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Neuroscience for the Study of Communicative Disorders

by ;
ISBN13:

9780683007404

ISBN10:
0683007408
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/1995
Publisher(s):
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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Summary

"Neuroscience for the Study of Communicative Disorders, Third Edition remains an ideal resource that teaches neuroscience fundamentals without encyclopedic details of anatomy and physiology. This text takes a step-by-step, simplified approach, and contains relevant information in its application of neuroscience for students and practitioners in speech-language-pathology and audiology."--BOOK JACKET.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. vii
Preface to the Second Editionp. viii
Preface to the First Editionp. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Scope, Principles, and Elements of Neurosciencep. 1
Relationship Between Neuroscience and Speech-Language-Hearing Pathologyp. 1
Domain of Neurosciencep. 1
Domain of Speech-Language-Hearing Pathologyp. 2
Need for Training in Neurosciencep. 2
Nature of Training in Neurosciencep. 2
Benefits of Training in Neurosciencep. 2
Scope of Neurosciencep. 3
Neurologyp. 3
Neurosurgeryp. 4
Neuroanatomyp. 4
Neuroradiologyp. 4
Neuroembryologyp. 4
Neurophysiologyp. 4
Neuropathologyp. 5
Principles Governing Functional Organization of the Human Brainp. 5
Interconnectivity in the Brainp. 5
Centrality of the Central Nervous Systemp. 5
Hierarchy of Neuraxial Organizationp. 5
Laterality of Brain Organizationp. 5
Bilateral Anatomical Symmetryp. 5
Unilateral Functional Differencesp. 6
Contralateral Sensorimotor Controlp. 6
Structural and Functional Specializationp. 6
Topographical Organization in Cortical Pathwaysp. 6
Plasticity in the Brainp. 7
Nonmythical Brainp. 7
Orientation to Basic Terminologyp. 7
Directional Brain Orientationp. 7
Planes of Brain Sectionp. 7
Terms Relating to Movementp. 8
Terms Relating to Musclesp. 9
Additional Termsp. 9
Gross Structures of the Central Nervous Systemp. 11
Functional Classification of Nervous Systemp. 12
Cellular Organization (Cytoarchitecture) and Brodmann Areasp. 13
Techniques for Solving Problems When Learning Neurosciencep. 14
Simplification of Technical Terminologyp. 14
Visual Approach to Neurosciencep. 15
Functional Context for Learning Neuroanatomyp. 16
Deductive Reasoning and Problem Solvingp. 16
Rules for Lesion Localizationp. 16
Summaryp. 17
Technical Termsp. 18
Review Questionsp. 18
Gross Anatomy of the Central Nervous Systemp. 21
Structures of Central and Peripheral Nervous Systemsp. 21
Primary Divisions of the Brainp. 23
Gross Structures of the Brainp. 23
Telencephalonp. 23
Cerebral Hemispheresp. 23
Cortical Surfacesp. 24
Additional Structuresp. 35
Limbic Lobep. 38
Basal Gangliap. 38
Diencephalonp. 42
Thalamusp. 42
Hypothalamusp. 42
Brainstemp. 42
Midbrainp. 44
Ponsp. 45
Medulla Oblongatap. 47
Cerebellump. 47
Cerebellar Pedunclesp. 48
Input to Cerebellump. 48
Output From Cerebellump. 48
Spinal Cordp. 48
Ventriclesp. 55
Lateral Ventriclesp. 56
Third Ventriclep. 56
Fourth Ventriclep. 58
Medullary Centers in the Brainp. 58
Projection Fibersp. 58
Association Fibersp. 59
Commissural Fibersp. 61
Meninges of the Brainp. 62
Dura Materp. 62
Falx Cerebrip. 64
Tentorium Cerebellip. 64
Falx Cerebellip. 64
