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The New st Martin's Handbook,9780312189273

The New st Martin's Handbook

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780312189273

ISBN10:
0312189273
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/1998
Publisher(s):
St Martins Pr
List Price: $48.95

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Table of Contents

Preface v
A Note to Students xv
Introduction: Thinking Critically about Your Writing i
Part 1 THE WRITING PROCESS 1(134)
FAQ: Writing Online
2(2)
Writing, Reading, and Research
4(14)
Considering the process of writing
4(5)
Considering the proces of reading
9(2)
Some Guidelines for Reading
10(1)
Doing research
11(1)
Talking and listening
12(2)
Taking notes
14(1)
Benefiting from collaboration
14(4)
Some Guidelines for Collaborating
15(3)
Considering Rhetorical Situations
18(14)
Deciding to write
18(1)
Identifying a problem
18(1)
Understanding writing assignments
19(2)
Analyzing an Assignment
20(1)
Deciding on your purposes
21(1)
Considering Purposes
21(1)
Considering genre
22(1)
Considering language
23(1)
Considering your rhetorical stance
23(1)
Examining Your Rhetorical Stance
24(1)
Focusing on your audience
24(3)
Conidering your Audience
25(2)
Considering online situations
27(5)
Some Online Contexts
28(4)
Exploring, Planning, and Drafting
32(18)
Exploring a topic
33(4)
Establishing a working thesis
37(2)
Gathering information
39(1)
Organizing information
39(4)
Writing out a plan
43(2)
Producing a draft
45(4)
Some Guidelines for Drafting
46(1)
A Sample First Draft
46(3)
Reflecting on your writing process
49(1)
Revising and Editing
50(20)
Getting distance before revising
50(1)
Rereading your draft
50(2)
Getting response
52(4)
Reviewing A Draft
52(4)
Evaluating the thesis and its support
56(1)
Analyzing organization
57(1)
Title, introduction, conclusion
57(2)
Paragraphs, sentences, words, tone
59(6)
Determining format
65(1)
Editing
65(1)
Proofreading the final draft
66(4)
A Sample Essay
67(3)
Thinking Critically: Constructing and Analyzing Arguments
70(32)
Thinking critically
70(1)
Recognizing argument
71(3)
Formulating an argumentative thesis
74(2)
Formulating good reasons
76(1)
Using narratives to support an argument
76(1)
Checking Your use of Narrative
77(1)
Establishing credibility
77(3)
Appealing to logic
80(6)
Appealing to emotion
86(5)
Using sources in an argument
91(1)
Organizing an argument
91(8)
A Sample Essay
93(6)
Analyzing an argument
99(3)
The Classical System
99(1)
The Toulmin System
100(2)
Constructing Paragraphs
102(33)
Paragraphing for readers
102(1)
Constructing paragraphs
102(2)
Editing Paragraphs
103(1)
Making paragraphs unified
104(4)
Making paragraphs coherent
108(8)
Commonly Used Transitions
114(2)
Developing paragraphs fully
116(10)
Special-purpose paragraphs
126(5)
Composing paragraphs online
131(2)
Linking paragraphs
133(2)
Part 2 SENTENCES: MAKING GRAMMATICAL CHOICES 135(76)
FAQ: Grammar Online
136(1)
Constructing Grammatical Sentences
137(26)
Basic sentence grammar
137(2)
Editing Your Own Sentences
138(1)
Recognizing the parts of speech
139(10)
Recognizing the parts of a sentence
149(11)
Basic Sentence Patterns
149(11)
Classifying sentences
160(3)
Understanding Pronoun Case
163(9)
Using the three cases
163(3)
Editing Case
164(2)
Who, whoever, whom, and whomever
166(2)
Case in compound structures
168(1)
Case in elliptical constructions
169(1)
We and us before a noun
169(3)
Using Verbs
172(19)
Verb Forms
172(1)
Editing Verbs
173(1)
Editing -S and -ES Endings
174(1)
Auxiliary verbs
175(1)
Regular and Iregular verbs
175(5)
Editing -ED or -D Endings
176(1)
Some Common Irregular Verbs
176(4)
Lie and lay, sit and set, rise and raise
180(2)
Verb Tenses
181(1)
Present-tense forms
182(1)
Past-tense forms
183(1)
Future-tense forms
184(1)
Editing Verb Tenses
184(1)
Verb tenses in sequence
185(4)
Voice
187(1)
Mood
188(1)
The Subjunctive
189(2)
Maintaining Subject-Verb Agreement
191(9)
Third-person singular subjects
191(1)
Editing for Subject-Verb Agreement
192(1)
Making the subject and verb agree
