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Neuroscience for the Study of Communicative Disorders

by
ISBN13:

9780781723466

ISBN10:
0781723469
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
List Price: $85.86
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Summary

This revised, updated Second Edition continues to give students a strong foundation in neuroanatomy as it applies to speech-language pathology and audiology. New features include: additional and revised color illustrations and tables to reinforce technical details; an expanded clinical discussion section with more case studies; and a technical glossary in the appendix. This concise, yet comprehensive, user-friendly book is the only neuroscience text that meets the educational needs of students who study communication disorders. For more information, visithttp://connection.LWW.com/go/bhatnager.

Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Preface to the Second Edition viii
Preface to the First Edition ix
Acknowledgments xi
Scope, Principles, and Elements of Neuroscience
1(20)
Relationship Between Neuroscience and Speech-Language-Hearing Pathology
1(2)
Domain of Neuroscience
1(1)
Domain of Speech-Language-Hearing Pathology
2(1)
Need for Training in Neuroscience
2(1)
Nature of Training in Neuroscience
2(1)
Benefits of Training in Neuroscience
2(1)
Scope of Neuroscience
3(2)
Neurology
3(1)
Neurosurgery
4(1)
Neuroanatomy
4(1)
Neuroadiology
4(1)
Neuroembryology
4(1)
Neurophysiology
4(1)
Neuropathology
5(1)
Principles Governing Functional Organization of the Human Brain
5(2)
Interconnectivity in the Brain
5(1)
Centrality of the Central Nervous System
5(1)
Hierarchy of Neuraxial Organization
5(1)
Laterality of Brain Organization
5(1)
Bilateral Anatomical Symmetry
5(1)
Unilateral Functional Differences
6(1)
Contralateral Sensorimotor Control
6(1)
Structural and Functional Specialization
6(1)
Topographical Organization in Cortical Pathways
6(1)
Plasticity in the Brain
7(1)
Nonmythical Brain
7(1)
Orientation to Basic Terminology
7(7)
Directional Brain Orientation
7(1)
Planes of Brain Section
7(1)
Terms Relating to Movement
8(1)
Terms Relating to Muscles
9(1)
Additional Terms
9(2)
Gross Structures of the Central Nervous System
11(1)
Functional Classification of Nervous System
12(1)
Cellular Organization (Cytoarchitecture) and Brodmann Areas
13(1)
Techniques for Solving Problems When Learning Neuroscience
14(3)
Simplification of Technical Terminology
14(1)
Visual Approach to Neuroscience
15(1)
Functional Context for Learning Neuroanatomy
16(1)
Deductive Reasoning and Problem Solving
16(1)
Rules for Lesion Localization
16(1)
Summary
17(1)
Technical Terms
18(1)
Review Questions
18(3)
Gross Anatomy of the Central Nervous Systems
21(55)
Structures of Centeral and Peripheral Nervous Systems
21(2)
Primary Divisions of the Brain
23(1)
Gross Structures of the Brain
23(32)
Telencephalon
23(1)
Cerebral Hemispheres
23(1)
Cortical Surfaces
24(11)
Additional Structures
35(3)
Limbic Lobe
38(1)
Basal Ganglia
38(4)
Diencephalon
42(1)
Thalamus
42(1)
Hypothalamus
42(1)
Brainstem
42(2)
Midbrain
44(1)
Pons
45(2)
Medulla Oblongata
47(1)
Cerebellum
47(1)
Cerebellar Peduncles
48(1)
Input to Cerebellum
48(1)
Output From Cerebellum
48(1)
Spinal Cord
48(7)
Ventricles
55(3)
Lateral Ventricles
56(1)
Third Ventricle
56(2)
Fourth Ventricle
58(1)
Medullary Centers in the Brain
58(4)
Projection Fibers
58(1)
Association Fibers
59(2)
Commissural Fibers
61(1)
Meninges of the Brain
62(5)
Dura Mater
62(2)
Falx Cerebri
