONTROL
668(55)
17.1 Significance of Soil Erosion and Land Degradation
669(4)
17.2 On-Site and Off-Site Effects of Accelerated Soil Erosion
673(5)
17.3 Mechanics of Water Erosion
678(3)
17.4 Models to Predict the Extent of Water-Induced Erosion
681(1)
17.5 Factors Affecting Interrill and Rill Erosion
682(9)
17.6 Conservation Tillage
691(5)
17.7 Vegetative Barriers
696(1)
17.8 Control of Gully Erosion and Mass Wasting
696(3)
17.9 Control of Accelerated Erosion on Range and Forest Land
699(3)
17.10 Erosion and Sediment Control on Construction Sites
702(5)
17.11 Wind Erosion: Importance and Factors Affecting It
707(3)
17.12 Predicting and Controlling Wind Erosion
710(3)
17.13 Land Capability Classification as a Guide to Conservation
713(4)
17.14 Progress in Soil Conservation
717(2)
17.15 Conclusion
719(1)
Study Questions
720(1)
References
721(2)
18 SOILS AND CHEMICAL POLLUTION
723(36)
18.1 Toxic Organic Chemicals
724(1)
18.2 Kinds of Pesticides
725(2)
18.3 Behavior of Organic Chemicals in Soil
727(5)
18.4 Effects of Pesticides on Soil Organisms
732(3)
18.5 Regional Vulnerability to Pesticide Leaching
735(1)
18.6 Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Organic Chemicals
736(4)
18.7 Contamination with Toxic Inorganic Substances
740(2)
18.8 Potential Hazards of Chemicals in Sewage Sludge
742(2)
18.9 Reactions of Inorganic Contaminants in Soils
744(2)
18.10 Prevention and Elimination of Inorganic Chemical Contamination
746(2)
18.11 Landfills
748(5)
18.12 Soils as Organic Waste Disposal Sites
753(1)
18.13 Radionuclides in Soil
753(2)
18.14 Radon Gas from Soils
755(1)
18.15 Conclusion
755(1)
Study Questions
756(1)
References
756(3)
19 GEOGRAPHIC SOILS INFORMATION
759(29)
19.1 Soil Spatial Variability in the Field
759(5)
19.2 Techniques and Tools for Mapping Soils
764(4)
19.3 Modern Technology for Soil Investigations
768(1)
19.4 Remote Sensing Tools for Soils Investigations
769(2)
19.5 Air Photos
771(4)
19.6 Satellite Imagery
775(3)
19.7 Soil Surveys
778(2)
19.8 The Country Soil Survey Report and Its Utilization
780(3)
19.9 Geographic Information Systems
783(1)
19.10 Conclusion
784(1)
Study Questions
785(2)
References
787(1)
20 GLOBAL SOIL QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES
788(27)
20.1 The Concept of Soil Quality/Soil Health
788(4)
20.2 Sustaining Biological Productivity
792(1)
20.3 The Population Explosion
792(1)
20.4 Intensified Agriculture--The Green Revolution
793(2)
20.5 Effects of Intensified Agriculture on Soil Quality or Health
795(3)
20.6 Unplanned Production Intensification
798(3)
20.7 Prospects for the Future
801(2)
20.8 Modified Intensive Agricultural Systems
803(2)
20.9 Improving Low-Yielding Agricultural Systems
805(1)
20.10 Improving Soil Quality in sub-Saharan Africa
806(6)
20.11 Improving Soil Quality in Asia and Latin America
812(1)
20.12 Conclusion
813(1)
Study Questions
813(1)
References
813(2)
APPENDIX A U.S. TAXONOMY SUBORDER MAP AND LEGEND 815(4)
APPENDIX B CANADIAN AND FAO SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS 819(4)
APPENDIX C SI UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS AND PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 823(4)
GLOSSARY 827(36)
INDEX 863


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