192(1)
Compound subjects
193(1)
Collective-noun subjects
194(1)
Indefinite-pronoun subjects
195(1)
Relative-pronoun subjects
196(1)
With subjects, not complements
196(1)
Subjects plural in form but singular in meaning
197(1)
Subjects following verbs
197(1)
With titles and words used as words
198(2)
Maintaining Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
200(4)
Compound antecedents
200(1)
Editing for Agreement
201(1)
Collective-noun antecedents
201(1)
Indefinite-pronoun antecedents
201(1)
Checking for sexist pronouns
202(2)
Avoiding Generic Use of he, His or Him
202(2)
Using Adjectives and Adverbs
204(7)
Adjectives and adverbs
204(1)
Using adjectives
204(1)
Editing Adjectives and Adverbs
205(1)
Using adverbs
205(2)
Comparatives and superlatives
207(2)
Nouns as modifiers
209(2)
Part 3 SENTENCES; MAKING CONVENTIONAL CHOICES 211(36)
FAQ: Sentence Conventions Online
212(1)
Maintaining Clear Pronoun Reference
213(5)
Clear antecedents
213(1)
Close antecedents
213(1)
Editing for Pronoun Reference
214(1)
Vague it, this, that, and which
214(1)
Use of who, which, and that
215(1)
Use of you and they
215(1)
Implied antecedents
216(2)
Recognizing Shifts
218(5)
In tense
218(1)
In mood
218(1)
Editing out Shifts
219(1)
In voice
219(1)
In person and number
219(1)
Between direct and indirect discourse
220(1)
In tone and diction
221(2)
Identifying Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
223(6)
Revised as two sentences
223(1)
Revised with a comma and coordinating conjunction
223(2)
Editing Comma Splices, Fused Sentences
224(1)
Revised with a semicolon
225(1)
Revised as one independent clause
226(1)
Revised as one independent clause and one dependent clause
226(3)
Recognizing Sentence Fragments
229(5)
Phrase fragments
229(2)
Editing for Sentence Fragments
230(1)
Compound-predicate fragments
231(1)
Dependent-clause fragments
232(2)
Placing Modifiers Appropriately
234(8)
Misplaced modifiers
234(3)
Editing Misplaced or Dangling Modifiers
235(2)
Disruptive modifiers
237(2)
Dangling modifiers
239(3)
Maintaining Consistent and Complete Grammatical Structures
242(5)
Consistent grammatical patterns
242(1)
Editing for Consistency, Completeness
243(1)
Subjects and predicates
243(1)
Elliptical structures
244(1)
Missing words
245(1)
Comparisons
245(2)
Part 4 SENTENCES: MAKING STYLISTIC CHOICES 247(38)
FAQ: Sentence Style Online
248(1)
Constructing Effective Sentences
249(6)
Emphasizing main ideas
249(2)
Editing for Emphasis and Conciseness
250(1)
Being concise
251(4)
Creating Coordinate and Subordinate Structures
255(8)
Coordination
255(3)
Editing Coordination and Subordination
256(2)
Subordination
258(5)
Creating and Maintaining Parallel Structures
263(6)
In a series
263(1)
Editing for Parallelism
264(1)
With pairs
264(2)
With all necessary words
266(1)
For emphasis and effect
267(2)
Varying Sentence Structures
269(8)
Sentence length
269(2)
Editing to Vary Sentence Length
270(1)
Sentence openings
271(2)
Editing to Vary Sentence Openings
273(1)
Sentence types
273(4)
Editing to Vary Sentence Types
276(1)
Creating Memorable Prose
277(8)
Strong verbs
277(2)
Active and passive voice
279(2)
Editing Verbs and Nouns
280(1)
Special effects
281(4)
Part 5 SELECTING EFFECTIVE WORDS 285(64)
FAQ: Effective Words Online
286(1)
Attending to Spelling
287(14)
Commonly mispelled words
287(2)
Fifty Commonly Misspelled Words
288(1)
Homonyms
289(3)
The Most Troublesome Homonyms
289(1)
Other Frequently Confused Words
289(3)
Spelling and Pronunciation
292(1)
Spelling rules
293(3)
Plurals
296(2)
Spell checkers
298(1)
Using a Spell Checker
299(1)
Visualization and memory cues
299(2)
Using Dictionaries
301(6)
Exploring the dictionary
301(2)
Distinguishing among dictionaries
303(2)
Consulting specialized dictionaries
305(2)
Eriching Vocabulary
307(10)
Considering your vocabulary
307(2)
Recognizing word roots
309(1)
Recognizing prefixes and suffixes
310(4)
Building your vocabulary
314(3)
Tips for Becoming an Active Reader
315(2)
Considering Diction
317(13)
Choosing appropriate language
317(4)
Editing for Precise Language
