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Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780838566947

ISBN10:
0838566944
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/1/1996
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill
List Price: $79.95
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Summary

This book approaches Neuroanatomy from both functional and regional perspectives considering those parts of the nervous system that work together to produce behavior.

Table of Contents

Box Features vi
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Guide to Using This Book xxi
I The Central Nervous System
Introduction to the Central Nervous System
1(32)
Neurons and Glia Are the Two Principal Cellular Constituents of the Nervous System
1(4)
The Nervous System Consists of Separate Peripheral and Central Components
5(1)
The Spinal Cord Displays the Simplest Organization of All Seven Major Divisions
6(1)
The Brain Stem and Cerebellum Regulate Body Functions and Movements
6(4)
The Diencephalon Consists of the Thalamus and Hypothalamus
10(1)
The Cerebral Hemispheres Have the Most Complex Three-dimensional Configuration of All Central Nervous System Divisions
11(6)
Cavities Within the Central Nervous System Contain Cerebrospinal Fluid
17(2)
The Central Nervous System Is Covered by Three Meningeal Layers
19(2)
An Introduction to Neuroanatomical Terms
21(2)
Techniques for Studying the Regional Anatomy and Interconnections of the Central Nervous System
23(7)
Summary
Cellular Organization of the Nervous System
30(1)
Regional Anatomy of the Nervous System
30(1)
Ventricular System
30(1)
Meninges
30(1)
Axes and Planes of Section
31(1)
Techniques for Visualizing Components of the Central Nervous System
31(2)
Development of the Central Nervous System
33(28)
The Neurons and Glial Cells Derive from Cells of the Neural Plate
33(3)
The Neural Tube Forms Five Brain Vesicles and the Spinal Cord
36(2)
The Spinal Cord and Hindbrain Have a Segmented Structure
38(3)
The Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Develop From the Caudal and Intermediate Portions of the Neural Tube
41(7)
The Cerebellum Develops From the Rhombic Lips
48(2)
The Rostral Portion of the Neural Tube Gives Rise to the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheres
50(7)
Summary
Early Development of the Central Nervous System
57(1)
Development of Major Central Nervous System Divisions
57(1)
Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Development
58(1)
Development of the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheres
58(3)
Internal Organization of the Central Nervous System
61(32)
Longitudinally Oriented Systems Have a Component at Each Level of the Neuraxis
62(3)
The Spinal Cord Has a Central Cellular Region Surrounded by a Region That Contains Myelinated Axons
65(4)
Surface Features of the Brain Stem Mark Key Internal Structures
69(5)
The Thalamus Transmits Information From Subcortical Structures to the Cerebral Cortex
74(4)
The Internal Capsule Contains Ascending and Descending Axons
78(4)
Cerebral Cortex Neurons Are Organized Into Layers
82(2)
The Cytoarchitectonic Map of the Cerebral Cortex Is the Basis for a Map of Cortical Function
84(1)
Neurons in the Brain Stem and Basal Forebrain Have Diffuse Projections and Regulate Central Nervous System Neuronal Excitability
84(4)
Summary
Spinal Cord Organization
88(1)
Brain Stem Organization
88(1)
Organization of Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheres
89(1)
Diffuse-projecting Neurotransmitter-specific Systems
89(4)
Vasculature of the Central Nervous System and the Cerebrospinal Fluid
93(32)
The Vertebral and Carotid Arteries Supply Blood to the Central Nervous System
93(2)
The Spinal and Radicular Arteries Supply Blood to the Spinal Cord
95(1)
The Vertebral and Basilar Arteries Supply Blood to the Brain Stem
96(1)
The Anterior and Posterior Circulations Supply the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheres
97(14)
Cerebral Veins Drain Into the Dural Sinuses
