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Nuclear Physics : Principles and Applications,9780471979364
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Nuclear Physics : Principles and Applications

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780471979364

ISBN10:
0471979368
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/8/2001
Publisher(s):
WILEY
List Price: $69.33

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What version or edition is this?
This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 6/8/2001.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

Summary

This title provides the latest information on nuclear physics. Based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. Written from an experimental point of view this text is broadly divided into two parts, firstly a general introduction to Nuclear Physics and secondly its applications. * Includes chapters on practical examples and problems * Contains hints to solving problems which are included in the appendix * Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments * A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory, but emphasising the many and important applications

Table of Contents

Editors' preface to the Manchester Physics Series xiii
Author's preface xv
PART 1 PRINCIPLES 1(126)
Introduction and Basic Concepts
3(32)
Introduction
3(1)
Early Discoveries
4(2)
Basic Facts and Definitions
6(3)
The nucleus and its constituents
6(1)
Isotopes, isotones and isobars
7(1)
Nuclear mass and energy
7(2)
Nuclear Potential and Energy Levels
9(5)
Nucleon states in a nucleus
9(3)
Energy levels of nuclei
12(1)
Occurrence and stability of nuclei
13(1)
Radioactivity and Radioactive Decay
14(8)
Alpha emission
14(1)
Beta emission and electron capture
15(2)
Gamma emission and internal conversion
17(1)
Rate of radioactive decay
18(1)
Radioactive decay chains
19(2)
Radioactivity in the environment
21(1)
Radioactive dating
22(1)
Nuclear Collisions
22(13)
Nomenclature
23(1)
Probes
23(1)
Cross section, differential cross section and reaction rate
24(1)
Isotope production
25(2)
Examples of nuclear reactions
27(5)
Problems 1
32(3)
Nuclear Structure
35(30)
Introduction
35(1)
Nuclear Mass
36(9)
The nuclear force
36(2)
Semi-empirical mass formula
38(3)
Nuclear stability
41(4)
Nuclear Shell Model
45(5)
Evidence for shell structure
45(1)
Independent particle motion and the shell model
46(2)
The spin---orbit potential
48(2)
Single-Particle Features
50(4)
Parity
50(1)
Spectra of single-particle or single-hole nuclei
51(3)
Collective States
54(11)
Vibrational states
55(3)
Deformed nuclei
58(1)
Rotational states
59(2)
Superdeformation
61(2)
Problems 2
63(2)
Nuclear Instability
65(28)
Introduction
65(1)
Gamma Emission
65(9)
General features and selection rules
66(1)
Transition rate
67(6)
Internal conversion
73(1)
Beta Decay
74(10)
Beta-particle energy spectrum
75(2)
Allowed transitions
77(3)
Forbidden transitions
80(2)
Comparison of β-decay rates
82(1)
Electron capture
83(1)
Alpha Decay
84(9)
Semi-classical theory of α decay
84(4)
Alpha-particle energies and selection rules
88(1)
Transuranic nuclei
89(1)
Problems 3
90(3)
Nuclear Reactions
93(34)
Introduction
93(1)
General Features of Nuclear Reactions
94(10)
Energy spectra
94(2)
Angular distributions
96(1)
Cross sections
97(7)
Elastic Scattering and Nuclear Size
104(4)
Electron scattering
104(2)
Optical model for nuclear scattering
106(2)
Direct Reactions
108(5)
Angular momentum transfer in direct reactions
108(2)
Selectivity in direct reactions
110(3)
Compound Nucleus Reactions
113(4)
Resonance in a compound nuclear reaction
114(2)
Low-energy, neutron-induced fission
116(1)
Heavy-Ion Reactions
117(10)
Elastic scattering and direct reactions
118(2)
Fusion
120(2)
Deep inelastic reactions and limits to fusion
122(2)
Problems 4
124(3)
PART II INSTRUMENTATION AND APPLICATIONS 127(198)
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
129(22)
Introduction
129(1)
Heavy Charged Particles
129(5)
Bethe--Bloch formula
130(1)
Energy dependence
131(1)
Bragg curve
132(1)
Projectile dependence
133(1)
Stopping medium dependence
134(1)
Electrons
134(2)
Gamma Rays
136(6)
Photoelectric effect
138(1)
Compton scattering
139(1)
Pair production
140(1)
Attenuation
141(1)
Neutrons
142(9)
Attenuation
143(1)
Neutron moderation
144(4)
Problems 5
148(3)
Detectors and Instrumentation
151(30)
Introduction
151(1)
Gas Detectors
152(4)
Ionization chamber
152(1)
Proportional counter
153(2)
Geiger--Mueller counter
155(1)
Scintillation Detectors