Arachnoid Membranep. 64
Pia Materp. 64
Meninges of the Spinal Cordp. 67
Spinal Dura Materp. 67
Spinal Arachnoid Membranep. 67
Spinal Pia Materp. 68
Cranial Nervesp. 68
Nomenclaturep. 68
Functionsp. 68
Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 71
Lesion Localizationp. 71
Cortical Lesionp. 71
Presenting Symptomsp. 71
Rationalep. 72
Subcortical Lesionp. 72
Presenting Symptomsp. 72
Rationalep. 72
Clinical Considerationsp. 73
Summaryp. 73
Technical Termsp. 73
Review Questionsp. 74
Internal Anatomy of the Central Nervous Systemp. 76
Anatomical Orientation Landmarksp. 76
Shapes of Corticospinal Fibersp. 76
Shape of Ventricular Cavityp. 78
Spinal Cord in Cross-Sectionsp. 78
Sacral Sectionp. 78
Lumbar Sectionp. 79
Thoracic Sectionp. 79
Cervical Sectionp. 79
Brainstem in Transverse Sectionsp. 81
Medulla Oblongatap. 81
Caudal Medullap. 82
Lower (Caudal) Third of Medullap. 83
Middle Third of Medullap. 84
Rostral Third of Medullap. 86
Ponsp. 87
Lower Ponsp. 87
Middle Ponsp. 87
Pontomidbrain Junctionp. 89
Midbrainp. 91
Caudal Midbrainp. 91
Rostral Midbrainp. 91
High Rostral Midbrainp. 93
Midbrain-Diencephalon Junctionp. 94
Forebrain in Coronal Sectionsp. 96
Coronal Section Through Posterior Thalamusp. 98
Coronal Section Through Midthalamusp. 98
Coronal Section Through Anterior Thalamusp. 101
Coronal Section Through Anterior Commissurep. 101
Coronal Section Through Anterior Limb of Internal Capsule and Caudate Headp. 101
Coronal Section Through Anterior Hornp. 106
Forebrain in Horizontal Sectionsp. 106
Summaryp. 109
Technical Termsp. 109
Review Questionsp. 109
Embryological Development of the Central Nervous Systemp. 111
Human Chromosomes, Genes, and Cell Divisionp. 111
Early Human Developmentp. 112
Gametogenesisp. 112
Fertilization and First Week of Developmentp. 114
Second Week of Developmentp. 114
Third Week of Developmentp. 116
Development of the Central Nervous Systemp. 116
Neural Plate, Neural Tube, and Neural Crestp. 116
Brainp. 116
Prosencephalon, or Forebrainp. 119
Mesencephalon, or Midbrainp. 120
Rhombencephalon, or Hindbrainp. 120
Spinal Cordp. 120
Clinical Considerationsp. 120
Abnormal Development of the Central Nervous Systemp. 120
Anencephalyp. 121
Cranium Bifidump. 122
Spina Bifidap. 122
Hydrocephalusp. 122
Microcephalyp. 122
Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 122
Normal Developmentp. 122
Abnormal Developmentp. 123
Summaryp. 123
Technical Termsp. 123
Review Questionsp. 123
Nerve Cellsp. 125
Neuronp. 125
Nerve Cell Structurep. 125
Cell Bodyp. 125
Dendritic and Axonal Processesp. 126
Myelin Sheathp. 127
Synapsep. 127
Nerve Cell Typesp. 127
Neuronal Circuitsp. 128
Neuroglial Cellsp. 128
Central and Peripheral Nervous Systemsp. 130
Nerve Impulsep. 130
Nerve Excitabilityp. 131
Impulse Conductionp. 132
Neuronal Responses to Brain Injuriesp. 132
Axonal Reactionp. 133
Wallerian Degenerationp. 134
Neuroglial Responsesp. 134
Axonal Regeneration in Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 135
Axonal Regeneration in Central Nervous Systemp. 135
Neurotransmittersp. 135
Acetylcholinep. 135
Monoaminesp. 137
Dopaminep. 137
Norepinephrinep. 137
Serotoninp. 138
[gamma]-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)p. 138
Peptidesp. 138
Drug Treatment Principlesp. 138
Clinical Considerationsp. 138
Multiple Sclerosisp. 138
Myasthenia Gravisp. 139
Summaryp. 140
Technical Termsp. 140
Review Questionsp. 141
