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Negotiation,9780072432558
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Negotiation

by ; ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072432558

ISBN10:
0072432551
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/27/2002
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 12/27/2002.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

Negotiation is a critical skill needed for effective management. NEGOTIATION 4/e explores the major concepts and theories of the psychology of bargaining and negotiation, and the dynamics of interpersonal and intergroup conflict and its resolution. It is relevant to a broad spectrum of management students, not only human resource management or industrial relations candidates.

Table of Contents

The Nature of Negotiation
1(30)
Joe and Sue Carter
1(2)
Introduction
3(1)
Characteristics of a Negotiation Situation
4(3)
Interdependence
7(2)
Mutual Adjustment
9(5)
Interdependence and Perceptions
14(2)
Value Creation
16(1)
Conflict
17(3)
Definitions
Levels of Conflict
Functions and Dysfunctions of Conflict
Factors That Make Conflict Difficult to Manage
Conflict Management
20(4)
Overview of the Chapters in This Book
24(6)
Negotiation: Strategizing, Framing, and Planning
30(44)
Goals---The Objectives That Drive a Negotiation Strategy
31(3)
Direct Effects of Goals on Choice of Strategy
Indirect Effects of Goals on Choice of Strategy
Strategy---The Overall Plan to Achieve One's Goals
34(3)
Strategy, Tactics, or Planning? Strategic Options---Vehicles for Achieving Goals
Defining the Issues---The Process of ``Framing'' the Problem
37(13)
Why Frames Are Critical to Understanding Strategy
Types of Frames
Another Approach to Frames: Interests, Rights, and Power
The Frame of an Issue Changes as the Negotiation Evolves
Understanding the Flow of Negotiations: Stages and Phases
50(3)
Phase Models of Negotiation
Getting Ready to Implement the Strategy: The Planning Process
53(19)
Defining the Issues
Assembling the Issues and Defining the Bargaining Mix
Defining Your Interests
Knowing Your Limits and Alternatives
Setting Targets and Openings
Assessing My Constituents
Analyzing the Other Party
What Strategy Do I Want to Pursue?
How Will I Present the Issues to the Other Party?
What Protocol Needs to Be Followed in This Negotiation?
Summary on the Planning Process
Chapter Summary
72(2)
Strategy and Tactics of Distributive Bargaining
74(39)
The Distributive Bargaining Situation
75(5)
The Role of Alternatives to a Negotiated Agreement
Settlement Point
Bargaining Mix
Fundamental Strategies
80(3)
Discovering the Other Party's Resistance Point
Influencing the Other Party's Resistance Point
Tactical Tasks
83(7)
Assess Outcome Values and the Costs of Termination
Manage the Other Party's Impressions
Modify the Other Party's Perceptions
Manipulate the Actual Costs of Delay or Termination
Positions Taken During Negotiation
90(6)
Opening Offer
Opening Stance
Initial Concessions
Role of Concessions
Pattern of Concession Making
Final Offer
Commitment
96(6)
Tactical Considerations in Using Commitments
Establishing a Commitment
Preventing the Other Party from Committing Prematurely
Finding Ways to Abandon a Committed Position
Closing the Deal
102(1)
Hardball Tactics
103(9)
Dealing with Typical Hardball Tactics
Typical Hardball Tactics
Chapter Summary
112(1)
Strategy and Tactics of Integrative Negotiation
113(34)
Introduction
113(1)
What Makes Integrative Negotiation Different?
An Overview of the Integrative Negotiation Process
114(3)
Creating a Free Flow of Information
Attempting to Understand the Other Negotiator's Real Needs and Objectives
Emphasizing the Commonalities between the Parties and Minimizing the Differences
Searching for Solutions That Meet the Goals and Objectives of Both Sides
Key Steps in the Integrative Negotiation Process
117(18)
Identify and Define the Problem
Understand the Problem Fully---Identify Interests and Needs
Generate Alternative Solutions
Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives
Factors That Facilitate Successful Integrative Negotiation
135(8)
Some Common Objective or Goal
Faith in One's Problem-Solving Ability