111(1)
The Blood-Brain Barrier Isolates the Chemical Environment of the Central Nervous System From That of the Rest of the Body
111(2)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Serves Many Diverse Functions
113(7)
Summary
Arterial Supply of the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem
120(1)
Arterial Supply of the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheres
120(1)
Collateral Circulation
120(1)
Venous Drainage
120(1)
Blood-Brain Barrier
120(1)
Production and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid
121(4)
II Sensory Systems
The Somatic Sensory System
125(36)
Functional Anatomy of the Somatic Sensory Pathways
125(1)
The Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System and the Anterolateral System Mediate Different Somatic Sensations
125(7)
Regional Anatomy
132(1)
The Terminal Processes of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Are the Somatic Sensory Receptors
132(3)
Dorsal Root Axons With Different Diameters Terminate in Different Central Nervous System Locations
135(3)
The Dorsal Columns Have Two Separate Components That Mediate Touch From the Upper and Lower Extremities
138(2)
Ascending Axons of the Anterolateral System Originate in the Spinal Gray Matter
140(1)
Three Key Sensory Deficits That Follow Spinal Cord Injury Permit Localization of Trauma
141(3)
Somatic Sensory Decussation in the Medulla is Located Rostral to the Pyramidal Decussation
144(2)
Vascular Lesions of the Caudal Brain Stem Differentially Affect Somatic Sensory Function
146(1)
The Reticular Formation of the Medulla and Pons Receives a Projection From the Anterolateral System
147(1)
Descending Pain Suppression Pathways Originate From the Brain Stem
148(1)
Separate Nuclei in the Medial and Lateral Thalamus Process Somatic Sensory Information
149(2)
The Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex Is Located in the Postcentral Gyrus
151(4)
Higher-order Somatic Sensory Cortical Areas Are Located in the Parietal Lobe, Parietal Operculum, and Insular Cortex
155(1)
Summary
Somatic Sensory Pathways
156(1)
Receptor Neurons
156(1)
Spinal Cord
156(1)
Brain Stem
157(1)
Thalamus
157(1)
Somatic Sensory Cortical Regions
157(4)
The Visual System
161(38)
The Functional Anatomy of the Visual System
161(1)
Anatomically Separate Visual Paths Mediate Perception and Ocular Reflex Function
161(3)
Regional Anatomy
164(1)
The Optical Properties of the Eye Transform Visual Stimuli
164(1)
The Retina Contains Five Major Layers
164(6)
Each Optic Nerve Contains All of the Axons of Ganglion Cells in the Ipsilateral Retina
170(1)
The Superior Colliculus Is Important in Oculomotor Control and Orientation
171(2)
Ganglion Cell Axons From the Ipsilateral and Contralateral Halves of the Retina Terminate in Different Layers of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
173(3)
The Primary Visual Cortex Is the Target of Projections From the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
176(1)
The Magnocellular and Parvocellular Systems Have Differential Laminar Projections in the Primary Visual Cortex
176(4)
The Primary Cortex Has a Columnar Organization
180(5)
Higher-order Visual Cortical Areas Analyze Distinct Aspects of Visual Stimuli
185(5)
The Visual Field Changes in Characteristic Ways After Damage to the Visual System
190(5)
Summary
Retina
195(1)
Visual Field and Optic Nerves
196(1)
Midbrain
196(1)
Thalamus
196(1)
Visual Cortical Areas
196(1)
Visual Field Defects
197(2)
The Auditory and Vestibular Systems
199(24)
Functional Anatomy of the Auditory and Vestibular Systems
199(1)
Parallel Ascending Auditory Pathways May Be Involved in Different Aspects of Hearing
199(4)
The Vestibular Nuclei Receive Monosynaptic Input From the Vestibular Division of the Eighth Cranial Nerve
203(1)
Regional Anatomy
204(1)
The Auditory and Vestibular Sensory Organs Are Located Within the Membranous Labyrinth
204(4)
The Vestibular Nuclei Have Functionally Diverse Projections
208(2)