64(1)
Tentorium Cerebelli
64(1)
Falx Cerebelli
64(1)
Arachnoid Membrane
64(1)
Pia Mater
64(3)
Meninges of the Spinal Cord
67(1)
Spinal Dura Mater
67(1)
Spinal Arachnoid Membrane
67(1)
Spinal Pia Mater
68(1)
Cranial Nerves
68(3)
Nomenclature
68(1)
Functions
68(3)
Autonomic Nervous Systems
71(1)
Lesion Localization
71(2)
Cortical Lesion
71(1)
Presenting Symptoms
71(1)
Rationale
72(1)
Subcortical Lesion
72(1)
Presenting Symptoms
72(1)
Rationale
72(1)
Clinical Considerations
73(1)
Summary
73(1)
Technical Terms
73(1)
Review Questions
74(2)
Internal Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
76(35)
Anatomical Orientation Landmarks
76(2)
Shapes of Corticospinal Fibers
76(2)
Shapes of Ventricular Cavity
78(1)
Spinal Cord in Cross-Sections
78(3)
Sacral Section
78(1)
Lumbar Section
79(1)
Thoracic Section
79(1)
Cervical Section
79(2)
Brainstem in Transeverse Sections
81(15)
Medulla Oblongata
81(1)
Caudal Medulla
82(1)
Lower (Caudal) Third of Medulla
83(1)
Middle Third of Medulla
84(2)
Rostral Third of Medulla
86(1)
Pons
87(1)
Lower Pons
87(1)
Middle Pons
87(2)
Pontomidbrain Junction
89(2)
Midbrain
91(1)
Caudal Midbrain
91(1)
Rostral Midbrain
91(2)
High Rostral Midbrain
93(1)
Midbrain-Diencephalon Junction
94(2)
Forebrain in Coronal Sections
96(10)
Coronal Section Through Posterior Thalamus
98(1)
Coronal Section Through Midthalamus
98(3)
Coronal Section Through Anterior Thalamus
101(1)
Coronal Section Through Anterior Commissure
101(1)
Coronal Section Through Anterior Limb of Internal Capsule and Caudate Head
101(5)
Coronal Section Through Anterior Horn
106(1)
Forebrain in Horizontal Sections
106(3)
Summary
109(1)
Technical Terms
109(1)
Review Questions
109(2)
Embryological Development of the Central Nervous System
111(14)
Human Chromosomes, Genes, and Cell Division
111(1)
Early Human Development
112(4)
Gametogenesis
112(2)
Fertilization and First Week of Development
114(1)
Second Week of Development
114(2)
Third Week of Development
116(1)
Development of the Central Nervous System
116(4)
Neural, Plate, Neural Tube, and Neural Crest
116(1)
Brain
116(3)
Prosencephalon, or Forebrain
119(1)
Mesencephalon, or Midbrain
120(1)
Rhombencephalon, or Hindbrain
120(1)
Spinal Cord
120(1)
Clinical Considerations
120(3)
Abnormal Development of the Central Nervous System
120(1)
Anencephaly
121(1)
Cranium Bifidum
122(1)
Spina Bifida
122(1)
Hydrocephalus
122(1)
Microcephaly
122(1)
Peripheral Nervous System
122(1)
Normal Develoment
122(1)
Abnormal Development
123(1)
Summary
123(1)
Technical Terms
123(1)
Review Questions
123(2)
Nerve Cells
125(17)
Neuron
125(5)
Nerve Cell Structure
125(1)
Cell Body
125(1)
Dendritic and Axonal Processes
126(1)
Myelin Sheath
127(1)
Synapse
127(1)
Nerve Cell Types
127(1)
Neuronal Circuits
128(1)
Neuroglial Cells
128(2)
Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
130(1)
Nerve Impulse
130(2)
Nerve Excitability
131(1)
Impulse Conduction
132(1)
Neuronal Responses to Brain Injuries
132(3)
Axonal Reaction
133(1)
Wallerian Degeneration
134(1)
Neuroglial Responses
134(1)
Axonal Regeneration in Peripheral Nervous System
135(1)
Axonal Regeneration in Central Nervous System
135(1)
Neurotransmitters
135(3)
Acetylcholine
135(2)
Monoamines
137(1)
Dopamine
137(1)
Norepinephrine
137(1)
Serotonin
138(1)
γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
138(1)
Peptides
138(1)
Drug Treatment Principles
138(1)
Clinical Considerations
138(2)
Multiple Sclerosis
138(1)
Myasthenia Gravis
139(1)
Summary
140(1)
Technical Terms
140(1)
Review Questions
141(1)