Diencephalon: Thalamus and Associated Structuresp. 142
Gross Anatomy of Diencephalonp. 142
Thalamusp. 142
Thalamic Structurep. 143
Projections and Functions of Thalamic Nucleip. 145
Anterior Nucleusp. 145
Medial Nuclear Complexp. 146
Lateral Nuclear Complexp. 147
Ventral Nuclear Complexp. 148
Additional Nuclei in the Thalamusp. 149
Reticular Nucleusp. 149
Intralaminar Nucleip. 149
Functional Classification of Thalamic Nucleip. 149
Specific Thalamic Nucleip. 149
Nonspecific Thalamic Nucleip. 150
Epithalamusp. 150
Subthalamusp. 150
Hypothalamusp. 150
Cognitive Functions of Thalamusp. 150
Thalamic Syndromep. 151
Summaryp. 151
Technical Termsp. 151
Review Questionsp. 152
Somatosensory Systemp. 153
Somatosensationp. 153
Types of Sensationp. 153
Specialized Receptorsp. 154
Encapsulated Endingsp. 154
Free Nerve Endingsp. 155
Expanded Tip Endingsp. 155
Three-Neuron Organization of Somatosensory Systemp. 155
Innervation Patternp. 155
Anatomical Division of Somatosensory Systemp. 156
Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal Systemp. 156
Receptorsp. 157
Neural Pathwaysp. 157
Clinical Considerations and Assessmentp. 159
Anterolateral Systemp. 160
Lateral Spinothalamic Tractp. 160
Anterior Spinothalamic Tractp. 163
Trigeminal Nervep. 165
Three-Neuron Organization of Trigeminal Systemp. 165
Fine Discriminative Touch From Facep. 165
Receptorsp. 165
Neural Pathwayp. 165
Clinical Considerations and Assessmentp. 167
Pain and Temperature From Facep. 167
Receptorsp. 167
Neural Pathwayp. 167
Clinical Considerations and Assessmentp. 167
Diffuse Touch From Facep. 168
Receptorsp. 168
Neural Pathwayp. 168
Clinical Considerations and Assessmentp. 168
Unconscious Proprioceptionp. 168
Innervation Patternp. 168
Receptorsp. 168
Neural Pathwaysp. 168
Clinical Considerations and Assessmentp. 170
Lesion Localizationp. 170
Spinal Central Gray Lesionp. 170
Presenting Symptomsp. 170
Rationalep. 170
Summaryp. 171
Technical Termsp. 171
Review Questionsp. 171
Visual Systemp. 173
Eyeballp. 173
Anatomy of the Eyeballp. 173
Anatomy of Retinap. 176
Distribution of Photosensorsp. 177
Functions of Photosensorsp. 178
Photochemistry of Retinap. 178
Spectral Sensitivityp. 179
Color Visionp. 179
Dark Adaptationp. 180
Optical Mechanismp. 180
Refractionp. 180
Lens Typesp. 180
Optics of the Eyep. 181
Retinal Image Formationp. 182
Lens Shapep. 182
Pupillary Aperturep. 182
Convergencep. 182
Central Visual Pathwaysp. 182
Retinal Representation of Visual Fieldsp. 182
Retinal Representation to Optic Chiasmp. 184
Retinal Representation to Lateral Geniculate Bodyp. 184
Retinal Representation to Visual Cortexp. 184
Visual Cortexp. 185
Visual Reflexesp. 185
Pupillary Light Reflexp. 185
Accommodation Reflexp. 185
Clinical Informationp. 188
Errors of Refractionp. 188
Hypermetropiap. 188
Myopiap. 188
Astigmatismp. 189
Disorders of Color Visionp. 189
Visual Acuity Assessmentp. 190
Visual Field Defectsp. 190
Monocular Blindnessp. 190
Bitemporal, or Heteronymous Hemianopsiap. 190
Nasal Hemianopsiap. 191
Homonymous Hemianopsiap. 191
Homonymous Left Superior Quadrantanopsiap. 191
Homonymous Left Inferior Quadrantanopsiap. 192
Other Common Disorders of the Visual Mechanismp. 192
Presbyopiap. 192
Cataractp. 192
Glaucomap. 192
Inflammatory Infectionsp. 192
Retinitis Pigmentosap. 192
Lesion Localizationp. 192
Visual Pathway Lesionp. 192
Presenting Symptomsp. 192
Rationalep. 192
