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The New Testament A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings,9780195154627
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The New Testament A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780195154627

ISBN10:
0195154622
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/31/2003
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
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Summary

This new edition of Bart Ehrman's highly successful introduction approaches the New Testament from a consistently historical and comparative perspective, emphasizing the rich diversity of the earliest Christian literature. Rather than shying away from the critical problems presented by thesebooks, Ehrman addresses the historical and literary challenges they pose and shows why scholars continue to argue over such significant issues as how the books of the New Testament came into being, what they mean, how they relate to contemporary Christian and non-Christian literature, and how theycame to be collected into a canon of Scripture. Distinctive to this study is its emphasis on the historical, literary, and religious milieu of the Greco-Roman world, including early Judaism. As part of its historical orientation, this text also discusses works by other Christian writers who wereroughly contemporary with the New Testament, such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Apocalypse of Peter, and the letters of Ignatius. The volume is enhanced by two color inserts, one on illuminated manuscripts and the other on archaeology. New to this edition: BL Additional material on archaeology, including a new eight-page color insert BL "What to Expect" and "At a Glance" boxes that provide summaries of the material covered in each chapter BL A Website Study Guide at http://www.oup.com/us/ehrman, offering chapter summaries, glossary terms, guides for reading, and self-quizzes for students. BL Several new "Something to Think About" and "Some More Information" boxes BL More extensive treatments of Judaism and of the role of women in the history of early Christianity BL Nine new illustrations BL An Instructor's Manual containing chapter summaries, discussion questions, and possible examination questions Ideal for undergraduate and seminary classes in the New Testament, Biblical Studies, and Christian Origins, The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings, 3/e, is an accessible, clearly written introduction that encourages students to consider the historical issuessurrounding these writings.

Author Biography

Bart D. Ehrman is the James A. Gray Professor and chair of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Table of Contents

Maps, Time Lines, and Diagrams
xx
Preface to the Third Edition xxi
Preface to the Second Edition xxiii
Preface to the First Edition xxv
Acknowledgments xxvii
Notes on Suggestions for Further Reading xxix
Credits xxx
Master Time Line xxxi
What is the New Testament? The Early Christians and Their Literature
1(17)
The Canon of Scripture
2(1)
The Diversity of Early Christianity
2(6)
The Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament
4(4)
The New Testament Canon of Scripture
8(5)
The Common Era and Before the Common Era
9(1)
The Layout of the New Testament
10(2)
The New Testament: One Other Set of Problems
12(1)
Implications for Our Study
13(2)
The New Testament Canon
15(1)
Excursus: Some Additional Reflections: The Historian and the Believer
15(3)
The World of Early Christian Traditions
18(30)
The Problem of Beginnings