Diencephalon: Thalamus and Associated Structures
142(11)
Gross Anatomy of Diencephalon
142(1)
Thalamus
142(7)
Thalamic Structure
143(2)
Projections and Functions of Thalamic Nuclei
145(1)
Anterior Nucleus
145(1)
Medial Nuclear Complex
146(1)
Lateral Nuclear Complex
147(1)
Ventral Nuclear Complex
148(1)
Additional Nuclei in the Thalamus
149(1)
Reticular Nucleus
149(1)
Intralaminar Nuclei
149(1)
Functional Classification of Thalamic Nuclei
149(1)
Specific Thalamic Nuclei
149(1)
Nonspecific Thalamic Nuclei
150(1)
Epithalamus
150(1)
Subthalamus
150(1)
Hypothalamus
150(1)
Cognitive Functions of Thalamus
150(1)
Thalamic Syndrome
151(1)
Summary
151(1)
Technical Terms
151(1)
Review Questions
152(1)
Somatosensory System
153(20)
Somatosensation
153(2)
Types of Sensation
153(1)
Specialized Receptors
154(1)
Encapsulated Endings
154(1)
Free Nerve Endings
155(1)
Expanded Tip Endings
155(1)
Three-Neuron Organization of Somatosensory System
155(1)
Innervation Pattern
155(1)
Anatomical Division of Somatosensory System
156(9)
Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System
156(1)
Receptors
157(1)
Neural Pathways
157(2)
Clinical Considerations and Assessment
159(1)
Anterolateral System
160(1)
Lateral Spinothalamic Tract
160(3)
Anterior Spinothalamic Tract
163(2)
Trigeminal Nerve
165(3)
Three-Neuron Organization of Trigeminal System
165(1)
Fine Discriminative Touch From Face
165(1)
Receptors
165(1)
Neural Pathway
165(2)
Clinical Considerations and Assessment
167(1)
Pain and Temperature From Face
167(1)
Receptors
167(1)
Neural Pathway
167(1)
Clinical Considerations and Assessment
167(1)
Diffuse Touch From Face
168(1)
Receptors
168(1)
Neural Pathway
168(1)
Clinical Considerations and Assessment
168(1)
Unconscious Proprioception
168(2)
Innervation Pattern
168(1)
Receptors
168(1)
Neural Pathways
168(2)
Clinical Considerations and Assessment
170(1)
Lesion Localization
170(1)
Spinal Central Gray Lesion
170(1)
Presenting Symptoms
170(1)
Rationale
170(1)
Summary
171(1)
Technical Terms
171(1)
Review Questions
171(2)
Visual System
173(22)
Eyeball
173(5)
Anatomy of the Eyeball
173(3)
Anatomy of Retina
176(1)
Distribution of Photosensors
177(1)
Functions of Photosensors
178(1)
Photochemistry of Retina
178(2)
Spectral Sensitivity
179(1)
Color Vision
179(1)
Dark Adaptation
180(1)
Optical Mechanism
180(2)
Refraction
180(1)
Lens Types
180(1)
Optics of the Eye
181(1)
Retinal Image Formation
182(1)
Lens Shape
182(1)
Pupillary Aperture
182(1)
Convergence
182(1)
Centeral Visual Pathways
182(3)
Retinal Representation of Visual Fields
182(2)
Retinal Representation to Optic Chiasm
184(1)
Retinal Representation to Lateral Geniculate Body
184(1)
Retinal Representation to Visual Cortex
184(1)
Visual Cortex
185(1)
Visual Reflexes
185(3)
Pupillary Light Reflex
185(1)
Accommodation Reflex
185(3)
Clinical Information
188(2)
Errors of Refraction
188(1)
Hypermetropia
188(1)
Myopia
188(1)
Astigmatism
189(1)
Disorders of Color Vision
189(1)
Visual Acuity Assessment
190(1)
Visual Field Defects
190(2)
Monocular Blindness
190(1)
Bitemporal, or Heteronymous Hemianopsia
190(1)
Nasal Hemianopsia
191(1)
Homonymous Hemianopsia
191(1)
Homonymous Left Superior Quadrantanopsia
191(1)
Homonymous Left Inferior Quadrantanopsia
192(1)
Other Common Disorders of the Visual Mechanism
192(1)
Presbyopia
192(1)
Cataract
192(1)
Glaucoma
192(1)
Inflammatory Infections
192(1)
Retinitis Pigmentosa
192(1)
Lesion Localization
192(1)
Visual Pathway Lesion
192(1)
Presenting Symptoms (A)
192(1)
Rationale
192(1)
Presenting Symptoms (B)
192(1)
