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Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780697295101

ISBN10:
0697295109
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/1998
Publisher(s):
McGraw Hill College Div
List Price: $67.45

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What version or edition is this?
This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 6/1/1998.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

Table of Contents

Preface x
1 Introduction to Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sports Performance
1(24)
Introduction
2(1)
Nutrition, Exercise, and Health-Related Fitness
3(1)
Exercise and Health-Related Fitness
3(3)
What is health-related fitness?
3(1)
What is the role of exercise in health promotion?
3(1)
Do most of us exercise enough?
4(1)
What are some general guidelines for exercising properly for someone who wants to be more physically active?
5(1)
Nutrition and Health-Related Fitness
6(2)
What is nutrition?
6(1)
What is the role of nutrition in health promotion?
6(1)
Do we eat right?
6(1)
What are some general guidelines for healthy eating?
7(1)
Are there additional health benefits when both exercise and diet habits are improved?
8(1)
Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports-Related Fitness
8(5)
What is sports-related fitness?
8(1)
What is sport nutrition?
9(1)
Are athletes today receiving adequate nutrition?
10(1)
How important is nutrition to athletic performance?
11(1)
What should I eat to help optimize my athletic performance?
12(1)
Dietary Supplements and Ergogenic Aids
13(1)
Dietary Supplements and Health
13(1)
What are dietary supplements?
13(1)
Will dietary supplements improve my health?
13(1)
Ergogenic Aids and Sports Performance
14(2)
What is an ergogenic aid?
14(1)
Why are nutritional ergogenics so popular?
15(1)
Are nutritional ergogenics legal?
15(1)
Nutritional Quackery in Health and Sports
16(3)
What is nutritional quackery?
16(1)
Why is nutritional quackery so prevalent in athletics?
16(2)
How do I recognize nutritional quackery in health and sports?
18(1)
Where can I get sound nutritional information to combat quackery in health and sports?
18(1)
Research and Prudent Recommendations
19(3)
What types of research provide valid information?
19(2)
Why do we often hear contradictory advice about the effects of nutrition on health or physical performance?
21(1)
What is the basis for the dietary recommendations presented in this book?
22(1)
References
22(3)
2 Healthful Nutrition for Fitness and Sport
25(39)
Introduction
26(1)
Essential Nutrients and the RDA
26(3)
What are essential nutrients?
26(1)
What are nonessential nutrients?
27(1)
What are the RDA?
28(1)
The Balanced Diet and Nutrient Density
29(7)
What is a balanced diet?
29(1)
What foods should I eat to obtain the nutrients need?
30(1)
What is the Food Guide Pyramid?
30(1)
What is the Food Exchange System?
31(2)
What is the Key-nutrient concept for obtaining a balanced diet?
33(1)
What is the concept of nutrient density?
34(1)
Will use of the Food Guide Pyramid or the Food Exchange System guarantee me optimal nutrition?
35(1)
Healthful Dietary Guidelines
36(6)
What is the basis underlying the development of healthful dietary guidelines?
38(1)
What are the recommended dietary guidelines for reducing the risk of chronic disease?
38(4)
Vegetarianism
42(6)
What types of foods does a vegetarian eat?
42(2)
What are some of the nutritional concerns with a vegetarian diet?
44(1)
Is a vegetarian diet more healthful than a nonvegetarian diet?
45(2)
How can I become a vegetarian?
47(1)
Will a vegetarian diet affect physical performance potential?
47(1)
Consumer Nutrition
48(8)
What nutrition information do food labels provide?
48(1)
How can I use this information to select a healthier diet?
49(1)
What health claims are allowed on food products?
50(2)
Does food processing impair food quality?
52(1)
Are food additives safe?
53(1)
Are dietary supplements safe?
53(1)
Do foods contain enough pesticides to cause health concerns?
54(1)
Why do some people experience adverse reactions to some foods?
