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The New American Democracy

by ; ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780321416148

ISBN10:
0321416147
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Summary

With an emphasis on elections and their importance in our political system, Morris Fiorina and Paul Peterson's groundbreaking text offers a stimulating, analytical approach to American government that engages students as it gives them a unique understanding of their political system as it exists and functions today.

Table of Contents

To the Studentsp. xxvii
To Our Colleaguesp. xxxv
Acknowledgmentsp. xli
About the Authorsp. xliii
The Foundations of a New American Democracy
Democracy in the United Statesp. 1
Elections in Americap. 3
Half-a-Million Elected Officialsp. 4
Nominating Candidates and Deciding Issuesp. 5
International Comparison: Elections in Other Democraciesp. 6
Government and Politicsp. 6
Types of Governmentp. 8
Government by One Personp. 8
Government by the Fewp. 8
Government by the Manyp. 9
Popular and Responsible Democracy in the United Statesp. 10
The New American Democracyp. 11
The Permanent Campaignp. 11
Minorities and Electionsp. 16
Majorities and Electionsp. 19
Reform?p. 20
Benefits of an Electoral Democracy: A Pretty Good Governmentp. 21
Chapter Summaryp. 23
Key Termsp. 23
Suggested Readingsp. 23
On the Webp. 24
Establishing a Constitutional Democracyp. 25
The Colonial and Revolutionary Erap. 27
The Colonial Experience with Democracyp. 27
Spread of Democratic Ideals During the Revolutionary Warp. 29
Theory of Rights and Representationp. 31
Government After Independencep. 33
Broadening Participationp. 34
The Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)p. 34
Drafting and Adopting a New Constitutionp. 37
The Constitutional Conventionp. 37
A Government of Separated Powersp. 39
The Bill of Rightsp. 43
The Anti-Federalist-Federalist Debatep. 44
Amendments to the Constitutionp. 46
Election Connection: Amendments to the Constitution Have Extended Liberties and Tightened the Election Connectionp. 48
The Constitution: An Assessmentp. 48
A Step Backward?p. 48
Achievementsp. 49
The Constitution Todayp. 50
International Comparison: Constitution-Making in Iraqp. 51
Chapter Summaryp. 52
Key Termsp. 52
Suggested Readingsp. 53
On the Webp. 53
Election Voices: The Politics of the Death Penaltyp. 54
Federalism: Division of Power Among National, State, and Local Governmentsp. 59
The Federalism Debate: It's New But It's Oldp. 61
Federalism in Contextp. 61
International Comparison: Great Britain and the United States: Unitary and Federal Governmentsp. 62
Federalism and the Ratification of the Constitutionp. 63
Evolution of the Federalism Debatep. 64
Dual Sovereignty and Nullificationp. 65
The Supreme Court and the Meaning of Dual Sovereigntyp. 67
The Commerce Clause and the Court-Packing Episodep. 67
Necessary and Proper Clausep. 70
State Sovereign Immunityp. 71
Cooperative Federalismp. 72
Spending Clausep. 72
Categorical Grantsp. 74
Problems of Implementationp. 75
Block Grantsp. 76
The Contemporary Debatep. 79
Democratic Dilemma: Categorical or Block Grant: Which Is Better?p. 80
Local Governmentp. 81
The Number and Types of Local Governmentsp. 82
Local Electionsp. 82
Popularity of Local Governmentp. 83
Limits on Local Governmentp. 84
State Governmentp. 85
State Electionsp. 86
Variation in State Government Responsibilitiesp. 86
Recent Developments at the State Levelp. 87
Chapter Summaryp. 89
Key Termsp. 89
Suggested Readingsp. 90
On the Webp. 90
American Political Culturep. 91
International Comparison: Citizenship in Europe and United Statesp. 94
Americans: A Contradictory People?p. 94
Social Diversityp. 95
A Nation of Immigrants Thenp. 96
A Nation of Immigrants Nowp. 100
Immigration as a Contemporary Issuep. 101
Philosophical Unityp. 103
American Individualismp. 105
The Tension Between Individualism and Equalityp. 107
One Nation, Under God?p. 108
Why a Liberal Political Culture?p. 112
