9780226789576

The Nature of Scientific Evidence: Statistical, Philosophical, and Empirical Considerations

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  • ISBN13:

    9780226789576

  • ISBN10:

    0226789578

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-08-01
  • Publisher: Univ of Chicago Pr
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Summary

An exploration of the statistical foundations of scientific inference,The Nature of Scientific Evidenceasks what constitutes scientific evidence and whether scientific evidence can be quantified statistically. Mark Taper, Subhash Lele, and an esteemed group of contributors explore the relationships among hypotheses, models, data, and inference on which scientific progress rests in an attempt to develop a new quantitative framework for evidence. Informed by interdisciplinary discussions among scientists, philosophers, and statisticians, they propose a new "evidential" approach, which may be more in keeping with the scientific method.The Nature of Scientific Evidencepersuasively argues that all scientists should care more about the fine points of statistical philosophy because therein lies the connection between theory and data.Though the book uses ecology as an exemplary science, the interdisciplinary evaluation of the use of statistics in empirical research will be of interest to any reader engaged in the quantification and evaluation of data.

Author Biography

Mark L. Taper is an associate professor in the Department of Ecology at Montana State University. Subhash R. Lele is a professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistical Sciences at the University of Alberta.

Table of Contents

Foreword by C.R. Rao xi
Preface xv
PART 1 SCIENTIFIC PROCESS 1(72)
Overview
Mark L. Taper and Subhash R. Lele
1 A Brief Tour of Statistical Concepts
3(14)
Nicholas Lewin-Koh, Mark L. Taper, and Subhash R. Lele
2 Models of Scientific Inquiry and Statistical Practice: Implications for the Structure of Scientific Knowledge
17(34)
Brian A. Maurer
2.1 Commentary
Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay and John G. Bennett
32(7)
2.2 Commentary
Mark L. Wilson
39(4)
2.3 Rejoinder
Brian A. Maurer
43(8)
3 Experiments, Observations, and Other Kinds of Evidence
51(22)
Samuel M. Scheiner
3.1 Commentary
Marie-Josee Fortin
66(1)
3.2 Commentary
Manuel C. Molles, Jr.
67(2)
3.3 Rejoinder
Samuel M. Scheiner
69(4)
PART 2 LOGICS OF EVIDENCE 73(144)
Overview
V.P. Godambe
4 An Error-Statistical Philosophy of Evidence
79(40)
Deborah G. Mayo
4.1 Commentary
Earl D. McCoy
97(2)
4.2 Commentary
George Casella
99(2)
4.3 Rejoinder
Deborah G. Mayo
101(18)
5 The Likelihood Paradigm for Statistical Evidence
119(34)
Richard Royall
5.1 Commentary
D.R. Cox
138(2)
5.2 Commentary
Martin Curd
140(5)
5.3 Rejoinder
Richard Royall
145(8)
6 Why Likelihood?
153(38)
Malcolm Forster and Elliott Sober
6.1 Commentary
Michael Kruse
165(2)
6.2 Commentary
Robert J. Boik
167(14)
6.3 Rejoinder
Malcolm Forster and Elliott Sober
181(10)
7 Evidence Functions and the Optimality of the Law of Likelihood
191(26)
Subhash R. Lele
7.1 Commentary
Christopher C. Heyde
203(2)
7.2 Commentary
Paul I. Nelson
205(2)
7.3 Rejoinder
Subhash R. Lele
207(10)
PART 3 REALITIES OF NATURE 217(108)
Overview
Mark S. Boyce
8 Whole-Ecosystem Experiments: Replication and Arguing from Error
221(54)
Jean A. Miller and Thomas M. Frost
8.1 Commentary
William A. Link
248(8)
8.2 Commentary
Charles E. McCulloch
256(2)
8.3 Rejoinder
Jean A. Miller
258(17)
9 Dynamical Models as Paths to Evidence in Ecology
275(23)
Mark L. Taper and Subhash R. Lele
9.1 Commentary Steven
Hecht Orzack
286(4)
9.2 Commentary
Philip M. Dixon
290(2)
9.3 Rejoinder
Mark L. Taper and Subhash R. Lele
292(6)
10 Constraints on Negative Relationships: Mathematical Causes and Ecological Consequences
298(27)
James H. Brown, Edward J. Bedrick, S. K. Morgan Ernest, Jean-Luc E. Cartron, and Jeffrey F. Kelly
10.1 Commentary
Robert D. Holt and Norman A. Slade
308(7)
10.2 Commentary
Steve Cherry
315(3)
10.3 Rejoinder
James H. Brown, Edward J. Bedrick, S.K. Morgan Ernest, Jean-Luc E. Cartron, and Jeffrey F. Kelly
318(7)
PART 4 SCIENCE, OPINION, AND EVIDENCE 325(112)
Overview
Mark L. Taper and Subhash R. Lele
11 Statistics and the Scientific Method in Ecology
327(52)
Brian Dennis
11.1 Commentary
Charles E. McCulloch
360(2)
11.2 Commentary
Aaron M. Ellison
362(5)
11.3 Rejoinder
Brian Dennis
367(12)
12 Taking the Prior Seriously: Bayesian Analysis without Subjective Probability
379(31)
Daniel Goodman
12.1 Commentary
Nozer D. Singpurwalla
400(1)
12.2 Rejoinder
Daniel Goodman
401(9)
13 Elicit Data, Not Prior: On Using Expert Opinion in Ecological Studies
410(27)
Subhash R. Lele
13.1 Commentary
R. Cary Tuckfield
423(5)
13.2 Commentary
Lance A. Waller
428(3)
13.3 Rejoinder
Subhash R. Lele
431(6)
PART 5 MODELS, REALITIES, AND EVIDENCE 437(88)
Overview
Mark L. Taper and Subhash R. Lele
14 Statistical Distances as Loss Functions in Assessing Model Adequacy
439(49)
Bruce G. Lindsay
14.1 Commentary
D.R. Cox
478(2)
14.2 Commentary
Stephen P. Ellner
480(3)
14.3 Rejoinder
Bruce G. Lindsay
483(5)
15 Model Identification from Many Candidates
488(37)
Mark L. Taper
15.1 Commentary
Isabella Verdinelli and Larry Wasserman
501(7)
15.2 Commentary
Hamparsum Bozdogan
508(11)
15.3 Rejoinder
Mark L. Taper
519(6)
PART 6 CONCLUSION 525(28)
16 The Nature of Scientific Evidence: A Forward-Looking Synthesis
527(26)
Mark L. Taper and Subhash R. Lele
List of Contributors 553(4)
Index 557

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