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News Writing and Reporting: The Complete Guide for Today's Journalist, Second Edition, uses a multitude of reporting and writing examples from print, broadcast and online sources in order to deconstruct and reveal journalistic practices, techniques and philosophy to today's students. Building on a solid foundation of the three pillars of excellent journalism--process, coaching and storytelling--Chip Scanlan and Richard Craig shape students into successful journalists by providing them with the theoretical background and practical knowledge needed to transition into a new age of reporting.
What's New to the Second Edition? * "Journalists at Work" boxes provide illuminating profiles of professional journalists * "Quick Tips" boxes offer practical advice and checklists on how to accomplish the myriad tasks that journalists face daily * "Chip's Corner" boxes provide varied and insightful accounts from author Chip Scanlan's nearly two decades of journalistic experience * "Ethical Dilemmas" case studies recount real-world situations that challenge students to think critically about the limits of journalistic fairness and accuracy * "The Coaching Way" boxes feature advice and questions that guide students toward excellent and ethical journalism * "Professionals Roundtable"boxes are comprised of interview transcripts with industry insiders, journalism professors and leading authors * "Close-Ups" highlight the strengths and potential problems found in real journalistic practice with annotated walkthroughs of actual print, broadcast and online journalistic pieces. More of these walkthroughs will be available to students on the Companion Website (www.oup.com/us/scanlan).
Need more practice? Call customer service at 800-280-0280 to order News Writing and Reporting: The Complete Guide for Today's Journalist's student workbook (ISBN: 978-0-19-998085-7).
A Word to Aspiring Journalists from Chip Scanlan
Cultivate curiosity. Do what you fear. Collaboration, especially in online journalism, is key. Master technology, but never forget that tools enhance your capabilities and the basics of good journalism never change. You may have to start out small, but jobs are out there for journalists who are committed to public service. That is the heart of excellent journalism. Never stop learning. Never give up. Have fun.
About the Authors
Chip Scanlan is a Reporting, Writing and Editing Faculty Affiliate at The Poynter Institute in St. Petersburg, FL. He worked as an award-winning journalist for two decades at newspapers around the country, including The Providence Journal, The St. Petersburg Times and Knight Ridder Newspapers' Washington Bureau. He is coeditor of America's Best Newspaper Writing and editor of seven editions of Best Newspaper Writing.
Richard Craig is Associate Professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Communications at San José State University. He is author of Online Journalism: Reporting, Writing and Editing for New Media. His journalistic work has appeared in the New York Times, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, MiamiHerald, San Jose Mercury News and many other publications.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: News Judgment What Is News? Three Basic Elements of News Developing News Judgment and Critical Thinking Skills Audio, Video And Citizen Journalism Where News Comes From, Where to Find It Positive versus Negative News: Striking a Balance Ethical Dilemmas: Who Deserves News Coverage? New News: The Impact Of Audience, Culture and Technology Professional's Roundtable: What's the News? --Summary Guide --Key Terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 1.1 Basic News Story Close-Up 1.2 Striking the Balance between Good and Bad News Chapter 2: The Six-step Process Approach to reporting and Writing Step 1: Idea: Creativity Skills for Today's Journalists Journalist at Work: Brainstorming Step 2: Focus: Finding the Heart of Your Stories Chip's Corner: Listening for Focus Journalist at Work: Roy Wenzl Coaching Way: Finding a Focus Step 3: Collect: Reporting the Story Ethical dilemmas: The Assignment vs. The Evidence Journalist at Work: Matching Sources with Questions Step 4: Order: Mapping Your Story Step 5: Draft: Writing Your Story Step 6: Revise: Rewriting the Story Professional's Roundtable: The Process Approach --Summary Guide --Key Terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 2.1 Reporting and Writing: The Process Approach at Work Chapter 3: The Coaching Way: Taking Charge of Your Stories Coaching Basics Coaching or Coddling The Coaching Way Journalists at Work: A Fixer's Confession Coaching vs. Fixing Coaching Techniques Journalists at Work: Coaching Online Journalists Reporter's Roundtable: The Coaching Way --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 3.1 "Movie Reading:" How a Coach Responds to a Writer's Work Chapter 4: Storytelling vs. Speed: Deadlines in the 21st Century One Side of the Equation: Storytelling Chip's Corner: The Right Details in the Right Place The Other Side: Get It Done, Now! Journalist at Work: The Web and the Ticking Clock Ethical Dilemmas: Blogging with Anonymous Sources The Coaching Way: Storytelling on Deadline Focusing and Planning on the Fly Drafting on Deadline Deadlines and Technology: A TV Reporter's Story Reporter's Roundtable: The Evolution of Deadlines --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 4.1 Breaking News Narrative Chapter 5: The Reporter's Toolbox Pens, Pencils and Reporter's Notebook The Computer Note-Taking on the Screen Chip's Corner: Text Messaging Cell Phones Audio Recorders Chip's Corner: Working with Photos and Photojournalists Ethical Dilemmas: Is That How it Really Happened? Software Tools The Reporter's Mindset The Coaching Way: Tool Sharpening --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Chapter 6: Interviewing The Role of the Interview Preparing for the Interview Conducting the Interview Writing from Interviews Learning to Listen Chip's Corner: Being Human as an Interviewer Keeping Confidences Establish Interview Ground Rules Ethical Dilemmas: Protecting a Source The Coaching Way: Final Pointers on Interviewing Professional's Roundtable: Effective Interviewing --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Chapter 7: Research "Reporting On Steroids" A "Documents State of Mind" Chip's Corner: The Importance of Public Records Cracking the Government Seal: Using the Freedom of Information Act Search Engines The Coaching Way: Research Skills Multimedia Sources: Add New Dimensions with Audio and Video Wikipedia: Power and Pitfalls of the Internet's Encyclopedia Why Librarians Still Matter Deflating Urban Legends and Online Hoaxes Private Records: Intimate Research Computer-Assisted Reporting: Precision Journalism Ethical Dilemmas: Transparency vs. Privacy Reaping the Rewards: Turning Research into Compelling Stories Journalist at Work: Nailing Down Every Fact Reporter's Roundtable: The Power of Research --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 7.1 Using Research to Document a Story Chapter 8: Grammar, Language, Style: Using Accurate Words Why Spelling, Grammar and Style Matter The Hallmarks of Effective News Writing Ethical Dilemmas: Cleaning Up Butchered Grammar X-Ray Reading: Writing News - The Basics Grammar: The Rules of the Road Stylebooks: Print and Online Grammar's Dirty Dozen: Common Errors Reporters Make The Pitfalls of Jargon and Clichés The Coaching Way: Grammar: Yours and Interviewees' Reporter's Roundtable: The Importance of Clean Copy --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Chapter 9: Numbers: Using Accurate Figures Why Math Matters Making News With Numbers Basic Math Skills Percentages, Rates, Percents, Per Capita Advanced Math Skills Ethical Dilemmas: Reporting a Dubious Statistic The Coaching Way: Doing the Math Polls and Surveys Reporting on Budgets Writing with Numbers Professional's Roundtable: Adding it All Up --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 9.1 Budget Story Chapter 10: Lead Writing The Lead and Its Role in Newswriting How "5Ws", an "H," and "SW" Create Compelling Leads Deconstructing Leads Develop Your Lead from a Focus Finding the Tension Journalist at Work: Mark Fritz Chip's Corner: Clichéd Leads and How to Avoid Them The Two Types of Leads X-Ray Reading: Broadcast Lead Story Choosing the Right Lead Revising Your Leads The Coaching Way: Thinking About Leads Professional's Roundtable: Lead Writing --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Chapter 11: Story Forms Shaping the News Inverted Pyramid: News from the Top Down Historical Perspectives: Birth of the Inverted Pyramid The Hourglass: Serving News and Readers The Nut Graf: Giving Readers a Reason to Care Five Boxes: How Readers Process Stories The Narrative: The Way We Tell Stories Serial Narrative: "To Be Continued" Short-Short Stories: Writing For a Time-Pressed Audience Using Story Forms Online Alternative Story Forms Journalist at Work: The Long and Short of It Choosing the Best Story Form The Coaching Way: Shaping the News Professional's Roundtable: Shaping Stories --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 11.1 Inverted Pyramid Story Close-Up 11.2 Hourglass Story Chapter 12: Writing for Print Writing for Newspapers Behind the Page: Who Does What Chip's Corner: Newspapers Past and Present Journalist at Work: A Newspaper Reporter's Life On the Page X-Ray Reading: Localizing a Trend New Roles for Reporters and Editors Surviving in a Changing World The Coaching Way: Working for a Newspaper Professional's Roundtable: Writing for Newspapers --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Chapter 13: Online Writing and Content Production The Necessity of Adaptation Online News Organizations: A Hierarchy of Change Convergence Journalist at Work: A Mojo's Work is Never Done The Coaching Way: Online Writing Professional's Roundtable: Three Views of Online Writing The ABCs of Online Journalism New Roles for Journalists and the Skills Needed To Fill