Traditional Explanations of American Liberalismp. 112
Newer Explanationsp. 113
Chapter Summaryp. 115
Key Termsp. 116
Suggested Readingsp. 116
On the Webp. 116
Election Voices: The Immigration Issuep. 117
The Ingredients of the New American Democracy
Public Opinionp. 121
What Is Public Opinion?p. 123
Sources of Public Opinionp. 124
Socializationp. 124
Personal Experiencesp. 124
Self-Interestp. 125
Educationp. 125
Reference Groupsp. 125
The Mediap. 126
Measuring Public Opinionp. 126
Sampling Errorp. 127
Selection Biasp. 128
Measurement Errorp. 130
Characteristics of Public Opinionp. 136
Public Opinion Is Uninformedp. 136
Many of the Opinions Expressed in Polls Are Not Strongly Heldp. 138
Public Opinion Is Not Ideologicalp. 139
Public Opinion Is Inconsistentp. 141
Governing by Public Opinion?p. 143
The Power of Public Opinionp. 143
The Limits of Public Opinion: Gun Controlp. 144
Chapter Summaryp. 147
Key Termsp. 147
Suggested Readingsp. 148
On the Webp. 148
Individual Participationp. 149
A Brief History of the Franchise in the United Statesp. 151
Voting Rights in the Amendment Processp. 151
How Voting Rights Spreadp. 153
Why People Participate: Costs and Benefitsp. 154
International Comparisons of Voter Turnoutp. 156
Election Connection: Nonvoters Who Actually Turned Outp. 157
Personal Costs and Benefits: Registrationp. 158
Personal Costs and Benefits: Compulsionp. 158
Other Personal Costs and Benefitsp. 159
Democratic Dilemma: Can Voters Speak for Those Who Abstain?p. 160
Mobilization and Turnoutp. 160
Why Has American Turnout Declined?p. 161
Declining Personal Benefitsp. 163
Declining Mobilizationp. 163
Declining Social Connectednessp. 164
Who Votes and Who Doesn't?p. 165
Is Low Turnout a Problem?p. 166
Three Arguments: Why Low Turnout Is Not a Problemp. 166
Three Arguments: Why Low Turnout Is a Problemp. 167
Evaluating the Argumentsp. 169
Beyond the Voting Boothp. 169
Chapter Summaryp. 171
Key Termsp. 172
Suggested Readingsp. 172
On the Webp. 172
Election Voices: Should Voting Be Compulsory?p. 173
Interest-Group Participation in American Democracyp. 177
Interest Groups in the United Statesp. 179
Growth and Development of Groupsp. 180
The Nature and Variety of "Interest Groups"p. 182
Forming and Maintaining Interest Groupsp. 182
The Free-Rider Problemp. 184
Overcoming the Free-Rider Problemp. 185
How Interest Groups Influence Governmentp. 189
Lobbyingp. 189
Grassroots Lobbyingp. 191
Electioneering and PACsp. 192
Persuading the Publicp. 194
Direct Actionp. 196
Litigationp. 196
Why Groups Use Particular Tacticsp. 196
Democratic Dilemma: Strange Bedfellows: The Battle for Seattle, 1999p. 197
How Influential Are Interest Groups?p. 198
Subgovernmentsp. 199
Issue Networksp. 200
Interest Groups and Democratic Politicsp. 200
Chapter Summaryp. 203
Key Termsp. 203
Suggested Readingsp. 203
On the Webp. 204
Political Partiesp. 205
What Parties Dop. 207
How Parties Contribute to Democratic Politicsp. 208
How Parties Detract from Democratic Politicsp. 209
The Balance Sheetp. 212
Political Parties in American Historyp. 213
The Party-Systems Interpretation of American Historyp. 213
Democratic Dilemma: Is Gridlock Necessarily Bad?p. 222
Two-Party and Multi-Party Systemsp. 223
How Strong Are American Parties Today?p. 226
The Decline of Party Organizationsp. 227
The Revival of Party Organizations?p. 228
Parties Versus Interest Groupsp. 230
Chapter Summaryp. 231
Key Termsp. 231
Suggested Readingsp. 231
On the Webp. 231
The Mediap. 233
Development of the Mass Mediap. 235
The Partisan Press and the Penny Pressp. 236
Newspapers and Magazines, 1865-1920p. 237
Radio and Televisionp. 238
The Contemporary Scenep. 240
The New Mediap. 242
What Information Sources Do Americans Rely On?p. 244
Media Effectsp. 247
Agenda Settingp. 247
Priming and Framingp. 248
Socializationp. 249
How Strong Are Media Effects?p. 250
Media Biasesp. 251
Ideological Biasp. 251
Democratic Dilemma: Talk Radio-A Conservative Answer to the Liberal Pressp. 254