55(1)
Healthful Nutrition Recommendations for Better Physical Performance
56(5)
When and what should I eat prior to competition?
57(1)
How about the use of liquid meals, sports bars, and dietary supplements?
58(1)
How important is breakfast for the physically active individual?
58(1)
What should I eat during competition?
59(1)
What should I eat after competition or a hard training session?
59(1)
How can I eat more nutritiously while traveling for competition?
59(2)
How do gender and age influence nutritional recommendations for enhanced performance
61(1)
References
61(3)
3 Human Energy
64(30)
Introduction
65(1)
Measures of Energy
65(4)
What is energy?
65(1)
How do we measure work and energy?
66(2)
What is the most commonly used measure of energy?
68(1)
Human Energy Systems
69(5)
How is energy stored in the body?
69(1)
What are the human energy systems?
70(4)
What nutrients are necessary for the operation of the human energy systems?
74(1)
Human Energy Metabolism During Rest
74(3)
What is metabolism?
74(1)
What factors account for the amount of energy expended during rest?
75(1)
What effect does eating a meal have on the metabolic rate?
75(1)
How can I estimate my daily resting energy expenditure (REE)?
76(1)
What genetic factors affect my REE?
76(1)
How does body composition affect my REE?
77(1)
What environmental factors may also influence the REE?
77(1)
What energy sources are used during rest?
77(1)
Human Energy Metabolism During Exercise
77(9)
What effect does muscular exercise have on the metabolic rate?
77(1)
How is exercise intensity measured?
78(1)
How is the energy expenditure of exercise metabolism expressed?
79(2)
How can I tell what my metabolic rate is during exercise?
81(1)
How can I determine the energy cost of exercise?
82(1)
What are the best types of activities to increase energy expenditure?
82(1)
Does exercise affect my resting energy expenditure (REE)?
83(1)
Does exercise affect the thermic effect of food (TEF)?
84(1)
What role does the thermic effect of exercise (TEE) play in my total daily energy expenditure?
85(1)
Human Energy Systems and Fatigue During Exercise
86(5)
What energy systems are used during exercise?
86(2)
What energy sources are used during exercise?
88(1)
What is fatigue?
89(1)
How can I delay the onset of fatigue?
89(1)
How is nutrition related to fatigue processes?
90(1)
References
91(3)
4 Carbohydrates: The Main Energy Food
94(43)
Introduction
95(1)
Dietary Carbohydrates
95(4)
What are the different types of dietary carbohydrates?
95(2)
What are some common foods high in carbohydrate content?
97(1)
How much carbohydrate do we need in the diet?
98(1)
Metabolism and Function
99(7)
How do dietary carbohydrates get into the body?
99(2)
What happens to the carbohydrate after it is absorbed into the body?
101(2)
How much total energy do we store as carbohydrate?
103(1)
Can the human body make carbohydrates from protein and fat?
104(1)
What are the major functions of carbohydrate in human nutrition?
105(1)
Carbohydrates for Exercise
106(12)
In what types of activities does the body rely heavily on carbohydrate as an energy source?
106(1)
Why is carbohydrate an important energy source for exercise?
106(1)
What effect does endurance training have on carbohydrate metabolism?
107(1)
How is hypoglycemia related to the development of fatigue?
108(1)
How is low muscle glycogen related to the development of fatigue?
109(1)
How are low endogenous carbohydrate levels related to the central fatigue hypothesis?
110(1)
Will eating carbohydrate immediately before or during an event improve physical performance?
110(3)
When, how much, and in what form should carbohydrates be consumed before or during exercise?
113(3)
What is the importance of carbohydrate replenishment after prolonged exercise?
116(1)
Will a high-carbohydrate diet enhance my daily exercise training?
117(1)
Carbohydrate Loading
118(4)
What is carbohydrate, or glycogen, loading?
118(1)
What type of athlete would benefit from carbohydrate loading?
118(1)
How do you carbohydrate load?
118(1)
How do I know if my muscles have increased their glycogen stores?