318(3)
Denotation and connotation
321(3)
Checking for Wrong Words
323(1)
General and specific diction
324(1)
Using figurative language
325(5)
Considering Language Variety
330(9)
Varieties of English
330(1)
Standard varieties of English
331(1)
Ethnic varieties of English
331(2)
Occupational varieties of English
333(1)
Regional varieties of English
334(1)
Bringing in other languages
335(2)
Language in academic writing
337(2)
Considering Others: Building Common Ground
339(10)
Remembering the golden rule
339(1)
Editing to Build Common Ground
340(1)
Stereotypes and other assumptions
340(9)
Editing out Sexist Language
343(6)
Part 6 PUNCTUATION CONVENTIONS 349(54)
FAQ: Punctuation Online
350(1)
Using Commas
351(17)
Introductory elements
351(2)
Editing for Commas
352(1)
Compound sentences
353(1)
Nonrestrictive elements
354(4)
Items in a series
358(2)
Parenthetical and transitional expressions
360(1)
Contrasting elements, interjections, direct address, tag questions
360(1)
Dates, addresses, titles, numbers
361(2)
Quotations
363(1)
To facilitate understanding
364(1)
Unnecessary commas
365(3)
Using Semicolons
368(5)
To link idependent clauses
368(2)
Editing for semicolons
369(1)
To separate items in a series
370(1)
Overused semicolons
370(1)
Misused semicolons
371(1)
With quotation marks
371(2)
Using End Punctuation
373(5)
Periods
373(1)
Editing for End Punctuation
374(1)
Question marks
374(1)
Exclamation points
375(3)
Using Apostrophes
378(5)
Possessive case
378(2)
Editing for Possessive Apostrophes
379(1)
Contractions and other omissions
380(1)
Editing for Misuse of Its and It's
381(1)
Appropriate use in forming plurals
381(2)
Using Quotation Marks
383(7)
Direct quotations
383(3)
Editing For Quotation Marks
384(2)
Titles and definitions
386(1)
Irony and coinages
386(1)
Misused quotation marks
387(1)
With other punctuation
388(2)
Using Other Punctuation Marks
390(13)
Parentheses
390(2)
Editing for Punctuation
391(1)
Brackets
392(1)
Dashes
393(2)
Colons
395(2)
Slashes
397(1)
Ellipses
398(1)
Emoticons
399(4)
Part 7 MECHANICAL CONVENTIONS 403(26)
FAQ: Mechanics Online
404(2)
Using Capitals
406(6)
To begin a sentence or a line of poetry
406(1)
Editing for Capitalization
407(1)
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
407(3)
Some Commonly Capitalized Terms
408(2)
Titles of works
410(1)
I and O
410(1)
Unnecessary capitalization
410(2)
Using Abbreviations and Numbers
412(8)
Abbreviations
412(1)
Titles and academic degrees
412(1)
Editing Abbreviations and Numbers
413(1)
Years and hours
413(1)
Acronyms and initial abbreviations
413(1)
Other kinds of abbreviations
414(2)
Numbers
416(1)
Spelling out numbers
416(1)
Using figures for numbers
417(1)
Conventional uses of figures
417(3)
Using Italics
420(4)
Titles
420(1)
Editing for Italics
421(1)
Words, letters, numbers as words
421(1)
Foreign words and phrases
421(1)
Vehicles
422(1)
Special emphasis
422(2)
Using Hyphens
424(5)
To divide words at the end of a line
424(1)
Editing for Hyphens
425(1)
With compound words
425(2)
With prefixes and suffixes
427(2)
Part 8 DOING RESEARCH AND USING SOURCES 429(190)
FAQ: Research Online
430(5)
Becoming a Researcher
435(9)
The research process
435(2)
Analyzing a research assignment
437(3)
Scheduling Research Project
439(1)
Choosing a topic
440(1)
Narrowing and focusing a topic
440(2)
Investigating a topic
442(1)
From hypothesis to working thesis
442(2)
Conducting Research
444(32)
Library and database resources
444(1)
Directory of Library Resources
445(1)
Developing a research strategy
445(3)
Considering reference works
448(7)
Using the library catalog
455(3)
Searching databases
458(4)
Navigating the Internet and the Web
462(4)
Search Engines
464(2)
Using other parts of the Internet
466(4)
Conducting field research
470(6)
Conducting Observation
471(2)
Planning an Interview
473(1)
Designing a Questionnaire
474(2)
Using Sources
476(23)
Choosing sources
476(5)
Keeping a Working Bibliography
477(4)
Reading sources with a critical eye
481(3)
Taking notes
484(10)
Taking Accurate Notes
484(1)
Quote, Paraphrase, or Summary?