Selection Biasp. 255
Professional Biasp. 257
International Comparison: Al Jazeera-Questionable Sources?p. 258
Prospects for Changep. 258
The Media and Electoral Politicsp. 259
Campaign Coveragep. 259
The Conventionsp. 260
The Presidential Debatesp. 262
Media Coverage of Governmentp. 262
Emphasis on the President (and Other Personalities)p. 262
Emphasis on Conflictp. 263
Emphasis on the Negativep. 264
The Response: Exaggerated Concern with the Pressp. 264
Chapter Summaryp. 264
Key Termsp. 265
Suggested Readingsp. 265
On the Webp. 266
Election Voices: Should Freedom of the Press Be Limited to Protect National Security?p. 267
Campaigns and Elections
Electing the Presidentp. 272
Nominating a Presidential Candidatep. 273
Evolution of the Nomination Processp. 273
The Contemporary Nomination Processp. 274
Election Connection: A 2004 Caucus Experiencep. 276
Financing Nomination Campaignsp. 277
The Presidential Nomination Process in Actionp. 278
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Nomination Processp. 279
Who Nominates the Vice-President?p. 282
The General Election for Presidentp. 282
Financing the General-Election Campaignp. 283
International Comparison: Campaign Financing in Other Democraciesp. 284
Spending in the General-Election Campaignp. 285
The Electoral Collegep. 285
Voting Behavior in Presidential Electionsp. 287
When Americans Decidep. 287
How Americans Decidep. 287
Limited Media Influence on Presidential Electionsp. 293
The Contemporary Presidential Election Scenep. 294
The 1970s and 1980s: Republican "Lock"p. 294
The 1990s: Democratic Resurgencep. 296
The 2000 Electionp. 297
The 2004 Showdownp. 298
Chapter Summaryp. 299
Key Termsp. 299
Suggested Readingsp. 299
On the Webp. 300
Election Voices: Is a National Primary the Best Way to Nominate Presidential Candidates?p. 301
Choosing the Congressp. 305
The Electoral Evolution of the Congressp. 308
Reapportionment and Redistrictingp. 309
Democratic Dilemma: Why Not Senate Districts?p. 311
The Congressional Nomination Processp. 311
Contemporary House Electionsp. 312
Party Declinep. 313
Expanding Member Resourcesp. 314
Growth in Importance of "Representative" Behaviorp. 314
Campaign Fundsp. 315
More Responsive Incumbentsp. 317
Contemporary Senate Electionsp. 318
Party Competitionp. 318
Uncontrolled Informationp. 319
Better Challengersp. 319
High Ambitionsp. 320
National Forces in Congressional Electionsp. 320
National Forces in the 1990s: A New Era?p. 321
Congressional Elections in the 2000s: Neck and Neckp. 321
Election Connection: How Not to Be Reelected to Congressp. 322
Why Have National Forces Grown Stronger?p. 323
Do Congressional Elections Produce a Representative Body?p. 324
Womenp. 326
Minoritiesp. 326
Elections, Parties, and Group Representationp. 328
Chapter Summaryp. 329
Key Termsp. 329
Suggested Readingsp. 329
On the Webp. 330
The Government
The Congress and Its Workp. 331
Congress-The First Branchp. 333
The Organization of Congressp. 334
The Congressional Partiesp. 335
International Comparison: Congress in a Presidential Systemp. 336
The Committee Systemp. 339
Caucusesp. 344
How a Bill Becomes a Lawp. 344
Evaluating Congressp. 348
Criticisms of Congressp. 348
Why Americans Like Their Members of Congress So Much More Than Congress Itselfp. 349
Chapter Summaryp. 351
Key Termsp. 351
Suggested Readingsp. 351
On the Webp. 352
Election Voices: An Explosion of Earmarksp. 353
The Presidency: Powers and Practicep. 357
Presidential Constituenciesp. 359
National Constituencyp. 359
Partisan Constituenciesp. 361
Partisan Support in Congressp. 361
Democratic Dilemma: Is Divided Government Good or Bad?p. 362
Separate Institutions Sharing Powerp. 363
The Power to Inform and Persuadep. 363
The Veto Powerp. 366
The Appointment Powerp. 367
The Power to Recommendp. 370
The President as Chief of Statep. 372
International Comparison: The Chief of State in Other Countriesp. 373
Inherent Executive Powerp. 376
The Impeachment Powerp. 377
