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The Nurse, The Math, The Meds; Drug Calculations Using Dimensional Analysis,9780323030311

The Nurse, The Math, The Meds; Drug Calculations Using Dimensional Analysis

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780323030311

ISBN10:
0323030319
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/17/2006
Publisher(s):
Mosby
List Price: $61.95

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  • The Nurse, the Math, the Meds: Drug Calculations Using Dimensional Analysis
    The Nurse, the Math, the Meds: Drug Calculations Using Dimensional Analysis




Summary

This text emphasizes the simplicity of the dimensional analysis method to help even those students with math anxiety minimize or eliminate medication calculation errors. It begins with a comprehensive review of general math skills and an explanation of basic dimensional analysis methodology. The book focuses on the analysis and setup of practice problems, formulation of a reasonable answer, and evaluation of the answer. This one-of-a-kind text is designed for nursing students at all levels, including graduate nurses and practicing nurses who want a refresher. It is an appropriate text selection for agency in-service programs as well as for physician assistant medication math courses. A companion CD-ROM packaged with the text offers additional practice problems. A self-assessment test precedes the comprehensive math review in Chapter 1, promoting a strong math foundation. Chapter 2 introduces the dimensional analysis method and includes several basic practice problems, facilitating consistent application of the method throughout the text. The analysis and setup of practice problems increases comprehension, reduces errors, and complements use of the dimensional analysis method. To help reduce medication errors, the text follows JCAHO and ISMP recommendations regarding avoidance of ambiguous abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols. Each chapter begins with a quick overview of chapter contents to orient students as they prepare to read and study the material. The texts full-color design includes a special margin section in which students can work out practice problems on the spot. Rapid Practice exercises follow each main concept, allowing students to review even when their study time is limited or frequently interrupted. Test Tips enhance comprehension and improve students test-taking skills and comfort level. Selected Mnemonics are supplied to facilitate memorization and conserve learning time. Red Arrow Alerts call attention to critical math concepts and patient-safety theory as well as to key nursing practice issues. FAQs and Answers are derived from students actual classroom questions. They are particularly helpful to students who are studying outside of a traditional classroom environment. Ask Yourself questions help students comprehend and synthesize content. Communication boxes, which present sample nurse-patient and nurse-prescriber dialogues, illustrate clinical applications of medication administration. Cultural boxes describe selected math-notation and medication-related cultural practices. Clinical Relevance boxes show how abstract concepts, such as legal issues, apply to everyday clinical practice. Website addresses and other useful references are provided where applicable. Two comprehensive finals, one using an NCLEX examination-style multiple-choice format and one following a traditional format, test the major concepts covered in the text and offer an opportunity for additional practice. Two chapter finals are included at the end of each chapter, one multiple-choice format and one traditional format, with answers provided in the back of the book. An answer key in the back of the book contains step-by-step solutions to the Rapid Practice exercises, chapter finals, and comprehensive text finals, allowing the student to pinpoint specific areas for further review.