Presenting Symptoms (B)p. 192
Rationalep. 192
Presenting Symptoms (C)p. 192
Rationalep. 192
Presenting Symptoms (D)p. 193
Rationalep. 193
Summaryp. 193
Technical Termsp. 193
Review Questionsp. 193
Auditory Systemp. 195
Sound, Properties, and Measurementsp. 195
Anatomy and Physiologyp. 197
External Earp. 197
Middle Earp. 197
Transmission of Sound Pressure Variationsp. 197
Pressure Equalizationp. 198
Reflexive Control of Ossicle Movementp. 198
Inner Earp. 198
Cochlear Structurep. 198
Cochlear Functionp. 199
Electrical Transductionp. 200
Retrocochlear Auditory Mechanismp. 200
Central Auditory Pathwaysp. 200
Cochlear Nucleusp. 201
Cochlear Projectionsp. 202
Superior Olivary Nucleusp. 202
Lateral Lemniscusp. 202
Inferior Colliculusp. 202
Medial Geniculate Bodyp. 203
Primary and Auditory Association Cortexp. 203
Auditory Reflexesp. 205
Distinctive Properties of Auditory Systemp. 205
Bilateral Auditory Representationp. 205
Sound Source Localizationp. 205
Tonotopic Representationp. 205
Descending Auditory Projectionsp. 205
Clinical Informationp. 205
Hearing Impairmentsp. 205
Conductive Hearing Lossp. 206
Sensorineural Hearing Lossp. 206
Mixed Hearing Lossp. 206
Effects of Cortical Lesionp. 206
Evaluation of Hearing Disordersp. 206
Tuning Forkp. 207
Rinne Testp. 207
Weber Testp. 207
Tympanometryp. 207
Pure Tone Audiometryp. 207
Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentialsp. 208
Summaryp. 208
Technical Termsp. 209
Review Questionsp. 209
Vestibular Systemp. 210
Anatomy of Vestibular Systemp. 210
Semicircular Ducts and Vestibular Sacsp. 210
Vestibular Nerve and Nucleip. 211
Primary Vestibular Projectionsp. 211
Projections to Cerebellump. 213
Projections to Medial Longitudinal Fasciculusp. 213
Projections to Spinal Cordp. 214
Additional Vestibular Projectionsp. 214
Physiology of Equilibriump. 214
Dynamic Equilibriump. 215
Sensation of Rotationp. 215
Stage 1p. 215
Stage 2p. 215
Stage 3p. 215
Static Equilibriump. 215
Nystagmusp. 216
Induced Vestibular Eye Movements, or Nystagmusp. 216
Clinical Informationp. 217
Disturbances of Vestibular Systemp. 217
Motion Sicknessp. 217
Vertigop. 217
Labyrinth Dysfunctionp. 217
Clinical Diagnostic Testsp. 217
Acceleration-Rotation Chairp. 217
Caloric Stimulationp. 217
Summaryp. 218
Technical Termsp. 218
Review Questionsp. 218
Motor System 1: Spinal Cordp. 219
Spinal Preparationp. 219
Innervation Patternp. 220
Gross Anatomy of Spinal Cordp. 220
Internal Anatomyp. 220
Segmental Organizationp. 223
Motor Unitp. 223
Tracts of Spinal Cordp. 223
Descending Tractsp. 224
Corticospinal Tractsp. 224
Extrapyramidal Tractsp. 225
Autonomic Pathwaysp. 226
Ascending Tractsp. 226
Fasciculus Gracilisp. 226
Fasciculus Cuneatusp. 226
Anterior Spinothalamic Tractp. 226
Lateral Spinothalamic Tractp. 226
Ventral Spinocerebellar Tractp. 226
Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tractp. 226
Cuneocerebellar Tractp. 226
Motor Nuclei of Spinal Cordp. 226
[alpha]-Motor Neuronsp. 227
[gamma]-Motor Neuronsp. 227
Interneuronsp. 227
Motor Functions of Spinal Cordp. 227
Muscle Spindles and Their Role in Motor Activityp. 228
Muscle Spindlesp. 228
Dynamic Responsesp. 230
Static Responsesp. 230
Golgi Tendon Organsp. 230
Movement Initiationp. 230
Spinal Reflexesp. 230
Stretch, or Myotatic, Reflexp. 230
Withdrawal, or Flexor, Reflexp. 232
Crossed, or Intrasegmental, Extensor Reflexp. 232
Neurotransmittersp. 233