Presidential Expectations and Presidential Performancep. 378
Presidential Reputationsp. 379
Presidential Popularityp. 379
Great Presidentsp. 380
Chapter Summaryp. 383
Key Termsp. 383
Suggested Readingsp. 383
On the Webp. 384
Election Voices: The Politics of U.S. Energy Policyp. 385
The Bureaucracyp. 389
The Role of the Bureaucracyp. 391
The Bureaucracy Problemp. 393
Impossibility of Tasksp. 393
Difficulty Measuring Performancep. 393
Expansionary Tendenciesp. 394
Slow to Changep. 394
Red Tapep. 394
American Bureaucracies: Particularly Politicalp. 395
Difficult Beginningsp. 396
Mountains of Patronagep. 396
Advantages of the Spoils Systemp. 398
Disadvantages of the Spoils Systemp. 398
Erosion of the Spoils Systemp. 399
Political Appointees Todayp. 400
International Comparison: Political Versus Professional Bureaucratsp. 401
The President and the Bureaucracyp. 402
The Cabinetp. 403
Independent Regulatory Agenciesp. 405
Office of Management and Budgetp. 406
Congress and the Bureaucracyp. 407
Senate Confirmationsp. 407
Agency Reorganizationp. 409
Legislative Detailp. 410
Budgetary Controlp. 410
Election Connection: Congressional Legislation: A Matter of Detailp. 411
Legislative Oversightp. 412
Iron Triangles and Issue Networksp. 412
Elections and the Bureaucracyp. 414
Bureaucratic Secrecyp. 415
Bureaucratic Coercionp. 416
Agency Expansionp. 416
Administrator Cautionp. 417
Compromised Capacityp. 417
Muddling Throughp. 417
Chapter Summaryp. 419
Key Termsp. 419
Suggested Readingsp. 419
On the Webp. 420
Election Voices: The Politics of the New Department of Homeland Securityp. 421
The Courtsp. 425
State Courtsp. 427
State Trial Courts: The Judicial Workhorsesp. 427
Prosecuting State Casesp. 429
An Independent and Powerful Federal Judiciaryp. 430
Tenure and Salaryp. 430
Judicial Reviewp. 430
Three Theories of Constitutional Interpretationp. 432
Judicial Review in Practicep. 434
Statutory Interpretationp. 436
The Federal Court System in Practicep. 436
International Comparison: Statutory Interpretation in the United States and Britainp. 437
District Courtsp. 437
Appeals Courtsp. 438
Specialized Courtsp. 439
Selection of Federal Judgesp. 439
Deciding to Prosecutep. 440
Relations Between State and Federal Courtsp. 440
The Supreme Courtp. 442
The Politics of Supreme Court Appointmentsp. 442
Election Connection: The Harriet Miers Nomination to the Supreme Courtp. 445
Stare Decisisp. 446
Certsp. 446
The Role of the Chief Justicep. 447
The Role of the Solicitor Generalp. 448
The Role of Clerksp. 448
Supreme Court Decision Makingp. 449
Voting on the Supreme Courtp. 451
Checks on Court Powerp. 452
Constitutional Amendmentp. 452
Statutory Revisionp. 452
Nonimplementationp. 453
Litigation as a Political Strategyp. 454
Chapter Summaryp. 454
Key Termsp. 455
Suggested Readingsp. 455
On the Webp. 456
Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
Civil Libertiesp. 457
Origins of Civil Liberties in the United Statesp. 459
Origins of the Bill of Rightsp. 459
Few Liberties Before the Civil Warp. 460
Applying the Bill of Rights to State Governmentsp. 461
Freedom of Speech, Assembly, and Pressp. 462
Free Speech and Majoritarian Democracyp. 462
From "Bad Tendency" to "Clear and Present Danger"p. 463
Democratic Dilemma: Do Campus Speech Codes Unduly Restrict Free Speech?p. 465
Fighting Words Doctrinep. 466
Balancing Doctrinep. 466
Fundamental Freedoms Doctrinep. 467
Freedom of the Pressp. 468
Freedom of Associationp. 469
Limitations on Free Expressionp. 469
Freedom of Religionp. 471
Establishment of Religion Clausep. 471
Free Exercise of Religion Clausep. 472
Establishment of Religion or Free Exercise?p. 473
Law, Order, and the Rights of Suspectsp. 473
Election Politics and Criminal Justicep. 474
International Comparison: United States Has Much Higher Murder, but Not Burglary, Rates Than Most Other Countriesp. 475
Search and Seizurep. 475
Immunity Against Self-Incriminationp. 477
Impartial Juryp. 477
Legal Counselp. 478
Double Jeopardyp. 478