A Belief in the Validity of One's Own Position and the Other's Perspective
The Motivation and Commitment to Work Together
Trust
Clear and Accurate Communication
An Understanding of the Dynamics of Integrative Negotiation
Summary
Why Integrative Negotiation Is Difficult to Achieve
143(2)
The History of the Relationship between the Parties
A Belief That an Issue Can Only Be Resolved Distributively
The Mixed-Motive Nature of Most Negotiating Situations
Chapter Summary
145(2)
Perception, Cognition, and Communication
147(42)
Perception and Negotiation
148(4)
The Role of Perception
Perceptual Distortion in Negotiation
Framing
Section Summary
Cognitive Biases in Negotiation
152(9)
Irrational Escalation of Commitment
Mythical Fixed-Pie Beliefs
Anchoring and Adjustment
Framing
Availability of Information
The Winner's Curse
Overconfidence
The Law of Small Numbers
Self-Serving Biases
Endowment Effect
Ignoring Others' Cognitions
Reactive Devaluation
Managing Misperceptions and Cognitive Biases in Negotiation
161(2)
Reframing
Communication in Negotiation
163(5)
Distortion in Communication
Phase Models of Communication in Negotiation
What Is Communicated during Negotiation?
168(4)
Offers and Counteroffers
Information about Alternatives
Information about Outcomes
Social Accounts
Communication about Process
Is More Information Always Better?
How People Communicate in Negotiation
172(3)
Use of Language
Selection of a Communication Channel
How to Improve Communication in Negotiation
175(7)
The Use of Questions
Listening
Role Reversal
Mood, Emotion, and Negotiation
182(3)
Special Communication Considerations at the Close of Negotiations
185(2)
Avoiding Fatal Mistakes
Achieving Closure
Chapter Summary
187(2)
Finding and Using Negotiation Leverage
189(45)
Leverage as Advantage: Why Is Power Important to Negotiators?
189(3)
A Definition of Power
192(1)
Sources of Power---How People Acquire Power
193(9)
Power Based on Information and Expertise
Power Based on Control over Resources
Power Based on One's Position
Section Summary
Managing Power: Influence and Persuasion
202(3)
The Central Route to Influence: The Message and Its Delivery
205(6)
Message Content
Message Structure
Persuasive Style: How to Pitch the Message
Section Summary
Peripheral Routes to Influence
211(16)
Aspects of Messages That Foster Peripheral Influence
Source Characteristics That Foster Peripheral Influence
Aspects of Context That Foster Peripheral Influence
Section Summary
The Role of Receivers---Targets of Influence
227(5)
Attending to Others
Exploring or Ignoring the Other's Position
Resisting the Other's Influence
Section Summary
Chapter Summary
232(2)
Ethics in Negotiation
234(43)
Why Do Negotiators Need to Know about Ethics?
234(2)
What Are Ethics and Why Do They Apply to Negotiation?
236(2)
What Are the Major Ethical Concerns That Apply to Negotiation?
238(7)
End-Result Ethics
Rule Ethics
Social Contract Ethics
Personalistic Ethics
What Major Types of Ethical and Unethical Conduct Are Likely to Occur in Negotiation?
245(6)
The Range of Available Influence Tactics
Typologies of Deceptive Tactics and Attitudes toward Their Use
Does Tolerance for Unethical Tactics Lead to Their Actual Use?
Intentions and Motives to Use Deceptive Tactics
251(9)
The Motivation to Behave Unethically
The Consequences of Unethical Conduct
Explanations and Justifications
What Factors Shape a Negotiator's Predisposition to Use Unethical Tactics?
260(11)
Demographic Factors
Personality Differences and Moral Development
Moral Development and Personal Values
Contextual Influences on Unethical Conduct
How Can Negotiators Deal with the Other Party's Use of Deception?
271(3)
Chapter Summary
274(3)
Social Context: Relationships and Representatives
277(46)
The Number of Parties in a Negotiation
278(1)
Negotiating through Others within a Relationship
279(10)
The Adequacy of Past Theory and Research for Understanding Negotiation within Relationships
Forms of Relationships
Negotiations in Communal Relationships
Key Elements in Managing Negotiations within Relationships
289(9)
Trust
Justice
Summary
Using Representatives
298(24)
Audiences: Team Members, Constituents, Bystanders, and Audiences