Rationale
192(1)
Presenting Symptoms (C)
192(1)
Rationale
192(1)
Presenting Symptoms (D)
193(1)
Rationale
193(1)
Summary
193(1)
Technical Terms
193(1)
Review Questions
193(2)
Auditory System
195(15)
Sound, Properties, and Measurements
195(2)
Anatomy and Physiology
197(8)
External Ear
197(1)
Middle Ear
197(1)
Transmission of Sound Pressure Variations
197(1)
Pressure Equalization
198(1)
Reflexive Control of Ossicle Movement
198(1)
Inner Ear
198(1)
Cochlear Structure
198(1)
Cochlear Function
199(1)
Electrical Transduction
200(1)
Retrocochlear Auditory Mechanism
200(1)
Central Auditory Pathways
200(1)
Cochlear Nucleus
201(1)
Cochlear Projections
202(1)
Superior Olivary Nucleus
202(1)
Lateral Lemniscus
202(1)
Inferior Colliculus
202(1)
Medial Geniculate Body
203(1)
Primary and Auditory Association Cortex
203(2)
Auditory Reflexes
205(1)
Distinctive Properties of Auditory System
205(1)
Bilateral Auditory Representation
205(1)
Sound Source Localization
205(1)
Tonotopic Representation
205(1)
Descending Auditory Projections
205(1)
Clinical Information
205(3)
Hearing Impairments
205(1)
Conductive Hearing Loss
206(1)
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
206(1)
Mixed Hearing Loss
206(1)
Effects of Cortical Lesion
206(1)
Evaluation of Hearing Disorders
206(1)
Tuning Fork
207(1)
Rinne Test
207(1)
Weber Test
207(1)
Tympanometry
207(1)
Pure Tone Audiometry
207(1)
Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
208(1)
Summary
208(1)
Technical Terms
209(1)
Review Questions
209(1)
Vestibular System
210(9)
Anatomy of Vestibular System
210(4)
Semicircular Ducts and Vestibular Sacs
210(1)
Vestibular Nerve and Nuclei
211(1)
Primary Vestibular Projections
211(2)
Projections to Cerebellum
213(1)
Projections to Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
213(1)
Projections to Spinal Cord
214(1)
Additional Vestibular Projections
214(1)
Physiology of Equilibrium
214(3)
Dynamic Equilibrium
215(1)
Sensation of Rotation
215(1)
Stage 1
215(1)
Stage 2
215(1)
Stage 3
215(1)
Static Equilibrium
215(1)
Nystagmus
216(1)
Induced Vestibular Eye Movements, or Nystagmus
216(1)
Clinical Information
217(1)
Disturbances of Vestibular System
217(1)
Motion Sickness
217(1)
Vertigo
217(1)
Labyrinth Dysfunction
217(1)
Clinical Diagnostic Tests
217(1)
Acceleration-Rotation Chair
217(1)
Caloric Stimulation
217(1)
Summary
218(1)
Technical Terms
218(1)
Review Questions
218(1)
Motor System 1: Spinal Cord
219(22)
Spinal Preparation
219(1)
Innervation Pattern
220(1)
Gross Anatomy of Spinal Cord
220(3)
Internal Anatomy
220(3)
Segmental Organization
223(1)
Motor Unit
223(1)
Tracts of Spinal Cord
223(3)
Descending Tracts
224(1)
Corticospinal Tracts
224(1)
Extrapyramidal Tracts
225(1)
Autonomic Pathways
226(1)
Ascending Tracts
226(1)
Fasciculus Gracilis
226(1)
Fasciculus Cuneatus
226(1)
Anterior Spinothalamic Tract
226(1)
Lateral Spinothalamic Tract
226(1)
Ventral Spinocerebellar Tract
226(1)
Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract
226(1)
Cuneocerebellar Tract
226(1)
Motor Nuclei of Spinal Cord
226(1)
α-Motor Neurons
227(1)
γ-Motor Neurons
227(1)
Interneurons
227(1)
Motor Functions of Spinal Cord
227(3)
Muscle Spindles and Their Role in Motor Activity
228(1)
Muscle Spindles
228(2)
Dynamic Responses
230(1)
Static Responses
230(1)
Golgi Tendon Organs
230(1)
Movement Initiation
230(1)
Spinal Reflexes
230(3)
Stretch, or Myotatic, Reflex
230(2)
Withdrawal, or Flexor, Reflex
232(1)
Crossed, or Intrasegmental, Extensor Reflex
232(1)
Neurotransmitters
233(1)
Clinical Considerations