18(1)
One Remarkable Life
19(4)
Pagan and Gentile
20(1)
The Greco-Roman World
21(2)
The Environment of the New Testament: Religions in the Greco-Roman World
23(12)
The Roman Empire
28(2)
Divine Rulers as Savior Gods
30(4)
Christianity as a Mystery Cult
34(1)
Judaism as a Greco-Roman Religion
35(13)
The Septuagint: The Hebrew Bible in Greek
38(5)
Women in the Synagogues
43(1)
Other Jewish Miracle-Working Sons of God
44(1)
The World of Early Christianity
45(3)
The Traditions of Jesus in Their Greco-Roman Context
48(13)
Oral Traditions behind the Gospels
49(9)
Orality and Literacy in the Ancient World
54(3)
Mark and John on the Time of Jesus' Death
57(1)
The Traditions of Jesus
58(1)
Some Additional Reflections: The Authors of the Gospels
58(3)
The Christian Gospels: A Literary and Historical Introduction
61(6)
The Question of Genre
62(1)
Biography as a Greco-Roman Genre
62(2)
Plutarch on Biography
63(1)
The Gospels as Ancient Biographies
64(3)
The Christian Gospels
65(2)
Jesus, The Suffering Son of God: The Gospel According to Mark
67(16)
The Beginning of the Gospel: Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God Who Fulfills the Scripture
68(2)
The Jewish Messiah
68(2)
Jesus the Authoritative Son of God
70(1)
Jesus the Opposed Son of God
71(3)
Jewish Scribes, Pharisees, Herodians, Sadducees, and Chief Priests
71(1)
Jesus' Opponents in Mark
72(2)
Jesus the Misunderstood Son of God
74(1)
Jesus the Acknowledged Son of God
74(2)
The Messianic Secret in Mark
75(1)
Jesus the Suffering Son of God
76(2)
Son of God and Son of Man
77(1)
Jesus the Crucified Son of God
78(1)
The Charge of Blasphemy according to Mark
79(1)
Jesus the Vindicated Son of God
79(1)
Conclusion: Mark and His Readers
80(3)
The Gospel of Mark
82(1)
The Synoptic Problem and Its Significance for Interpretation
83(9)
Methods for Studying the Gospels
83(1)
The Synoptic Problem
84(5)
Ironing Out the Problems: One Potential Difficulty in Mark's Account
87(1)
The Contents of Q
88(1)
The Methodological Significance of the Four-Source Hypothesis
89(3)
The Synoptic Problem
90(2)
Jesus, The Jewish Messiah: The Gospel According to Matthew
92(20)
The Importance of Beginnings: Jesus the Jewish Messiah in Fulfillment of the Jewish Scriptures
93(5)
Matthew's Scheme of Fourteen
95(2)
The Women in Matthew's Genealogy
97(1)
Jesus and His Forerunner from Matthew's Perspective
98(2)
The Portrayal of Jesus in Matthew: The Sermon on the Mount as a Springboard
100(4)
The Golden Rule
103(1)
Jesus and the Jewish Cultic Practices Prescribed by the Law
104(1)
Jesus Rejected by the Jewish Leaders
105(3)
Gentiles in Matthew's Community
106(2)
Matthew and His Readers
108(4)
Was Matthew a Jew?
109(1)
Matthew
110(2)
Jesus, The Savior of the World: The Gospel According to Luke
112(20)
The Comparative Method and the Gospel of Luke
113(1)
A Comparative Overview of the Gospel
114(1)
The Preface to Luke's Gospel
114(3)
Apologetic Literature in Early Christianity
116(1)
Luke's Birth Narrative in Comparative Perspective
117(5)
Historical Problems with Luke's Birth Narrative
118(1)
The Virginal Conception in Matthew and Luke
119(3)
From Jew to Gentile: Luke's Portrayal of Jesus the Rejected Prophet
122(1)
Luke's Distinctive Emphases throughout His Gospel
123(6)
Jesus' Bloody Sweat in Luke
124(1)
Jesus as a Righteous Martyr
125(3)
The Institution of the Lord's Supper in Luke
128(1)
Conclusion: Luke in Comparative Perspective
129(3)
Luke
130(2)
Luke's Second Volume: The Acts of the Apostles
132(22)
The Genre of Acts and Its Significance
133(2)
The Book of Acts: An Ancient Novel?