Table of Contents

Part I Essential Math Review for Medication Calculations
1(76)
Essential Math Self-Assessment
2(3)
Essential Math Review
5(51)
Introduction
6(1)
Directions
6(1)
Essential Math Vocabulary and Concepts
6(1)
Whole Numbers
7(1)
Implied Decimal Points and Trailing Zeros
8(1)
Arabic Numerals and Roman Numerals
9(1)
Sum
10(1)
Product
10(1)
Factor
11(1)
Common Factors
11(1)
Multiple
12(1)
Factors Versus Multiples
12(1)
Multiplier
12(1)
Divisor
13(1)
Dividend
13(1)
Quotient
13(1)
Remainder
13(1)
Square
14(1)
Square Root
14(1)
Bases and Exponents
15(1)
Powers of 10 Calculations
16(1)
Multiplying and Dividing by 10, 100, and 1000 the Fast Way
16(1)
Decimal Fractions
17(1)
Reading Numbers and Decimals
18(1)
Writing Decimals in Fraction Form
19(1)
Comparing Decimals to See Which is Larger
20(1)
Rounding Decimals and Whole Numbers
20(2)
Adding and Subtracting Decimal Numbers
22(1)
Multiplying Decimals
22(1)
Dividing Decimals
22(2)
Fractions
24(1)
Alternative Fraction Forms
25(1)
Mixed Fractions
25(1)
Improper Fractions
25(1)
Converting Mixed and Improper Fractions
26(1)
Converting an Improper Fraction to a Mixed Fraction
26(1)
Reducing Fractions
26(1)
Common (Same) Denominator and Lowest Common Denominator
27(1)
Lowest Common Denominator (LCD)
27(1)
Equivalent Fractions
28(1)
Comparing Fractions
29(1)
Adding and Subtracting Fractions
29(2)
Multiplying Fractions
31(1)
Fraction Multiplication and Canceling Fractions
32(1)
Multiplication With Mixed Fractions
33(1)
Dividing Fractions
33(1)
Percentages
34(1)
Changing a Fraction to a Percentage
34(1)
Changing a Percentage to a Fraction
35(1)
Changing a Decimal to a Percentage
35(1)
Changing a Percentage to a Decimal
36(1)
Calculating the Percentage of a Whole Number
36(1)
Constants
37(1)
Finding Unit Values and Totals
37(1)
Finding the Total Value
37(1)
Equations
38(18)
Dimensional Analysis Calculations
56(21)
Introduction
56(2)
Required Elements of a Dimensional Analysis Equation
58(1)
The Setup of a Dimensional Analysis--Style Equation
58(3)
Conversion Formula Review
61(7)
Problems That Call for More Than One Conversion Formula
68(9)
Part II Modern Metric System and Medication Calculations
77(118)
Measurement Units and Conversions for Medications
78(25)
Introduction
78(2)
Metric Measurements: Base Units
80(1)
Metric Units Number Line
80(1)
Metric Prefixes and Values
80(4)
Equivalent Metric Measurements of Weight or Mass
84(1)
Metric Equivalent Measurements of Volume
85(1)
Metric Measurements of Length
86(1)
Metric Equivalents
87(1)
Finding Equivalents: Changing Milligrams to Grams and Grams to Milligrams
88(3)
Examining Micrograms
91(1)
Milliequivalents (mEq)
92(1)
Other Medication Measurement Systems
93(4)
Key Points About the Three Measurement Systems
97(6)
Patient Records, Medication Orders, and Labels
103(46)
Introduction
103(3)
Medication Storage and Security
106(1)
Medication Forms and Packaging
107(1)
Solid Drug Forms
108(1)
Liquid Drug Forms
109(3)
Medication Routes
112(2)
Frequency and Times of Medication
114(4)
Medication Orders
118(2)
Interpreting Labels and Orders
120(6)
Calculating Dose Based on Label and Order Information
126(5)
Orders for Two or More Medications to be Combined
131(1)
Telephone and Verbal Orders
131(1)
Examples of Orders That Must Be Clarified
131(2)
The 24-Hour Clock
133(3)
Medication Administration Records
136(3)
Patients' Rights
139(10)
Solid and Liquid Oral Dose Calculations
149(46)
Introduction
149(5)
Converting Grams to Micrograms and Micrograms to Grams by Moving Decimal Places
154(5)
Analyzing Liquid Dose Orders
159(1)
Setting Up DA-Style Equations for Liquid Dose Calculations
160(2)
Usual Unit Doses
162(3)
Equipment for Administering Oral Liquid Doses
165(1)
Measuring Liquids
165(9)
Safe Dose Ranges
174(21)
Part III Reconstituted Medications
195(58)
Syringe Measurements
196(28)
Introduction
196(1)
Syringe Sizes
197(2)
Parts of the Syringe
199(1)
Total Capacity and Lowest Measurable Dose
200(1)
Where to Measure the Dose on Syringes
201(4)
Examining the Calculated Doses for Correct Syringe Selection
205(2)
Oral Syringes
207(1)
Oral Syringes Versus Injectable Syringes
208(1)
Prefilled Injectable Syringes
208(1)
Prefilled Medication Cartridges for Injection
209(1)
Needle Sizes
210(1)
Safety Syringes
211(1)
Safety Issues and Disposal of Sharps
212(7)
Recommended Fluid Volume for Selected Sites
219(5)
Reconstitution of Powders and Liquids
224(29)
Introduction
224(2)
Reconstituted Medications
226(1)
Expired Reconstituted Drugs
227(8)
Reconstituted Parenteral Drugs
235(3)
Reconstituted Drug Prefilled Containers