234(5)
Lower Motor Neuron Syndrome
234(1)
Common Spinal Syndromes
235(1)
Complete Spinal Transection
235(1)
Brown-Sequard's Syndrome: Spinal Hemisection
236(1)
Syringomyelia
237(1)
Subacute Combined Degeneration
238(1)
Lesion Localization
239(1)
Complete Spinal Cord Lesion
239(1)
Presenting Symptoms
239(1)
Rationale
239(1)
Spinal Hemisection: Brown-Sequard's Syndrome
239(1)
Presenting Symptoms
239(1)
Rationale
239(1)
Peripheral or Central Lesion
239(1)
Presenting Symptoms
239(1)
Rationale
239(1)
Summary
240(1)
Technical Terms
240(1)
Review Questions
240(1)
Motor System 2: Cerebellum
241(11)
Innervation Pattern
242(1)
Cerebellar Anatomy
242(6)
Transverse and Longitudinal Cerebellar Regions
242(1)
Cerebellar Connections
243(2)
Afferent Pathways
245(1)
Efferent Pathways
246(2)
Cerebellar Cortex
248(1)
Structure
248(1)
Neuronal Circuitry of a Cerebellar Functional Unite
248(1)
Clinical Considerations
249(2)
Signs of Cerebellar Dysfunctions
249(1)
Ataxia
249(1)
Dysdiadochokinesia
249(1)
Dysarthria
249(1)
Dysmetria
249(1)
Intention Tremor
250(1)
Hypotonia
250(1)
Rebounding
250(1)
Disequilibrium
250(1)
Common Cerebellar Pathologies
250(1)
Cerebrovascular Accident
250(1)
Toxicity
250(1)
Progressive Cerebellar Degeneration
250(1)
Summary
251(1)
Technical Terms
251(1)
Review Questions
251(1)
Motor System 3: Brainstem and Basal Ganglia
252(13)
Brainstem Motor Mechanism
252(3)
Brainstem Anatomy
252(2)
Reticular Motor Functions
254(1)
Muscle Tone Regulation
254(1)
Reciprocal Excitation and Inhibition
255(1)
Summary of Brainstem Reticular Motor Mechanism
255(1)
Basal Ganglia
255(9)
Innervation Pattern
255(1)
Anatomy
255(1)
Basal Ganglia Circuitry
256(1)
Physiology of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
257(1)
Anatomy of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
258(1)
Striatum
258(1)
Globus Pallidus
259(1)
Subthalamus
259(1)
Substantia Nigra
260(1)
Basal Ganglia Neurotransmitters
260(1)
Clinical Consideration of Basal Ganglia
261(1)
Athetosis
261(1)
Ballism
261(1)
Chorea
261(1)
Tremors
261(1)
Associated Movement Disorders
262(1)
Basal Ganglia Diseases
262(1)
Parkinson's Disease
262(1)
Huntington's Chorea
262(1)
Wilson's Disease: Hepatolenticular Degeneration
263(1)
Basal Ganglia and Psychiatric Disorders
263(1)
Summary of Basal Ganglia
263(1)
Summary
264(1)
Technical Terms
264(1)
Review Questions
264(1)
Motor System 4: Motor Cortex
265(10)
Anatomy of Motor Cortex
265(2)
Innervation Pattern
267(1)
Descending Pathways
267(2)
Corticospinal Tract
268(1)
Corticobulbar Tract
269(1)
Clinical Considerations
269(3)
Spastic Hemiplegia
269(1)
Pseudobulbar Palsy
269(1)
Alternating Hemiplegia
270(1)
Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome
271(1)
Lesion Localization
272(1)
Upper or Lower Motor Neuron Lesion
272(1)
Presenting Symptoms
272(1)
Rationale
272(1)
Brainstem Lesion
272(1)
Presenting Symptoms
272(1)
Rationale
272(1)
Summary
273(1)
Technical Terms
273(1)
Review Questions
273(2)
Cranial Nerves
275(41)
Functional Classification of Cranial Nerves
276(1)
Efferent
276(1)
Afferent
277(1)
Branchial Origin of Speech-Related Muscles
277(2)
Cranial Nerves and the Autonomic Nervous System
279(1)
Cranial Nerve Nuclei
280(2)
Midbrain
280(1)
Pons
280(1)
Medulla
281(1)
Pathways
282(1)
Motor, or Efferent, Pathways
282(1)
Sensory, or Afferent, Pathways
283(1)
Pattern of Innervation
283(1)
Cranial Nerves and Their Sensorimotor Functions
284(25)
Olfactory Nerve
284(1)
Special Visceral Afferent
284(1)
Clinical Information
285(1)
Optice Nerve
285(1)