134(1)
The Thematic Approach to Acts
135(1)
From Gospel to Acts: The Opening Transition
135(4)
Luke's Mysterious Two Men
137(1)
Luke's Artistry as a Storeteller 1
138(1)
Luke's Artistry as a Storeteller 2
139(1)
Themes in the Speeches in Acts
139(10)
The Death of Judas
141(6)
Christianity before Paul
147(1)
The Book of Acts
148(1)
Excursus: The Author of Luke-Acts and His Audience
149(2)
Conclusion: The Author and His Themes in Context
151(3)
Jesus, The Man Sent from Heaven: The Gospel 10 According to John
154(22)
The Gospel of John from a Literary-Historical Perspective
155(3)
Jesus' Signs in the Fourth Gospel
156(1)
``The Jews'' in the Fourth Gospel
157(1)
The Gospel of John from a Thematic Perspective
158(1)
The Gospel of John from a Comparative Perspective
158(5)
Signs and Faith in the Fourth Gospel
161(1)
Jesus and the ``I Am'' Sayings in John
162(1)
The Gospel of John from a Redactional Perspective
163(4)
The Socio-Historical Method
167(1)
The Death of the Beloved Disciple in the Johannine Community
167(1)
The Gospel of John from a Socio-Historical Perspective
168(6)
John's De-Apocalypticized Gospel
173(1)
The Author of the Fourth Gospel
174(2)
The Gospel of John
174(2)
From John's Jesus to the Gnostic Christ: The Johannine Epistles and Beyond
176(19)
The Questions of Genre and Author
177(2)
A Letter from Greco-Roman Egypt
178(1)
The New Testament Epistolary Literature and the Contextual Method
179(2)
The Gospel and Epistles of John: Some Thematic Similarities
180(1)
The Johannine Epistles from a Contextual Perspective
181(2)
Reflections on the Contextual Method
183(2)
House Churches in Early Christianity
184(1)
The Johannine Epistles
185(1)
Beyond the Johannine Community: The Rise of Christian Gnosticism
185(7)
How Do You Know a Gnostic When You See One?
188(2)
Gnostics and the Jewish Scriptures
190(2)
Gnostics and the Johannine Community
192(3)
Gnosticism
193(2)
Jesus From Different Perspectives: Other Gospels in Early Christianity
195(15)
Narrative Gospels
196(5)
The Gospel of the Ebionites and Early Gospel Harmonies
198(3)
Sayings Gospels
201(6)
Judas Thomas as Jesus' Twin Brother
202(3)
The Older Sayings of the Gospel of Thomas
205(2)
Infancy Gospels
207(1)
Conclusion: The Other Gospels
208(2)
The Other Gospels
208(2)
The Historical Jesus: Sources, Problems, and Methods
210(15)
Problems with Sources
211(1)
Non-Christian Sources
211(4)
Christianity as a Superstition in the Roman World
213(1)
The Testimony of Flavius Josephus
214(1)
Christian Sources
215(2)
Using Our Sources: Some of the Basic Rules of Thumb
217(1)
Specific Criteria and Their Rationale
218(5)
Aramaisms as a Criterion of Authenticity
219(4)
Conclusion: Reconstructing the Life of Jesus
223(2)
The Sources for the Historical Jesus
223(2)
Excursus: The Historian and the Problem of Miracle
225(6)
Miracles in the Modern World and in Antiquity
226(1)
The Historian and Historical Method
227(4)
The Problem of Miracles
229(2)
Jesus in Context
231(19)
Political Crises in Palestine and Their Ramifications
232(3)
Flavius Josephus
233(2)
The Formation of Jewish Sects
235(6)
Divine Revelation in the Dead Sea Scrolls
238(3)
Popular Modes of Resistance to Oppression
241(3)
An Ideology of Resistance
244(4)
Prophecy and Apocalypticism
247(1)
Jesus in His Apocalyptic Context
248(2)
First-Century Palestinian Judaism
248(2)
Jesus, The Apocalyptic Prophet
250(24)
Considering the Rules of Thumb
250(1)
Considering the Specific Criteria
251(4)
O Little Town of Nazareth
252(2)
Jesus of Sepphoris?
254(1)
The Beginning and End as Keys to the Middle
255(1)
The Apocalyptic Deeds of Jesus
256(8)
Explaining Away the Apocalyptic Traditions: Seeking the Lost
257(1)
Explaining Away the Apocalyptic Traditions: Setting a Date
258(1)
Was Jesus a Cynic Philosopher?
