9780534247508

Nature of Science Problems and Perspectives

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780534247508

  • ISBN10:

    0534247504

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/25/1996
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Summary

This text, the first comprehensive text in philosophy of science in many years, is divided into two books. Book I deals with traditional problems in the philosophy of science: logic, explanation, and epistemology. Book II presents various schools and systems of thought from the philosophy of science. Prominently featured are: rationalism, empiricism, logical positivism and constructivism. The text offers both breadth and depth, but is written in a clear and accessible style, making it appropriate for philosophy of science courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION What Is the Philosophy of Science? 1(4)
0 A Tale of Two Theories: The Story of Light
5(10)
BOOK I TRUTH, EXPLANATION, AND REALITY: THE CLASSICAL TRADITION AND ITS PROBLEMS 15(242)
PART I Basic Types of Reasoning in Science 17(46)
1 Hypotheses
19(7)
2 Deductive Reasoning
26(6)
3 Inductive Reasoning
32(9)
4* Statistical and Probabilistic Reasoning
41(16)
Summary, References, and Exercises for Part I
57(6)
PART II The Search for Truth 63(60)
5 Empirical Discovery of Plausible Hypotheses
65(8)
6 Empirical Evaluation I: Indirect Tests and Auxiliary Hypotheses
73(7)
7 Empirical Evaluation II: Crucial Tests and Ad Hoc Revisions
80(14)
8 Theoretical Justification: Theories and Their Uses
94(11)
9* Conventionalism and the Duhem-Quine Thesis
105(12)
Summary, References, and Exercises for Part II
117(6)
PART III The Quest for Explanation 123(78)
10 Covering-Law Thesis of Explanation
125(7)
11 Universal Laws of Nature
132(12)
12 Probabilistic Explanation and Probabilistic Causality
144(14)
13 Teleological Explanation, Mind, and Reductionism
158(16)
14* Other Theories of Explanation: The Contextual, the Causal, and the Unificatory
174(19)
Summary, References, and Exercises for Part III
193(8)
PART IV The Pursuit of Reality 201(52)
15 The Classical View of Scientific Theories
203(7)
16 Realism Versus Instrumentalism
210(10)
17 Critiques of the Classical View
220(14)
18* Antirealism I: The Empiricist Challenge
234(14)
Summary, References, and Exercises for Part IV
248(5)
INTERMEZZO So, How Does Science Work?
253(4)
BOOK II RATIONALISM, EMPIRICISM, POSITIVISM, AND CONSTRUCTIVISM: EVOLVING VIEWS AND PERSPECTIVES 257(224)
PART V Rationalism and Empiricism 259(58)
19 Rationalism and then Empiricism
261(12)
20 Problems of Empiricism IA: Hume's Problem
273(15)
21* Problems of Empiricism IB: Goodman's Paradox and Hempel's Paradox
288(17)
22 Problems of Empiricism II: Problem of of Observation
305(10)
References for Part V
315(2)
PART VI The Classical Dynasty 317(38)
23 Logical Positivism
319(20)
24 Popper's Falsificationism
339(14)
References for Part VI
353(2)
PART VII The Weltanschauung Revolution 355(38)
25 Introduction: Two Paradigm Theories
357(8)
26 Kuhn I: Normal Science and Revolutionary Science
365(11)
27 Kuhn II: Incommensurability and Relativism
376(14)
References for Part VII
390(3)
PART VIII Towards History, Sociology, and Artificial Intelligence 393(88)
28 Lakatos: The Revisionist Popperian
395(10)
29 Laudan: The Eclectic Historicist
405(17)
30* History, Sociology, and Philosophy of Science
422(18)
31* Antirealism II: The Constructivist Rebellion
440(13)
32* Artificial Intelligence and the Philosophy of Science
453(26)
References for Part VIII
479(2)
Epilogue 481(2)
Bibliography 483(8)
Index 491
* Chapters with asterisks are more advanced and may be omitted.

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