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For well over a century, the United Fruit Company (UFCO) has been the most vilified multinational corporation operating in Latin America. Criticism of the UFCO has been widespread, ranging from politicians to consumer activists, and from labor leaders to historians, all portraying it as an overwhelmingly powerful corporation that shaped and often exploited its host countries. In this first history of the UFCO in Colombia, Marcelo Bucheli argues that the UFCO's image as an all-powerful force in determining national politics needs to be reconsidered. Using a previously unexplored sourcethe internal archives of Colombia's UFCO operationBucheli reveals that before 1930, the UFCO worked alongside a business-friendly government that granted it generous concessions and repressed labor unionism. After 1930, however, the country experienced dramatic transformations including growing nationalism, a stronger labor movement, and increasing demands by local elites for higher stakes in the banana export business. In response to these circumstances, the company abandoned production, selling its plantations (and labor conflicts) to local growers, while transforming itself into a marketing company. The shift was endorsed by the company's shareholders and financial analysts, who preferred lower profits with lower risks, and came at a time in which the demand for bananas was decreasing in America. Importantly, Bucheli shows that the effect of foreign direct investment was not unidirectional. Instead, the agency of local actors affected corporate strategy, just as the UFCO also transformed local politics and society.
Charmaine L. Wijeyesinghe, Ed.D., is a consultant in organizational development, multiracial identity, and social justice education. Bailey W. Jackson III, Ed.D., is Professor Emeritus, School of Education at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Table of Contents
|List of Figures and Tables||p. ix|
|Creating and Re-Creating Race: The Emergence of Racial Identity as a Critical Element in Psychological, Sociological, and Ecological Perspectives on Human Development||p. 11|
|Black Identity Development: Influences of Culture and Social Oppression||p. 33|
|Latina and Latino Ethnoracial Identity Orientations: A Dynamic and Developmental Perspective||p. 51|
|The Intersectional Model of Multiracial Identity: Integrating Multiracial Identity Theories and Intersectional Perspectives on Social Identity||p. 81|
|Twenty-First Century Native American Consciousness: A Thematic Model of Indian Identity||p. 108|
|White Identity Development Revisited: Listening to White Students||p. 121|
|Asian American Racial Identity Development Theory||p. 138|
|The "Simultaneity" of Identities: Models and Skills for the Twenty-First Century||p. 161|
|The Enactment of Race and Other Social Identities during Everyday Transactions||p. 192|
|Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching about Racial Identity from an Intersectional Perspective||p. 216|
|About the Contributors||p. 241|
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