259(1)
The Temple Incident as a Enacted Parable
260(3)
Another Apocalyptic Jesus
263(1)
The Apocalyptic Teachings of Jesus
264(6)
The Cosmic Deliverer of Israel
267(2)
Jesus and ``Family Values''
269(1)
The Apocalyptic Death of Jesus
270(4)
Jesus and Judas, the Betrayer
272(1)
Jesus the Apocalyptic Prophet
272(2)
From Jesus to the Gospels
274(11)
The Beginning of Christianity
275(1)
Jesus' Resurrection from an Apocalyptic Perspective
276(3)
The Women and the Empty Tomb
277(1)
Jesus, the Messiah, and the Resurrection
278(1)
Jesus' Death, according to the Scriptures
279(1)
The Emergence of Different Understandings of Jesus
280(5)
Vicarious Suffering in Jewish Martyrologies and Other Greco-Roman Literature
281(2)
From Jesus to the Gospels
283(2)
Paul the Apostle: The Man and His Mission
285(17)
The Study of Paul: Methodological Difficulties
286(5)
The Pauline Corpus
287(3)
Other Sources for the Life of Paul
290(1)
The Life of Paul
291(11)
Paul on the Road to Damascus
295(5)
Paul and His Mission
300(2)
Paul and His Apostolic Mission: Thessalonians as a Test Case
302(14)
The Founding of the Church in Thessalonica
303(5)
The Beginnings of the Thessalonian Church: A Socio-Historical Perspective
308(3)
Rules for a Private Association
310(1)
The Church at Thessalonica after Paul's Departure
311(3)
Christians Maligned as Perverts and Criminals
313(1)
The Thessalonians' Perplexity
314(1)
Conclusion: Paul the Apostle
314(2)
Thessalonians
315(1)
Paul and The Crises of His Churches: 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, and Philemon
316(32)
1 Corinthians
316(10)
Possibilities of Existence in the Afterlife
323(3)
1 Corinthians
326(1)
2 Corinthians
326(5)
The Partitioning of 2 Corinthians
329(2)
2 Corinthians
331(1)
Galatians
331(9)
The Logic of the Opponents' Position in Galatia
334(1)
Cephas and Peter
335(1)
Why Does Paul Appeal to the Law to Dispute This View of the Law?
336(3)
Galatians
339(1)
Philippians
340(4)
The Christ Hymn of Philippians
342(1)
Was Paul Contemplating Suicide?
343(1)
Philippians
344(1)
Philemon
344(4)
Philemon
347(1)
The Gospel According to Paul: The Letter to the Romans
348(14)
The Occasion and Purpose of the Letter
349(2)
The Beginnings of the Roman Church
350(1)
The Theme of the Epistle
351(2)
Paul's Gospel to the Romans
352(1)
Pauline Models for Salvation
353(5)
Two Different Ways of Salvation in Paul?
354(3)
Judicial and Participationist Models of Salvation in Paul
357(1)
The Flow of Paul's Argument
358(2)
Other Models of Salvation in Paul
359(1)
Conclusion: Paul and the Romans
360(2)
Romans
360(2)
Does the Tradition Miscarry? Paul in Relation to Jesus, James, Thecla, and Theudas
362(10)
Paul in Relation to What Came Before
363(4)
Jesus and Paul: Some of the Similarities
365(1)
Jesus and Paul: Some of the Differences
366(1)
Paul in Relation to What Came After
367(3)
Conclusion: Pauline Christianities
370(2)
Paul in Relation to What Came Before and After
371(1)
In the Wake of the Apostle: The Deutero-Pauline and Pastoral Epistles
372(23)
Pseudonymity in the Ancient World
373(3)
Paul's Third Letter to the Corinthians
374(2)
The Deutero-Pauline Epistles
376(9)
The Resurrection of Believers in Paul and Colossians
379(1)
The ``Household Rules'' in Colossians and Ephesians
380(3)
The Vocabulary of Salvation in Paul and Ephesians
383(2)
The Deutero-Pauline Epistles
385(1)
The Pastoral Epistles
385(3)
The Historical Situation and Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles
388(5)
Church Hierarchy in Ignatius
392(1)