238(4)
Liquid Concentrates: Diluting Liquids
242(1)
Inactive Ingredients Used for Dilutions
243(1)
Converting Dilution Ratios to Fractions and Percentages
243(1)
Using a DA Equation to Calculate the Amount of Concentrate
244(9)
Part IV Parenteral Medication Calculations
253(118)
Injectable Medication Calculations
254(29)
Introduction
254(1)
Intradermal Injections
255(1)
Subcutaneous Injections
256(1)
Intramuscular Injections
257(1)
Administering Injections
258(7)
Parenteral Mixes
265(8)
Medicines Supplies in Units
273(10)
Basic Intravenous Calculations
283(52)
Introduction
283(3)
Overview of Intravenous Therapy
286(2)
Basic Intravenous Equipment
288(1)
Types of Intravenous Solutions
288(1)
Tonicity of Intravenous Solutions
288(1)
Intravenous Solution Volume
289(1)
Intravenous Solution Orders for Milliliters per Hour
290(1)
Determining Infusion Durations
290(2)
Intravenous Flow Rate Entries for Electronic Infusion Devices
292(1)
Gravity Infusions
293(1)
Intravenous Administration Sets
294(1)
Selection of Gravity Infusion Administration Sets
295(1)
Calculating Flow Rates for Gravity Infusion Devices
296(8)
Intravenous Piggyback Solutions
304(5)
Regulating and Positioning Gravity Infusion Devices
309(2)
Flow Rate Errors
311(1)
Monitoring the Flow Rate on Infusion Devices
311(2)
Calculating Milliliters per Hour from Drops per Minute at the Bedside
313(1)
Setting the Alarm for Intravenous Equipment
314(1)
Calculating the Volume for a ``Volume to be Infused'' Alarm
315(5)
``To Keep Open'' Flow Rates
320(1)
Calculating Grams of Solute in Intravenous Solutions
321(1)
A Word About Potassium Chloride
322(1)
Intravenous Intermittent Solution Delivery Systems
323(4)
Administration of Blood
327(8)
Advanced Intravenous Calculations
335(36)
Introduction
335(2)
Equation Setups for Advanced Intravenous Calculations
337(1)
Conversion Formulas That May Be Needed for Intravenous Infusion Calculations
338(1)
Calculating Medicated Intravenous Flow Rates That Require One Conversion Formula
339(2)
Calculating Intravenous Flow Rates That Require Two Conversion Formulas
341(1)
Calculating Flow Rates for Weight-Based Doses
342(4)
Equipment for Medicated Intravenous Solutions
346(3)
Deriving Infusion Dose from Existing Flow Rate and Available Solution
349(1)
Dilutions: When the Nurse Prepares the Drug for the Intravenous Solution
350(2)
Intravenous Direct Push Medications
352(1)
Direct Intravenous Push Calculations
353(6)
Hyperalimentation: Total Parenteral Nutrition
359(12)
Part V Oral and Injectable Hormone Medications
371(64)
Antidiabetic Agents
372(41)
Introduction
372(3)
Oral Antidiabetic Agents
375(2)
Parenteral Antidiabetic Agents: Insulin Products
377(2)
Insulin Labels
379(1)
Short-, Rapid-Acting Insulins
380(2)
Intermediate-Acting Insulins
382(1)
Long-Acting Insulins
383(2)
Steps to Prepare Doses for Insulin Syringes
385(1)
Matching Insulin Concentration and Syringes
385(1)
Reading Units on Insulin Syringes
386(1)
Even- and Odd-Numbered Scales on Insulin Syringes
386(1)
Lo-Dose Syringes
387(3)
Sites for Insulin Injection
390(1)
Sliding-Scale Insulin
390(7)
When the Mix Must Be Prepared by the Nurse
397(1)
Technique for Preparing Insulin Mixes
397(4)
Intravenous Insulin Infusions
401(3)
Insulin Administration Devices
404(9)
Anticoagulant Agents
413(22)
Introduction
413(8)
Injectable Anticoagulants
421(1)
Low-Dose Heparin Concentrations used to Maintain Patency of Intravenous Devices (Flushes)
421(1)
Heparin Concentrations Used for Subcutaneous Administration and Bolus Intravenous Doses
422(1)
Heparin Concentrations Used for Intravenous Infusions
423(2)
Calculating Heparin Flow Rates in Milliliters per Hour (mL/hr) and Units per Hour Using DA-Style Equations
425(10)
Part VI Medications for Infants and Children
435(39)
Pediatric Medication Calculations
436(38)
Introduction
436(2)
Comparing Adult and Pediatric Medication Doses and Schedules
438(1)
Calculating Kilograms to Nearest Tenth from Pounds and Ounces
439(2)
Sequence for Calculating Safe Dose Range
441(2)
Body Surface Area (BSA)
443(3)
Equipment for Medication Administration to Pediatric Patients and Patients Unable to Chew Tablets and Pills
446(5)
Injection Sites for Pediatric Patients
451(1)
Injection Volumes for Pediatric Populations
452(4)
Fluid Requirements for Pediatric Patients
456(1)
Intravenous Injections for Infants and Children
457(6)
Comparing Safe Dose Range and order
463(11)
Multiple-Choice Final Review 474(5)
Comprehensive Final Practice 479(20)
Answer Keys 499


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