Them Story Forms and Elements --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 13.1 Blog Post Chapter 14: Broadcast Writing Broadcast News: What It Takes The Broadcast Newsroom: Who Does What? Working Fast Interviewing for Broadcast Writing for Broadcast: Style, Format and Examples Teases and Tags: Starting and Ending Strong Script Basics: TV and Radio TV Writing: The Package Writing for Video Ethical Dilemmas: The Real Thing? Writing for Audio Journalist at Work: Shifting from Print to Radio On-Camera Preparation/Performance Tips The Coaching Way: Broadcast Quality Professional's Roundtable: Sound Advice --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 14.1 TV News Script Chapter 15: Diversity Making the Case for Cultural Competence Chip's Corner: Why Diversity Matters to Journalists How Can Reporters See People As People? Ethical Dilemmas: Challenge Discrimination or Remain Silent Talking Across Differences Journalist at Work: The Five W's of Diversity Coverage Using Precision to Avoid Euphemisms, Stereotypes, and Clichés of Vision Avoiding Bias in Racial/Ethnic Identification Guidelines for Racial Identifiers in News Stories Connecting With Diverse Communities Telling Untold Stories: Reporting and Writing Across Cultures The Coaching Way: Diversity Professional's Roundtable: Finding Diversity --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 15.1 Writing About Diversity Chapter 16: Libel, Privacy, Ethics The Two Sides of Defamation: Libel and Slander Understanding the Elements of Libel Journalist at Work: Dodging the Libel Bullet The New York Times vs. Sullivan: A Journalistic Shield Targeting Journalistic Conduct Online Libel: The New Frontier Ethical Dilemmas: Reporting vs. Blogging Risks Of Whistleblowing: The Ethics Of WikiLeaks Privacy: Guidelines for Reporters Chip's Corner: About Recording Telephone Interviews Ethical Decision-Making: Sidestepping Minefields and Pitfalls Fabrication: "The Legend on the License" Where Credit Is Due: Avoiding Plagiarism The Coaching Way: Doing the Right Thing Professional's Roundtable: Doing the Right Thing --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Chapter 17: First Assignments Prepping For Your First Assignments News Release Stories Accident Stories Fire Stories Community Event Stories Ethical Dilemmas: What Should You Report? Speeches and News Conferences Meetings and Hearings Stories Journalist at Work: Journalistic Rights Under Open Meeting Laws Profiles The Coaching Way: First Assignments Professional's Roundtable: Doing It Right the First Time --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 17.1 Accident Story Close-Up 17.2 Community Event Story Close-Up 17.3 Speech Story Close-Up 17.4 Public Hearing Story Close-Up 17.5 Profile Chapter 18: Beats: Police, Courts, Specialty Sports, Business, Education and more Ingredients of Successful Beat Reporting Chip's Corner: Getting Them to Call Back Basic Beats Specialty Beats Ethical Dilemmas: To Scoop or Not to Scoop What a Specialty Beat Requires Journalist at work: How a Veteran Beat Reporter Became a Multimedia Journalist Getting-and Staying-Organized The Coaching Way: Beats Professional's Roundtable: Beat Reporting --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 18.1 Court Story Close-Up 18.2 Business Story Close-Up 18.3 Sports Story Chapter 19: Obituaries The Obituary: Stories of Death and Life Four Types of Obituaries Reporting and Writing the Obituary: A Process Approach Chip's Corner: Writing an Appreciation Online Obituaries Journalist at Work: An Obituary Hoax Making Tough Choices: Ethics and Obituaries Ethical Dilemmas: Digging up the Past Portraits of Grief: A New Stencil? The Coaching Way: Verification and Respect Professional's Roundtable: Summing Up a Life --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 19.1 News Obit Close-Up 19.2 Feature Obituary Chapter 20: Emergencies, Disasters, and Conflicts: From Weather to War The Media's Role What's Changed: Technology and Timeliness What It Takes: Reporting Think Digital Verify and Attribute Story Structures and Writing Strategies Reporting Painful Truths Ethical Dilemmas: Should Journalists Help, as Well as Write About, Disaster Victims? Breaking News Blogs In a War Zone: Getting the Story, Staying Safe Humanize the Story Responding To Disaster: Easing Journalists' Trauma The Coaching Way: Disasters Professional's Roundtable: When Disaster Strikes --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 20.1 Telling a Story of Loss Chapter 21: Getting and Keeping a Job Getting Started Best Practice: Get an Internship Job Hunting Step By Step The World Wide Résumé Job Prospects, Salaries and Benefits The Case for Starting Out Small Journalist at Work: Lessons from a First job in Journalism Advice for New Reporters The Coaching Way: Getting and Keeping a Job Ethical Dilemmas: Doing the Right Thing Journalist at Work: The Right Attitude Professional's Roundtable: Getting a Job and Keeping It --Summary Guide --Key terms --Exercises --Readings Close-Up 21.1: Resume