Conclusion: The Post-Pauline Pastoral Epistles
393(2)
The Pastoral Epistles
394(1)
From Paul's Female Colleagues to the Pastor's Intimidated Women: The Oppression of Women in Early Christianity
395(13)
Women in Paul's Churches
396(1)
Women Associated with Jesus
397(3)
Mary Magdalane
398(2)
Paul's Understanding of Women in the Church
400(1)
Women in the Aftermath of Paul
401(2)
Similarities between 1 Tim 2:11-15 and 1 Cor 14:34-35
402(1)
Ancient Ideologies of Gender
403(2)
Gender Ideology and the Pauline Churches
405(3)
Women in Early Christianity
406(2)
Christians and Jews: Hebrews, Barnabas, and Later Anti-Jewish Literature
408(18)
Early Christian Self-Definition
409(2)
Early and Diverging Views of Christians and Jews
410(1)
Continuity and Superiority: The Epistle to the Hebrews
411(7)
Divergent Views of Christ in Hebrews
413(4)
Hebrews
417(1)
Discontinuity and Supremacy: The Epistle of Barnabas
418(4)
Six Thousand Years and Counting
420(1)
Gematria in Early Christianity
421(1)
The Epistle of Barnabas
421(1)
Conclusion: The Rise of Christian Anti-Judaism
422(4)
Melito's Passover Sermon
424(2)
Christians and Pagans: 1 Peter, the Letters of Ignatius, the Martyrdom of Polycarp, and Later Apologetic Literature
426(19)
The Persecution of the Early Christians
426(5)
The Christian Disruption of the Family: The Case of Perpetua
429(2)
Christians in a Hostile World: The Letter of 1 Peter
431(5)
The Spread of Christianity
432(4)
1 Peter
436(1)
Christians Sentenced to Death: The Letters of Ignatius
436(4)
An Alternative View of Christian Martyrdom
438(2)
The Letters of Ignatius
440(1)
Christians before the Tribunal: The Martyrdom of Polycarp
440(2)
The Martyrdom of Polycarp
441(1)
Christians on the Defense: The Later Apologetic Literature
442(3)
Christians and Christians: James, the Didache, Polycarp, 1 Clement, Jude, and 2 Peter
445(16)
The Epistle of James
446(1)
The Didache
447(3)
The Development of the Lord's Prayer
449(1)
Polycarp's Letter to the Philippians
450(3)
Polycarp and the Early Christian Tradition
452(1)
1 Clement
453(2)
Birds Raised from the Dead and Other Problems in the Corinthian Church
455(1)
Jude
455(1)
2 Peter
456(2)
Peter, the Smoked Tuna, and the Flying Heretic
457(1)
Conclusion: Conflicts within the Early Christian Communities
458(3)
Christian Internal Conflicts
459(2)
Christians and the Cosmos: The Revelation of John, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the Apocalypse of Peter
461(18)
Introduction: The End of the World and the Revelation of John
461(1)
The Content and Structure of the Book of Revelation
462(2)
The Book of Revelation from a Historical Perspective
464(1)
Apocalyptic Worldviews and Apocalypse Genre
464(4)
The Book of Revelation as Underground Literature
466(1)
The Author of Revelation in the Early Church
467(1)
The Revelation of John in Historical Context
468(6)
Futuristic Interpretations of the Book of Revelation
471(3)
The Book of Revelation
474(1)
The Shepherd of Hermas
474(2)
The Shepherd of Hermas and the Muratorian Canon
475(1)
The Apocalypse of Peter
476(3)
Epilogue: Do We Have the Original New Testament?
479(12)
The Manuscripts of the New Testament
479(2)
Changes in the New Testament Text
481(4)
Citing Chapter and Verse
482(2)
Women in the Manuscript Tradition of the New Testament
484(1)
Criteria for Establishing the Original Text
485(2)
Conclusion: The Original Text of the New Testament
487(4)
The Text of the New Testament
488(3)
Glossary of Terms 491(8)
Index 499


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