The Topography of Connections Between Brain Stem Auditory Nuclei Provides Insight Into the Functions of Parallel Ascending Auditory Pathways
210(2)
Stimulation of the Olivocochlear Bundle Suppresses Auditory Responses in the Cochlear Nerve
212(1)
Auditory Brain Stem Axons Ascend in the Lateral Lemniscus
213(2)
The Inferior Colliculus Is Located in the Midbrain Tectum
215(1)
The Medial Geniculate Nucleus Contains a Division That Is Tonotopically Organized
216(2)
The Auditory Cortical Areas Are Located on the Superior Surface of the Temporal Lobe
218(2)
Summary
Auditory System
220(1)
Peripheral Auditory Apparatus
220(1)
Medulla and Pons
220(1)
Midbrain and Thalamus
220(1)
Cerebral Cortex
220(1)
Vestibular System
221(1)
Peripheral Vestibular Sensory Organs
221(1)
Vestibular Nuclei and Ascending Vestibular Projection
221(2)
The Gustatory, Visceral Afferent, and Olfactory Systems
223(26)
The Gustatory and Visceral Afferent Systems
224(1)
There Are Separate Gustatory and Visceral Afferent Ascending Pathways
224(1)
Regional Anatomy
225(1)
Branches of the Facial, Glossopharyngeal, and Vagus Nerves Innervate Different Parts of the Oral Cavity
225(5)
The Solitary Nucleus Is the First Central Nervous System Relay For Taste and Visceral Afferent Information
230(2)
The Parvocellular Portion of the Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus Relays Gustatory Information to the Frontal Operculum and Anterior Insular Cortex
232(2)
The Olfactory System
234(1)
The Olfactory Projection to the Cerebral Cortex Does Not Relay in the Thalamus
234(1)
Regional Anatomy
235(1)
The Primary Olfactory Neurons Are Located in the Nasal Mucosa
235(1)
The Olfactory Bulb Is the First Central Nervous System Relay For Olfactory Input
236(2)
The Olfactory Bulb Projects to Structures on the Ventral Brain Surface Through the Olfactory Tract
238(2)
The Primary Olfactory Cortex Receives a Direct Input From the Olfactory Bulb
240(4)
Summary
Gustatory System
244(1)
Sensory Receptors and Peripheral Nerves
244(1)
Brain Stem, Thalamus, and Cerebral Cortex
244(1)
Olfactory System
244(1)
Receptors and Olfactory Nerve
244(1)
Telencephalon
244(5)
III Motor Systems
Descending Projection Systems and the Motor Function of the Spinal Cord
249(42)
Functional Anatomy of the Motor Systems and the Descending Pathways
249(1)
Diverse Central Nervous System Structures Comprise the Motor Systems
249(4)
There Are Three Functional Classes of Descending Pathways
253(2)
Descending Pathways Synapse on Segmental Interneurons and Propriospinal Neurons in Addition to Motor Neurons
255(1)
The Descending Pathways Have a Parallel and Hierarchical Organization
255(1)
The Functional Organization of the Descending Pathways Parallels the Somatotopic Organization of the Motor Nuclei in the Ventral Horn
256(8)
Regional Anatomy
261(3)
Motor Regions of the Cerebral Cortex Are Located in the Frontal Lobe
264(7)
The Projection From Cortical Motor Regions Passes Through the Internal Capsule En Route to the Brain Stem and Spinal Cord
271(1)
The Corticospinal Tract Courses in the Base of the Midbrain
272(2)
Descending Cortical Fibers Separate Into Small Fascicles in the Ventral Pons
274(1)
The Vestibular Nuclei Are Located in the Dorsal Pons and Medulla
275(1)
The Lateral Corticospinal Tract Decussates in the Caudal Medulla
276(3)
The Intermediate Zone and Ventral Horn of the Spinal Cord Receive Input From the Descending Pathways
279(5)
Lesions of the Descending Cortical Pathway in the Brain and Spinal Cord Produce Flaccid Paralysis Followed by Spasticity
284(2)
Summary
Descending Pathways
286(1)
Lateral Descending Systems
286(1)
Medial Descending Systems
287(4)
The Cerebellum
291(32)
Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum
291(1)
The Convoluted Surface of the Cerebellar Cortex Is Organized Into Three Lobes
291(4)
Functional Anatomy of the Cerebellum
295(1)
All Three Functional Divisions of the Cerebellum Display a Similar Input-Output Organization
295(9)
Regional Anatomy
304(1)
The Instrinsic Circuitry of the Cerebellar Cortex Is Similar For the Different Functional Divisions
