9780750309899

Novel Sensors And Sensing

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780750309899

  • ISBN10:

    075030989X

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-09-30
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

"Novel Sensors and Sensing provides an introduction to modern sensor types and sensor signal processing methods, with emphasis placed on the underlying physics and description of the genetic operating principles involved. Supported by sample problems, Matlab simulations and a comprehensive set of exercises, Novel Sensors and Sensing will be a valuable reference for undergraduate and graduate students of physical sciences and engineering, and of great interest to those practitioners in the field of instrumentation who require an introduction to the principles of this new generation of sensors."--BOOK JACKET.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
The instrumentation system
1(22)
Introduction
1(2)
The philosophy of measurement
3(8)
Random errors
3(3)
Systematic errors
6(1)
Environmental disturbances
6(2)
System design and the contribution of errors
8(3)
The general instrumentation system
11(1)
The overall transfer function
12(1)
Dynamic response of the sensor
13(3)
The measurement system as a series of networks
16(7)
Bibliography
19(1)
References
20(1)
Exercises
20(3)
Resonator sensors
23(22)
Introduction
23(1)
The damped harmonic oscillator
24(9)
The non-driven oscillator
25(1)
The driven oscillator
25(3)
Q factor
28(3)
Driving techniques
31(2)
Vibrating wire sensors
33(1)
Torsionally vibrating rod
34(1)
Longitudinally vibrating plate
34(1)
Flexural resonators
35(2)
Vibrating cylinder
37(2)
The tuning fork
39(1)
The double tuning fork structure
39(1)
Bulk acoustic wave resonator sensors
40(1)
Thick films
41(4)
References
43(1)
Exercises
43(2)
Semiconductor-based sensors
45(67)
Introduction
45(1)
Mechanical microsensors
46(10)
Using silicon to measure strain
47(1)
Pressure gauges
48(2)
Accelerometers
50(4)
Flow sensors
54(2)
Angular rate sensors
56(1)
Surface acoustic wave sensors (SAWS)
56(5)
Mass and gas/vapour sensors
59(1)
Temperature sensor
60(1)
Strain sensor
60(1)
Magnetic sensor
60(1)
Conclusion
61(1)
Chemical microsensors
61(8)
Ions in solution
62(1)
Measurement of pH
63(1)
The ISFET
64(3)
FET gas sensors
67(1)
Biosensors
68(1)
Conclusion
68(1)
Optical sensors
69(23)
The wave-particle duality
69(1)
Definitions and units
69(4)
Light sources
73(5)
Sensor types
78(14)
Temperature sensors
92(4)
Thermal infrared radiation sensors
92(1)
Thermistors
93(2)
Integrated circuit temperature sensors
95(1)
Detectors of ionizing radiation
96(6)
Radioactivity and historical developments
96(2)
Counting and spectra
98(1)
Absorption processes
98(1)
Solid-state detectors
99(3)
Magnetic sensors
102(10)
Hall effect
102(2)
Magnetoresistance
104(1)
Magnetodiode
105(1)
Magnetotransistor
106(1)
Bibliography
107(1)
References
108(1)
Exercises
109(3)
Optical fibre sensors
112(60)
Introduction
112(1)
The optical waveguide
113(16)
Principles of propagation
114(10)
Degradation of transmission in optical fibres
124(3)
Manufacturing techniques
127(2)
Comparison of optical fibres with electrical lines
129(1)
Extrinsic optical fibre sensors
129(13)
Displacement sensors
129(3)
Positional encoders
132(2)
Absorption sensors
134(2)
Luminescence sensors
136(2)
Total internal reflection-based sensors
138(3)
Pyrometers
141(1)
Intrinsic optical fibre sensors
142(14)
Physical distortion
142(1)
Change in optical-path length
143(5)
Rotation of polarization
148(8)
Distributed sensing
156(8)
Sensing mechanisms
157(3)
Multiplexing
160(4)
Referencing techniques
164(8)
References
168(1)
Exercises
169(3)
Intelligent sensing
172(47)
Introduction
172(2)
Discontinuous-time sampling
174(1)
Discrete sampling of the measurand
175(13)
Digital-to-analogue conversion
176(4)
Analogue-to-digital conversion
180(8)
PC-based data acquisition boards
188(3)
Smart sensors
191(3)
Artificial intelligence in instrumentation
194(25)
Rule-based expert systems
194(2)
Fuzzy logic
196(9)
Artificial neural networks
205(10)
References
215(1)
Exercises
216(3)
Data signal characterization and recovery
219(41)
Introduction
219(1)
Classification of data signals
220(5)
Deterministic data signals
220(2)
Random data signals
222(3)
Characterization of random data signals
225(11)
Mean values and variances
226(1)
Probability density functions
226(4)
Multi-variable probabilities, covariance and correlation
230(1)
The correlation concept for time-dependent signals
231(1)
Auto-correlation and spectral density functions
232(4)
Noise
236(12)
Origins of noise
236(2)
Noise reduction techniques
238(10)
Interference
248(12)
Sources of interference and coupling mechanisms
248(3)
Interference reduction techniques
251(6)
References
257(1)
Exercises
257(3)
Novel developments in flow measurement systems
260(26)
Introduction
260(5)
Types of flow field
265(3)
Laminar flow
265(1)
Turbulent flow
266(1)
Non-steady flow
267(1)
The cross-correlation flowmeter
268(2)
Ultrasound
270(3)
The Doppler effect
273(13)
The echo spectrum
275(2)
Forward and reverse flow
277(4)
Blood flow measurement
281(3)
References
284(1)
Exercises
285(1)
Answers to exercises 286(3)
Index 289

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