Rights in Practice: Habeas Corpusp. 479
Rights in Practice: The Plea Bargainp. 479
The Right of Privacyp. 480
Regulation of Sexual Behaviorp. 481
Abortion: Right to Life or Right to Choose?p. 481
Privacy in the Information Agep. 483
Chapter Summaryp. 484
Key Termsp. 485
Suggested Readingsp. 485
On the Webp. 486
Election Voices: School Choice: Vouchers and Charter Schoolsp. 487
Civil Rightsp. 491
Origins of Civil Rightsp. 493
Conflict Over Civil Rights After the Civil Warp. 494
Early Court Interpretations of Civil Rightsp. 496
Blacks Get Electoral Powerp. 496
Awakening the Supreme Court to Civil Rightsp. 498
Redefining the Equal Protection Clausep. 498
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansasp. 499
Civil Rights After Brownp. 500
Decline in Strength of the Civil Rights Movementp. 503
Supreme Court No Longer Forges Aheadp. 504
Affirmative Actionp. 505
Elections, Courts, and Civil Rights: An Appraisalp. 507
Civil Rights of Other Minoritiesp. 507
Latinosp. 507
Asian Americansp. 509
Gays and Lesbiansp. 510
Native Americansp. 511
Women's Rightsp. 512
The Right to Equality Before the Lawp. 512
Initial Court Response to Women's Rightsp. 514
Discrimination in the Workplacep. 515
Sexual Harassmentp. 515
Single-Sex Schools and Collegesp. 515
The Future of Women's Rightsp. 516
Americans with Disabilitiesp. 516
Chapter Summaryp. 518
Key Termsp. 519
Suggested Readingsp. 519
On the Webp. 520
Public Policy
Domestic Policyp. 521
Types of Public Policyp. 523
Stages of Policy Makingp. 523
Social Policyp. 524
Social Insurance for Senior Citizensp. 525
Public Assistance to Poor Familiesp. 530
Education Policyp. 535
Local Controlp. 536
Development of Public Educationp. 536
Contemporary Issues in Education Policyp. 536
International Comparison: Student Learning and School Expendituresp. 538
Politics of Educationp. 539
Regulationp. 539
The Rise of Federal Regulationp. 540
Justifications for Regulationp. 540
Politics of Regulationp. 543
Deregulationp. 545
Chapter Summaryp. 546
Key Termsp. 546
Suggested Readingsp. 547
On the Webp. 547
Economic Policyp. 549
Economic Growth and the Business Cyclep. 551
Economic Conditions and Political Fortunesp. 552
Fiscal Policyp. 553
Use of the Budget Deficitp. 554
Decline of Fiscal Policyp. 555
Monetary Policy: The Federal Reserve Systemp. 558
The Fed Chairp. 559
Who Controls the Fed?p. 560
The "T" Word: Taxesp. 563
The Tax Burdenp. 564
The Tax Basep. 565
Tax Progressivityp. 566
Tax Reformp. 567
The U.S. Economy: An International Comparisonp. 567
Taxesp. 568
National Debtp. 569
Employment Opportunitiesp. 569
Inequalityp. 570
Chapter Summaryp. 571
Key Termsp. 571
Suggested Readingsp. 572
On the Webp. 572
Foreign and Defense Policyp. 573
Elections, Presidents, and Foreign Policyp. 575
Need for Fast Actionp. 575
Voters' Focus on Presidentsp. 575
Limited Role of Interest Groupsp. 578
Congressional Rolep. 579
Foreign Policy Responsibilities of the President and Congressp. 579
War Powerp. 579
War Powers Resolutionp. 581
Treaty Powerp. 583
Foreign Policy Institutions: From Cold War to Homeland Defensep. 584
The Cold War and the Post-Cold War Worldp. 585
State Departmentp. 587
Defense Departmentp. 589
International Comparison: United States-Lucky in Warp. 590
Central Intelligence Agencyp. 592
National Security Councilp. 594
Ideals, Interests, and the Worldwide Campaign Against Terrorp. 595
Strategies for Nation Buildingp. 595
Role of International Organizationsp. 597
Chapter Summaryp. 599
Key Termsp. 600
Suggested Readingsp. 600
On the Webp. 601
Election Voices: The U.S. Politics of the Arab-Israeli Conflictp. 602
Appendices
The Declaration of Independencep. 607
The Constitution of the United States of Americap. 610
The Federalist No. 10p. 624
The Federalist No. 51p. 629
Presidents of the United States of Americap. 632
Glossaryp. 633
Endnotesp. 643
Name Indexp. 679
Subject Indexp. 683
Photo Creditsp. 701
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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