304(5)
Spinal Cord and Medullary Sections Reveal Nuclei and Paths Transmitting Somatic Sensory Information to the Cerebellum
309(2)
The Vestibulocerebellum Receives Input From Primary and Secondary Vestibular Neurons
311(2)
The Pontine Nuclei Provide the Major Input to the Cerebrocerebellum
313(1)
The Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Are Located Within the White Matter
314(1)
The Superior Cerebellar Peduncle Decussates in the Caudal Midbrain
315(1)
The Ventral Lateral Nucleus Relays Cerebellar Output to the Premotor and Primary Motor Cortices
316(1)
Damage to the Cerebellum Produces Neurological Signs on the Same Side as the Lesion
317(2)
Summary
Cerebellar Gross Anatomy
319(1)
Cerebellar Cortex
319(1)
Cerebellar Afferents
319(1)
Cerebellar Functional Divisions
320(3)
The Basal Ganglia
323(30)
Functional Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
324(1)
Separate Components of Basal Ganglia Process Incoming Information and Mediate the Output
324(2)
Parallel Circuits Course Through the Basal Ganglia
326(4)
Knowledge of the Connections and Neurotransmitters of the Basal Ganglia Provides Insight Into Their Function in Health and Disease
330(4)
Regional Anatomy
334(1)
The Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule Separates the Head of the Caudate Nucleus From the Putamen
334(3)
Cell Bridges Link the Caudate Nucleus and the Putamen
337(4)
The External Segment of the Globus Pallidus and the Ventral Pallidum Are Separated by the Anterior Commissure
341(1)
The Internal Segment of the Globus Pallidus Projects to the Thalamus Via the Ansa Lenticularis and the Lenticular Fasciculus
341(2)
Lesion of the Subthalamic Region Produces a Movement Disorder
343(1)
The Substantia Nigra Contains Two Anatomical Divisions
344(3)
The Vascular Supply of the Basal Ganglia Is Provided by the Middle Cerebral Artery
347(1)
Summary
Basal Ganglia Nuclei
347(1)
Basal Ganglia Functional Loops
347(1)
Intrinsic Basal Ganglia Connections
348(5)
IV The Brain Stem
General Organization of the Cranial Nerve Nuclei and the Trigeminal System
353(30)
Cranial Nerves and Nuclei
353(2)
There Are Important Differences Between the Sensory and Motor Innervation of Cranial Structures and That of the Limbs and Trunk
355(4)
Cranial Nerves Have a Complex Nomenclature
359(1)
Cranial Nerve Nuclei Are Organized Into Rostrocaudal Columns
359(1)
Cranial Sensory Columns Are Located Lateral to the Motor Columns
360(3)
Functional Anatomy of the Trigeminal System
362(1)
Separate Trigeminal Pathways Mediate Touch and Pain and Temperature Senses
363(5)
Regional Anatomy
368(1)
Separate Sensory Roots Innervate Different Parts of the Face and Mucous Membranes of the Head
368(2)
Cell Bodies of Primary Afferent Fibers Mediating Facial Somatic Sensations Are Located in the Perpheral Ganglia and in the Central Nervous System
370(1)
The Key Components of the Trigeminal System Are Present at All Levels of the Brain Stem
370(7)
The Ventral Posterior Nucleus Contains Separate Divisions That Mediate Somatic Sensation of the Face and Body
377(1)
The Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus Projects to the Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex
378(1)
Summary
The Cranial Nerves
379(1)
Cranial Nerve Nuclei Columns
380(1)
Trigeminal Sensory System
380(3)
The Somatic and Visceral Motor Functions of the Cranial Nerves
383(36)
Functional Anatomy of Cranial Motor Nuclei
383(1)
The Cranial Motor Nuclei Are Controlled by the Cerebral Cortex and Diencephalon
383(3)
Neurons in the General Somatic Motor Cell Column Innervate Striated Muscles That Develop From the Occipital Somites
386(3)
The Special Visceral Motor Cell Column Innervates Skeletal Muscles That Develop From the Branchial Arches
389(4)
The General Visceral Motor Cell Column Contains Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
393(3)
Regional Anatomy
396(1)
The Spinal Accessory Nucleus Is Located at the Junction of the Spinal Cord and Medulla
396(1)