Special Somatic Afferent
286(1)
Clinical Information
287(1)
Oculomotor Nerve
287(1)
General Somatic Efferent
287(1)
General Visceral Efferent
287(2)
Clinical Information
289(1)
Trochlear Nerve
289(1)
General Somatic Efferent
289(1)
Clinical Information
289(1)
Abducens Nerve
290(1)
General Somatic Efferent
290(1)
Clinical Information
290(1)
Trigeminal Nerve
291(1)
General Somatic Afferent
291(2)
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferent
293(1)
Clinical Information
293(2)
Facial Nerve
295(1)
General Visceral Efferent
296(1)
Special Visceral Afferent
296(1)
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferent
296(1)
Clinical Information
296(4)
Vestibuloacoustic Nerve
300(1)
Special Somatic Afferent
300(1)
Clinical Information
300(1)
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
300(1)
General Visceral Afferent
301(1)
General Visceral Efferent
301(1)
Special Visceral Afferent
302(1)
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferent
302(1)
Clinical Information
302(1)
Vagus Nerve
303(1)
General Visceral Afferent
303(1)
General Visceral Efferent
303(1)
Special Visceral Afferent
303(1)
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferent
303(1)
Clinical Information
304(2)
Spinal Accessory Nerve
306(1)
Branchial Efferent, or Special Visceral Efferent
306(1)
Clinical Information
307(1)
Hypoglossal Nerve
307(1)
General Somatic Efferent
307(1)
Clinical Information
308(1)
Function-Based Cranial Nerve Combinations
309(2)
Motor Control of Eye Muscles
309(1)
Sensory Nerve Supply to Tongue
310(1)
Motor Nerve Supply to Soft Palate and Pharynx
310(1)
Sensory Innervation of Soft Palate and Pharynx
311(1)
Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Syndromes
311(3)
Summary
314(1)
Technical Terms
314(1)
Review Questions
314(2)
Autonomic Nervous System, Limbic System, Hypothalamus, and Reticular Formation
316(21)
Autonomic Nervous System
316(5)
Anatomical Organization
317(1)
Visceral Efferent System
317(1)
Sympathetic System
317(1)
Parasympathetic System
318(1)
Visceral Afferent System
318(1)
Neurotransmitters
319(1)
Central autonomic Pathways
320(1)
Clinical Information
320(1)
Summary of Autonomic Nervous System
320(1)
Limbic System
321(3)
Anatomical Structures
322(1)
Amygdala
323(1)
Hippocampus
324(1)
Cingulate Gyrus
324(1)
Septum
324(1)
Clinical Information
324(1)
Summary of Limbic System
324(1)
Hypothalamus
324(5)
Anatomical Structures
324(1)
Afferents
325(1)
Efferents
325(1)
Hypothalamic Functions
326(1)
Autonomic Innervation
326(1)
Body Temperature Regulation
326(1)
Water Intake Regulation
327(1)
Feeding
327(1)
Punishment
327(1)
Hypothalamic Regulation of Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
327(1)
Neurotransmitters and Behaviors
328(1)
Clinical Information
329(1)
Summary of Hypothalamus
329(1)
Reticular Formation
329(6)
Anatomical Structures
329(1)
Afferents
330(1)
Efferents
330(1)
Functional Considerations
330(1)
Regulation of Cortical Arousal
330(1)
Regulation of Sensory Functions
330(1)
Integrated Motor Functions
331(1)
Cardiovascular Activity
331(1)
Respiration
331(2)
Swallowing
333(1)
Vomiting
333(1)
Coughing
333(1)
Autonomic Functions
333(1)
Biological Rhythms
333(1)
Self-Awareness
333(1)
Head and Eye Movements
333(1)
Reticular Neurotransmitters
334(1)
Clinical Information
334(1)
Summary of Reticular Formation
334(1)
Summary
335(1)
Technical Terms
336(1)
Review Questions
336(1)
Vascular System
337(17)
Vascular Network
337(11)
Cerebrovascular Supply
338(1)
Carotid System
338(1)
Vertebral Basilar System
339(1)