Clinical Considerationsp. 234
Lower Motor Neuron Syndromep. 234
Common Spinal Syndromesp. 235
Complete Spinal Transectionp. 235
Brown-Sequard's Syndrome: Spinal Hemisectionp. 236
Syringomyeliap. 237
Subacute Combined Degenerationp. 238
Lesion Localizationp. 239
Complete Spinal Cord Lesionp. 239
Presenting Symptomsp. 239
Rationalep. 239
Spinal Hemisection: Brown-Sequard's Syndromep. 239
Presenting Symptomsp. 239
Rationalep. 239
Peripheral or Central Lesionp. 239
Presenting Symptomsp. 239
Rationalep. 239
Summaryp. 240
Technical Termsp. 240
Review Questionsp. 240
Motor System 2: Cerebellump. 241
Innervation Patternp. 242
Cerebellar Anatomyp. 242
Transverse and Longitudinal Cerebellar Regionsp. 242
Cerebellar Connectionsp. 243
Afferent Pathwaysp. 245
Efferent Pathwaysp. 246
Cerebellar Cortexp. 248
Structurep. 248
Neuronal Circuitry of a Cerebellar Functional Unitp. 248
Clinical Considerationsp. 249
Signs of Cerebellar Dysfunctionp. 249
Ataxiap. 249
Dysdiadochokinesiap. 249
Dysarthriap. 249
Dysmetriap. 249
Intention Tremorp. 250
Hypotoniap. 250
Reboundingp. 250
Disequilibriump. 250
Common Cerebellar Pathologiesp. 250
Cerebrovascular Accidentp. 250
Toxicityp. 250
Progressive Cerebellar Degenerationp. 250
Summaryp. 251
Technical Termsp. 251
Review Questionsp. 251
Motor System 3: Brainstem and Basal Gangliap. 252
Brainstem Motor Mechanismp. 252
Brainstem Anatomyp. 252
Reticular Motor Functionsp. 254
Muscle Tone Regulationp. 254
Reciprocal Excitation and Inhibitionp. 255
Summary of Brainstem Reticular Motor Mechanismp. 255
Basal Gangliap. 255
Innervation Patternp. 255
Anatomyp. 255
Basal Ganglia Circuitryp. 256
Physiology of Basal Ganglia Circuitryp. 257
Anatomy of Basal Ganglia Circuitryp. 258
Striatump. 258
Globus Pallidusp. 259
Subthalamusp. 259
Substantia Nigrap. 260
Basal Ganglia Neurotransmittersp. 260
Clinical Consideration of Basal Gangliap. 261
Athetosisp. 261
Ballismp. 261
Choreap. 261
Tremorsp. 261
Associated Movement Disordersp. 262
Basal Ganglia Diseasesp. 262
Parkinson's Diseasep. 262
Huntington's Choreap. 262
Wilson's Disease: Hepatolenticular Degenerationp. 263
Basal Ganglia and Psychiatric Disordersp. 263
Summary of Basal Gangliap. 263
Summaryp. 264
Technical Termsp. 264
Review Questionsp. 264
Motor System 4: Motor Cortexp. 265
Anatomy of Motor Cortexp. 265
Innervation Patternp. 267
Descending Pathwaysp. 267
Corticospinal Tractp. 268
Corticobulbar Tractp. 269
Clinical Considerationsp. 269
Spastic Hemiplegiap. 269
Pseudobulbar Palsyp. 269
Alternating Hemiplegiap. 270
Upper Motor Neuron Syndromep. 271
Lesion Localizationp. 272
Upper or Lower Motor Neuron Lesionp. 272
Presenting Symptomsp. 272
Rationalep. 272
Brainstem Lesionp. 272
Presenting Symptomsp. 272
Rationalep. 272
Summaryp. 273
Technical Termsp. 273
Review Questionsp. 273
Cranial Nervesp. 275
Functional Classification of Cranial Nervesp. 276
Efferentp. 276
Afferentp. 277
Branchial Origin of Speech-Related Musclesp. 277
Cranial Nerves and the Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 279
Cranial Nerve Nucleip. 280
Midbrainp. 280
Ponsp. 280
Medullap. 281
Pathwaysp. 282
Motor, or Efferent, Pathwaysp. 282
Sensory, or Afferent, Pathwaysp. 283
Pattern of Innervationp. 283
Cranial Nerves and Their Sensorimotor Functionsp. 284
Olfactory Nervep. 284
Special Visceral Afferentp. 284
Clinical Informationp. 285
Optic Nervep. 285
Special Somatic Afferentp. 286