A Level Through the Midmedulla Reveals the Locations of Six Cranial Nerve Nuclei
397(4)
The Glossopharyngeal Nerve Enters and Exits From the Rostral Medulla
401(1)
The Fibers of the Facial Nerve Have a Complex Trajectory Through the Pons
402(1)
Eye Movement Deficits After an Abducens Nerve Lesion Differ From Those After a Lesion of the Abducens Nucleus
402(7)
The Motor Nucleus of the Trigeminal Nerve Is Located Medial to the Main Sensory Nucleus
409(1)
The Trochlear Nerve Exits the Dorsal Surface of the Pons at the Level of the Isthmus
410(1)
The Cranial Nerve Cell Columns Have a Dorsoventral Spatial Organization in the Midbrain
411(2)
The Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus and Components of the General Somatic Motor Column Are Seen on a Midsagittal Section
413(1)
Summary
General Somatic Motor Nuclei
413(1)
Special Visceral Motor Nuclei
414(1)
General Visceral Motor Nuclei
414(5)
V Integrative Systems
The Hypothalamus and the Regulation of Endocrine and Visceral Functions
419(28)
Functional Anatomy of the Neuroendocrine Systems
419(1)
The Hypothalamus Is Divided Into Three Functionally Distinct Mediolateral Zones
419(3)
Separate Parvocellular and Magnocellular Neurosecretory Systems Regulate Hormone Release From the Anterior and Posterior Lobes of the Pituitary
422(6)
Functional Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System Control
427(1)
The Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Originate From Different Central Nervous System Locations
428(2)
Descending Projections From the Hypothalamus Regulate Autonomic Function
430(3)
Regional Anatomy
433(1)
The Preoptic Region Influences Release of Reproductive Hormones From the Anterior Pituitary
433(1)
The Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei Comprise the Magnocellular Neurosecretory System
434(2)
The Parvocellular Neurosecretory Neurons Project to the Median Eminence
436(2)
The Posterior Hypothalamus Contains the Mammillary Bodies
438(1)
Descending Autonomic Fibers Course in the Periaqueductal Gray Matter and in the Dorsolateral Tegmentum
439(4)
Preganglionic Neurons Are Located in the Lateral Intermediate Zone of the Spinal Cord
443(1)
Summary
General Hypothalamic Anatomy
443(1)
Neuroendocrine Control
443(1)
Autonomic Nervous System and Visceromotor Functions
444(3)
The Limbic System
447(34)
Functional Anatomy of the Limbic System
448(1)
Components of the Limbic System Are C-shaped
448(1)
The Limbic Association Cortex Is Located on the Medial Surface of the Frontal, Parietal, and Temporal Lobes
449(2)
The Hippocampal Formation Plays a Role in Memory Consolidation
451(5)
The Amygdaloid Nuclear Complex Contains Three Major Functional Divisions
456(1)
The Basolateral Nuclei Are Reciprocally Connected With the Cerebral Cortex
457(3)
There Are Connections Between Components of the Limbic System and the Effector Systems
460(1)
All Major Neurotransmitter Regulatory Systems Have Projections to the Limbic System
461(2)
Regional Anatomy
462(1)
The Nucleus Accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle Comprise Part of the Basal Forebrain
463(1)
Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Systems Have Diffuse Limbic and Neocortical Projections
464(1)
The Cingulum Courses Beneath the Cingulate and Parahippocampal Gyri
465(1)
The Three Nuclear Divisions of the Amygdala Are Revealed in Coronal Section
466(3)
The Hippocampal Formation Is Located in the Floor of the Inferior Horn of the Lateral Ventricle
469(3)
A Sagittal Cut Through the Mammillary Bodies Reveals the Fornix and Mammillothalamic Tract
472(3)
Nuclei in the Brain Stem Link Telencephalic and Diencephalic Limbic Structures With the Autonomic Nervous System and the Spinal Cord
475(1)
Summary
General Anatomy of the Limbic System
475(1)
Limbic Association Cortex
475(1)
Hippocampal Formation
475(1)
Amygdala
476(5)
VI Atlas
AI Surface Topography of the Central Nervous System 481(16)
All Myelin-Stained Sections Through the Central Nervous System 497(64)
Index 561


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