Circle of Willis
340(1)
Cortical Arteries
340(2)
Central Arteries
342(2)
Blood Supply to Spinal Cord
344(1)
Collateral Circulation
345(1)
Vascular Pathology
345(1)
Occlusive Vascular Pathology
345(1)
Hemorrhage
346(1)
Arteriovenous Malformations
347(1)
Selective Vulnerability to Anoxia
348(1)
Risk Factors
348(1)
Venous Sinus System
348(1)
Dural Sinuses
348(1)
Cerebral Veins
349(1)
Veins of the Spinal Cord
349(1)
Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow
349(2)
Treatment of Vascular Diseases
351(1)
Blood-Brain Barrier
351(1)
Lesion Localization
352(1)
Vascular System Disorder
352(1)
Presenting Symptoms (A)
352(1)
Rationale
352(1)
Presenting Symptoms (B)
352(1)
Rationale
352(1)
Presenting Symptoms (C)
352(1)
Rationale
352(1)
Summary
353(1)
Technical Terms
353(1)
Review Questions
353(1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid
354(5)
Choroid Plexus
354(1)
Cerebrospinal Fliuid Circulation
354(1)
Absorption of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
355(1)
Clinical Considerations
355(2)
Circulatory Disorders
355(2)
Treatment
357(1)
Diagnostic Significance of Cerebrospinal Fluid
357(1)
Summary
357(1)
Technical Terms
358(1)
Review Questions
358(1)
Cerebral Cortex: Higher Mental Functions
359(12)
Methods of Study
359(1)
Functional Localization in the Brain
359(2)
Frontal Lobe
360(1)
Parietal Lobe
360(1)
Temporal Lobe
361(1)
Occipital Lobe
361(1)
Disorders of Cortical Functions
361(9)
Cerebral Dominance and Functional Specialization
361(1)
Speech and Language Disorders
362(1)
Motor Speech Disorders
362(1)
Apraxia of Speech
362(1)
Aphasia
362(3)
Alexias: Neurology of Reading
365(1)
Agraphia: Neurology of Writing
366(1)
Apraxias: Neurology of Learned Movement
366(1)
Agnosias: Neurology of Recognition
367(1)
Dementias: Neurology of Cognition
368(2)
Traumatic Brain Injury
370(1)
Summary
370(1)
Technical Terms
370(1)
Review Questions
370(1)
Diagnostic Techniques and Neurological Concepts
371(25)
Brain Imaging
371(9)
Cerebral Angiography
372(1)
Computed Tomography
373(2)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
375(1)
Regional Cerebral Blood Flow
376(1)
Position Emission Tomography
376(1)
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
377(3)
Sodium Amytal Infusion for Assessing Cerebral Dominance
380(1)
Electroencephalography
380(1)
Electromyography
381(1)
Evoked Potentials
382(1)
Visual Evoked Potential
382(1)
Somatosensory Evoked Potential
382(1)
Auditory Evoked Potential
383(1)
Dichotic Listening
383(1)
Lumbar Puncture
383(2)
Neurosurgical Procedures
385(2)
Craniotomy, or Cortical Mapping
385(1)
Stereotactic Surgery, or Subcortical Maping
386(1)
Cordotomy
387(1)
Internal Carotid-External Carotid Anastomosis
387(1)
Carotid Endarterectomy
387(1)
Aneurysm Clipping
387(1)
Genetic Inheritance
387(2)
Dominant Inharitance
388(1)
Recessive Inheritance
388(1)
X-Linked Inheritance
389(1)
Specific Neurological Disorders
389(5)
Seizures and Epilepsy
389(1)
Partial/Focal, or Simple, Epilepsy
390(1)
Partial Complex, or Psychomotor, Seizures
391(1)
Petit Mal, or Absence, Seizures
391(1)
Grand Mal, or Tonic-Clonic, Seizures
391(1)
Antiepileptic Drugs
391(1)
Sleep and Altered Consciousness
391(2)
Toxic Encephalopathies
393(1)
Myopathies
393(1)
Peripheral Neuropathies
393(1)
Neoplastic Growth
394(1)
Cerebral Infections
394(1)
Summary
394(1)
Technical Terms
394(1)
Review Questions
394(2)
Appendices 396(10)
Glossary 406(15)
References 421(2)
Figure and Table Credits 423(4)
Index 427


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