Clinical Informationp. 287
Oculomotor Nervep. 287
General Somatic Efferentp. 287
General Visceral Efferentp. 287
Clinical Informationp. 289
Trochlear Nervep. 289
General Somatic Efferentp. 289
Clinical Informationp. 289
Abducens Nervep. 290
General Somatic Efferentp. 290
Clinical Informationp. 290
Trigeminal Nervep. 291
General Somatic Afferentp. 291
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferentp. 293
Clinical Informationp. 293
Facial Nervep. 295
General Visceral Efferentp. 296
Special Visceral Afferentp. 296
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferentp. 296
Clinical Informationp. 296
Vestibuloacoustic Nervep. 300
Special Somatic Afferentp. 300
Clinical Informationp. 300
Glossopharyngeal Nervep. 300
General Visceral Afferentp. 301
General Visceral Efferentp. 301
Special Visceral Afferentp. 302
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferentp. 302
Clinical Informationp. 302
Vagus Nervep. 303
General Visceral Afferentp. 303
General Visceral Efferentp. 303
Special Visceral Afferentp. 303
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferentp. 303
Clinical Informationp. 304
Spinal Accessory Nervep. 306
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferentp. 306
Clinical Informationp. 307
Hypoglossal Nervep. 307
General Somatic Efferentp. 307
Clinical Informationp. 308
Function-Based Cranial Nerve Combinationsp. 309
Motor Control of Eye Musclesp. 309
Sensory Nerve Supply to Tonguep. 310
Motor Nerve Supply to Soft Palate and Pharynxp. 310
Sensory Innervation of Soft Palate and Pharynxp. 311
Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Syndromesp. 311
Summaryp. 314
Technical Termsp. 314
Review Questionsp. 314
Autonomic Nervous System, Limbic System, Hypothalamus, and Reticular Formationp. 316
Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 316
Anatomical Organizationp. 317
Visceral Efferent Systemp. 317
Sympathetic Systemp. 317
Parasympathetic Systemp. 318
Visceral Afferent Systemp. 318
Neurotransmittersp. 319
Central Autonomic Pathwaysp. 320
Clinical Informationp. 320
Summary of Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 320
Limbic Systemp. 321
Anatomical Structuresp. 322
Amygdalap. 323
Hippocampusp. 324
Cingulate Gyrusp. 324
Septump. 324
Clinical Informationp. 324
Summary of Limbic Systemp. 324
Hypothalamusp. 324
Anatomical Structuresp. 324
Afferentsp. 325
Efferentsp. 325
Hypothalamic Functionsp. 326
Autonomic Innervationp. 326
Body Temperature Regulationp. 326
Water Intake Regulationp. 327
Feedingp. 327
Punishmentp. 327
Hypothalamic Regulation of Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)p. 327
Neurotransmitters and Behaviorsp. 328
Clinical Informationp. 329
Summary of Hypothalamusp. 329
Reticular Formationp. 329
Anatomical Structuresp. 329
Afferentsp. 330
Efferentsp. 330
Functional Considerationsp. 330
Regulation of Cortical Arousalp. 330
Regulation of Sensory Functionsp. 330
Integrated Motor Functionsp. 331
Cardiovascular Activityp. 331
Respirationp. 331
Swallowingp. 333
Vomitingp. 333
Coughingp. 333
Autonomic Functionsp. 333
Biological Rhythmsp. 333
Self-Awarenessp. 333
Head and Eye Movementsp. 333
Reticular Neurotransmittersp. 334
Clinical Informationp. 334
Summary of Reticular Formationp. 334
Summaryp. 335
Technical Termsp. 336
Review Questionsp. 336
Vascular Systemp. 337
Vascular Networkp. 337
Cerebrovascular Supplyp. 338
Carotid Systemp. 338