156(2)
Semiconductor Detectors
158(4)
The p-n junction detector
160(2)
The intrinsic detector
162(1)
Detector Performance for Gamma Rays
162(4)
Response to monoenergetic photons
162(2)
Energy resolution
164(1)
Peak-to-total ratio
165(1)
Neutron Detectors
166(2)
Slow-neutron detection
166(1)
Fast-neutron detection
167(1)
Particle Identification
168(3)
E-ΔE counter telescope
168(1)
Time of flight
168(1)
Magnetic analysis
169(2)
Accelerators
171(10)
DC machines
171(2)
AC machines
173(5)
Problems 6
178(3)
Biological Effects of Radiation
181(24)
Introduction
181(1)
Initial Interactions
182(3)
Direct and indirect physical damage
182(1)
Indirect chemical damage
183(2)
Dose, Dose Rate and Dose Distribution
185(4)
Absorbed dose
185(1)
Dose rate
185(1)
Dose distribution and relative biological effectiveness
186(1)
Equivalent dose
187(1)
Effective dose
188(1)
Damage to Critical Tissue
189(6)
Complex molecules
189(1)
Nucleic acids and damage repair
190(2)
Modifying factors
192(3)
Human Exposure to Radiation
195(5)
Radiation in the environment
195(3)
Evaluating the dose
198(2)
Risk Assessment
200(5)
Risk to occupationally exposed workers
201(1)
Problems 7
202(3)
Industrial and Analytical Applications
205(28)
Introduction
205(1)
Industrial Uses
205(7)
Tracing
205(2)
Gauging
207(1)
Material modification
208(1)
Sterilization
209(1)
Food preservation
210(1)
Other applications
211(1)
Neutron Activation Analysis
212(3)
Rutherford Backscattering
215(4)
Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission
219(4)
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
223(3)
Significance of Low-Level Counting
226(7)
Null measurements with zero background
226(1)
Low-level counting with finite background
227(2)
Problems 8
229(4)
Nuclear Medicine
233(30)
Introduction
233(1)
Projection Imaging: X-Radiography and the Gamma Camera
234(4)
Imaging with external radiation
234(1)
Imaging with internal radiation
235(3)
Computed Tomography
238(4)
Positron Emission Tomography
242(3)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
245(8)
Principles of MRI
246(2)
Excitation of a selected region
248(1)
Readout and MRI image formation
248(1)
Time variations of the signal
249(2)
Functional MRI
251(2)
Radiation Theraphy
253(10)
Photons and electrons
253(3)
Radionuclides
256(1)
Neutron therapy
256(1)
Heavy charged particles
257(2)
Problems 9
259(4)
Power From Fission
263(36)
Introduction
263(1)
Characteristics of Fission
264(5)
Fission and fission products
264(1)
Fission energy budget
265(2)
Delayed neutrons
267(1)
Neutron interactions
267(1)
Breeder reactions
268(1)
The Chain Reaction in a Thermal Fission Reactor
269(7)
A nuclear power plant
269(2)
The neutron cycle in a thermal reactor
271(3)
Moderator
274(1)
Optimizing the design
275(1)
The Finite Reactor
276(7)
Diffusion
276(1)
The continuity equation
277(1)
Diffusion length
278(1)
Reactor equation
279(2)
Solving the reactor equation
281(2)
Reactor Operation
283(4)
Reactor power and fuel consumption
283(1)
Reactor kinetics
284(1)
Reactor poisoning
285(2)
Commercial Thermal Reactors
287(4)
Early gas-cooled reactors
287(1)
Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR)
288(1)
Pressurized-water reactor
288(1)
Boiling-water reactor
289(1)
Heavy-water reactors
290(1)
Future of Nuclear Fission Power
291(8)
The breeder reactor
292(2)
Accelerator-driven systems
294(1)
Problems 10
295(4)
Thermonuclear Fusion
299(26)
Introduction
299(1)
Thermonuclear Reactions and Energy Production
300(2)
Basic reactions and Q values
300(1)
Cross sections
301(1)
Fusion in a Hot Medium
302(3)
Reaction rate
302(2)
Performance criteria
304(1)
Progress Towards Fusion Power
305(8)
Magnetic confinement
306(5)
Inertial confinement fusion
311(2)
Fusion in the Early Universe
313(2)
Stellar Burning
315(5)
Hydrogen burning
315(3)
Helium burning
318(1)
Beyond helium burning
319(1)
Nucleosynthesis Beyond A ≈ 60
320(5)
Problems 11
323(2)
APPENDIX A: Useful Information 325(4)
A.1 Physical Constants and Derived Quantities
325(1)
A.2 Masses and Energies
325(1)
A.3 Conversion Factors
326(1)
A.4 Useful Formulae
326(3)
APPENDIX B: Particle in a Square Well 329(4)
APPENDIX C: Density of States and the Fermi Energy 333(4)
C.1 Density of states
333(2)
C.2 Fermi Energy
335(2)
APPENDIX D: Spherical Harmonics 337(4)
APPENDIX E: Coulomb Scattering 341(2)
APPENDIX F: Mass Excesses and Decay Properties of Nuclei 343(12)
APPENDIX G: Answers and Hints to Problems 355(24)
References 379(2)
Bibliography 381(4)
Index 385


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