Tactical Implications of Social Structure Dynamics: The Negotiator's Dilemma
Advice to Negotiators for Managing Their Constituencies and Audiences
Advice to Constituents in Managing Agents
Section Summary
Chapter Summary
322(1)
Coalitions, Multiple Parties, and Teams
323(40)
Situations with More Than Two Parties
323(2)
Coalitions in Negotiation
325(17)
What Is a Coalition? Types of Coalitions
Understanding When and Why Coalitions Form
The ``Tragedy of the Commons.''
How Coalitions Develop
Standards for Coalition Decision Making
Power and Leverage in Coalitions
How to Build Coalitions: Some Practical Advice
Section Summary
The Nature of Multiparty Negotiations
342(6)
Differences between Two-Party Negotiations and Multiparty Negotiations
Managing Multiparty Negotiations
348(12)
The Prenegotiation Stage
The Formal Negotiation Stage---Managing the Group Process and Outcome
The Agreement Phase
Interteam Negotiations
360(2)
Chapter Summary
362(1)
Individual Differences
363(31)
Early Research on Individual Differences and Negotiation
363(4)
Personality and Negotiation
367(10)
Conflict Management Style
Social Value Orientation
Interpersonal Trust
Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control
Self-Monitoring
Machiavellianism
The ``Big Five'' Personality Factors
Section Summary
Sex, Gender, and Negotiation
377(8)
Male and Female Negotiators: Theoretical Perspectives
Male and Female Negotiators: Recent Empirical Findings
Section Summary
Abilities in Negotiation
385(2)
Cognitive Ability
Emotional Intelligence
Perspective-Taking Ability
The Behavioral Approach to Differences among Negotiators
387(2)
Closing Comments: The Future of Research on Individual Differences in Negotiation
389(2)
Chapter Summary
391(3)
Global Negotiation
394(29)
The American Negotiating Style
395(1)
Not Everyone Negotiates Like Americans!
396(2)
What Makes Cross-Border Negotiations Different?
398(6)
Environmental Context
Immediate Context
How Do We Explain Global Negotiation Outcomes?
404(1)
Conceptualizing Culture and Negotiation
405(2)
Culture as Learned Behavior
Culture as Shared Values
Culture as Dialectic
Culture in Context
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture
407(5)
Individualism/Collectivism
Power Distance
Masculinity/Femininity
Uncertainty Avoidance
Section Summary
How Do Cultural Differences Influence Negotiations?
412(4)
Culturally Responsive Negotiation Strategies
416(5)
Low Familiarity
Moderate Familiarity
High Familiarity
Chapter Summary
421(2)
Managing Difficult Negotiations: Individual Approaches
423(40)
Introduction
423(1)
The Nature of ``Difficult to Resolve'' Negotiations and Why They Occur
424(11)
The Nature of Impasse
What Makes a Negotiation Intractable?
Characteristics of the Parties
Characteristics of the Negotiation Context
Characteristics of the Issues
Characteristics of the Conflict Resolution Processes
Section Summary
Strategies for Resolving Impasse: Joint Approaches
435(18)
Reducing Tension and Synchronizing De-escalation
Improving the Accuracy of Communication
Controlling Issues
Establishing Common Ground
Enhancing the Desirability of Options to the Other Party
Section Summary
Mismatched Models: Intentional and Otherwise
453(8)
Responding to the Other Side's Hard Distributive Tactics
Responding When the Other Side Has More Power
The Special Problem of Handling Ultimatums
Responding When the Other Side Is Being Difficult
Chapter Summary
461(2)
Managing Difficult Negotiations: Third-Party Approaches
463(36)
Adding Third Parties to the Two-Party Negotiation Process
463(6)
Benefits and Liabilities of Third-Party Intervention
When Is Third-Party Involvement Appropriate?
Which Type of Intervention Is Appropriate?
Types of Third-Party Intervention
469(1)
Formal Intervention Methods
469(17)
Arbitration
Mediation
Trading Off the Advantages and Disadvantages of Arbitration versus Mediation
Process Consultation
Informal Intervention Methods
486(7)
Which Approach Is More Effective?
Dispute Resolution Systems: When the Organization Is the Third Party
493(4)
Chapter Summary
497(2)
Bibliography 499(34)
Name Index 533(8)
Subject Index 541


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