Vertebral Basilar Systemp. 339
Circle of Willisp. 340
Cortical Arteriesp. 340
Central Arteriesp. 342
Blood Supply to Spinal Cordp. 344
Collateral Circulationp. 345
Vascular Pathologyp. 345
Occlusive Vascular Pathologyp. 345
Hemorrhagep. 346
Arteriovenous Malformationsp. 347
Selective Vulnerability to Anoxiap. 348
Risk Factorsp. 348
Venous Sinus Systemp. 348
Dural Sinusesp. 348
Cerebral Veinsp. 349
Veins of the Spinal Cordp. 349
Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flowp. 349
Treatment of Vascular Diseasesp. 351
Blood-Brain Barrierp. 351
Lesion Localizationp. 352
Vascular System Disorderp. 352
Presenting Symptomsp. 352
Rationalep. 352
Presenting Symptoms (B)p. 352
Rationalep. 352
Presenting Symptoms (C)p. 352
Rationalep. 352
Summaryp. 353
Technical Termsp. 353
Review Questionsp. 353
Cerebrospinal Fluidp. 354
Choroid Plexusp. 354
Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulationp. 354
Absorption of the Cerebrospinal Fluidp. 355
Clinical Considerationsp. 355
Circulatory Disordersp. 355
Treatmentp. 357
Diagnostic Significance of Cerebrospinal Fluidp. 357
Summaryp. 357
Technical Termsp. 358
Review Questionsp. 358
Cerebral Cortex: Higher Mental Functionsp. 359
Methods of Studyp. 359
Functional Localization in the Brainp. 359
Frontal Lobep. 360
Parietal Lobep. 360
Temporal Lobep. 361
Occipital Lobep. 361
Disorders of Cortical Functionsp. 361
Cerebral Dominance and Functional Specializationp. 361
Speech and Language Disordersp. 362
Motor Speech Disordersp. 362
Apraxia of Speechp. 362
Aphasiap. 362
Alexias: Neurology of Readingp. 365
Agraphia: Neurology of Writingp. 366
Apraxias: Neurology of Learned Movementp. 366
Agnosias: Neurology of Recognitionp. 367
Dementias: Neurology of Cognitionp. 368
Traumatic Brain Injuryp. 370
Summaryp. 370
Technical Termsp. 370
Review Questionsp. 370
Diagnostic Techniques and Neurological Conceptsp. 371
Brain Imagingp. 371
Cerebral Angiographyp. 372
Computed Tomographyp. 373
Magnetic Resonance Imagingp. 375
Regional Cerebral Blood Flowp. 376
Positron Emission Tomographyp. 376
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomographyp. 377
Sodium Amytal Infusion for Assessing Cerebral Dominancep. 380
Electroencephalographyp. 380
Electromyographyp. 381
Evoked Potentialsp. 382
Visual Evoked Potentialp. 382
Somatosensory Evoked Potentialp. 382
Auditory Evoked Potentialp. 383
Dichotic Listeningp. 383
Lumbar Puncturep. 383
Neurosurgical Proceduresp. 385
Craniotomy, or Cortical Mappingp. 385
Stereotactic Surgery, or Subcortical Mappingp. 386
Cordotomyp. 387
Internal Carotid-External Carotid Anastomosisp. 387
Carotid Endarterectomyp. 387
Aneurysm Clippingp. 387
Genetic Inheritancep. 387
Dominant Inheritancep. 388
Recessive Inheritancep. 388
X-Linked Inheritancep. 389
Specific Neurological Disordersp. 389
Seizures and Epilepsyp. 389
Partial/Focal, or Simple, Epilepsyp. 390
Partial Complex, or Psychomotor, Seizuresp. 391
Petit Mal, or Absence, Seizuresp. 391
Grand Mal, or Tonic-Clonic, Seizuresp. 391
Antiepileptic Drugsp. 391
Sleep and Altered Consciousnessp. 391
Toxic Encephalopathiesp. 393
Myopathiesp. 393
Peripheral Neuropathiesp. 393
Neoplastic Growthp. 394
Cerebral Infectionsp. 394
Summaryp. 394
Technical Termsp. 394
Review Questionsp. 394
Appendicesp. 396
Glossaryp. 406
Referencesp. 421
Figure and Table Creditsp. 423
Indexp. 427
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