485(2)
Quoting Accurately
487(4)
Paraphrasing Accurately
491(1)
Summarizing Accurately
492(2)
Recognizing plagiarism, acknowledging sources
494(3)
Acknowledging sources
497(1)
Interpreting sources
497(2)
Writing a Research Essay
499(17)
Refining your plans
499(2)
Organizing informataion
501(2)
Drafting your essay
503(2)
Incorporating source materials
505(6)
Signal Verbs
508(3)
Reviewing your draft
511(1)
Revising and editing your draft
512(2)
Preparing a list of sources
514(1)
Preparing and proofreading final copy
514(2)
Documenting Sources: MLA
516(48)
Parenthetical citations
516(6)
Directory to MLA Style
517(5)
Explanatory and bibliographic notes
522(1)
List of works cited
523(16)
A sample research essay, MLA style
539(25)
Documenting Sources: APA
564(23)
Parenthetical citations
564(4)
Directory to APA Style
565(3)
Content notes
568(1)
List of references
569(8)
A sample research essay, APA style
577(10)
Documenting Sources: CBE
587(14)
In-text citations
587(1)
List of references
588(7)
CBE Style for a List of References
588(7)
A sample research essay, CBE style
595(6)
Documenting Sources: Chicago
601(18)
In-text citations and notes
601(8)
Directory to chicago style
602(7)
Bibliographic entries
609(3)
A sample research essay, Chicago style
612(7)
Part 9 ACADEMIC WRITING 619(24)
FAQ: Academic Writing Online
620(2)
Understanding Disciplinary Discourse
622(8)
Assignments and expectations
622(2)
Analyzing Assignments
623(1)
Disciplinary vocabularies
624(2)
Identifying the style of a discipline
626(1)
Understanding the use of evidence
626(1)
Using conventional patterns
627(3)
Writing about Literature
630(13)
Becoming a strong reader of literature
630(2)
For Reading Literature
630(2)
The language of literary interpretation
632(3)
A Glossary of Literary Terms
632(3)
Considering your assignment, purpose, and audience
635(1)
Developing a critical stance
636(7)
A Sample Essay on a Work of Fiction
637(4)
Editing Writing About Literature
641(2)
Part 10 CONSIDERING MEDIA 643(40)
FAQ: Considering Media Online
644(1)
Making Oral Presentations
645(7)
Considering purpose and audience
645(1)
Editing Text for an Oral Presentation
646(1)
Writing to be heard
646(3)
Using visuals
649(1)
Practicing the presentation
650(1)
Making the presentation
650(2)
Designing Documents
652(20)
Creating a visual structure
652(1)
Using consistency to guide readers
653(2)
Using headings
655(1)
Using visuals
656(4)
Some Guidelines for Using Visuals
660(1)
Sample documents
660(12)
Working with Hypertext and Multimedia
672(11)
Using hypertext
672(4)
Making multimedia presentations
676(7)
Part 11 FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS 683(30)
FAQ: Multilingual Writers Online
684(1)
Understanding Nouns and Noun Phrases
685(7)
Count and noncount nouns
685(1)
Stating plural forms explicitly
686(1)
Using determiners
686(2)
Choosing articles
688(2)
Arranging modifiers
690(2)
Understanding Verbs and Verb Phrases
692(8)
Forming verb phrases
692(2)
Using present and past tenses
694(1)
Understanding perfect and progressive verb phrases
695(2)
Using modals
697(1)
Using participial adjectives
698(2)
Understanding Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases
700(4)
Using prepositions idiomatically
700(2)
Using Prepositions Idiomatically
701(1)
Using two-word verbs
702(2)
Forming Clauses and Sentences
704(9)
Expressing subjects and objects
704(1)
Using English word order
705(1)
Using noun clauses
706(1)
Using infinitives and gerunds
706(2)
Using adjective clauses
708(2)
Understanding conditionals
710(3)
Glossary of Grammatical and Computer Terms 713(13)
Glossary of Usage 726(9)
Directory of Web Sites 735(18)
Index 753


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