119(1)
Will carbohydrate loading increase muscle glycogen concentration?
120(1)
Will carbohydrate loading improve exercise performance?
121(1)
Are there any possible detrimental effects relative to carbohydrate loading?
122(1)
Carbohydrates: Ergogenic Aspects
122(4)
Is honey more effective than glucose or other carbohydrates?
122(1)
Is alcohol an effective ergogenic aid?
123(3)
Do the metabolic by-products of carbohydrate exert an ergogenic effect?
126(1)
Dietary Carbohydrates: Health Implications
126(6)
How do refined sugars affect my health?
127(1)
Are artificial sweeteners safe?
127(1)
Why are complex carbohydrates thought to be beneficial to my health?
128(1)
Why should I eat foods rich in dietary fiber?
128(1)
What is lactose intolerance?
129(1)
What effect can drinking alcohol have upon my health?
129(3)
References
132(5)
5 Fat: An Important Energy Source During Exercise
137(41)
Introduction
138(1)
Dietary Fats
138(7)
What are the different types of dietary fats?
138(1)
What are triglycerides?
138(1)
What are some common foods high in fat content?
139(2)
How do I calculate the percentage of fat Calories in a food?
141(1)
What are fat substitutes?
141(2)
What is cholesterol?
143(1)
What foods contain cholesterol?
143(1)
What are phospholipids?
143(1)
What foods contain phospholipids?
144(1)
How much fat and cholesterol do we need in the diet?
144(1)
Metabolism and Function
145(4)
How does dietary fat get into the body?
145(1)
What happens to the lipid once it gets in the body?
145(1)
What are the different types of lipoproteins?
146(2)
Can the body make fat from protein and carbohydrate?
148(1)
What are the major functions of the body lipids?
148(1)
How much total energy is stored in the body as fat?
149(1)
Fats and Exercise
149(2)
Are fats used as an energy source during exercise?
149(2)
Do women use fats more efficiently during exercise than men?
151(1)
What effect does exercise training have on fat metabolism during exercise?
151(1)
Fats: Ergogenic Aspects
151(8)
What is fat loading?
152(1)
Will fasting help improve my performance?
153(1)
Can the use of medium-chain triglycerides improve endurance performance?
153(1)
Will infusion of fats into the bloodstream improve fat oxidation and performance?
153(1)
Is the glycerol portion of triglycerides an effective ergogenic aid?
154(1)
Do wheat germ oil supplements enhance athletic performance?
154(1)
How effective are lecithin or choline supplements?
154(1)
Why are omega-3 fatty acids suggested to be ergogenic, and do they work?
154(1)
Can carnitine supplements enhance fat metabolism and physical performance?
155(1)
Does caffeine improve exercise performance?
156(3)
Dietary Fats and Cholesterol: Health Implications
159(14)
How does cardiovascular disease develop?
160(2)
How do the different forms of serum lipids affect the development of atherosclerosis?
162(1)
Can I reduce my serum lipid levels and possibly reverse atherosclerosis?
163(1)
What should I eat to modify my serum lipid profile favorably?
163(5)
Can exercise training also elicit favorable changes in the serum lipid profile?
168(1)
Does drinking coffee, tea, or other caffeinated beverages pose any significant health risk?
169(4)
Can very low serum cholesterol levels affect health?
173(1)
References
173(5)
6 Protein: The Tissue Builder
178(30)
Introduction
179(1)
Dietary Protein
179(5)
What is protein?
179(1)
Is there a difference between animal and plant protein?
180(1)
What are some common foods that are good sources of protein?
181(1)
How much dietary protein do I need?
182(1)
How much of the essential amino acids do I need?
183(1)
What are some dietary guidelines to ensure adequate protein intake?
183(1)
Metabolism and Function
184(2)
What happens to protein in the human body?
184(1)
Can protein be formed from carbohydrates and fats?
184(1)
What are the major functions of protein in human nutrition?
185(1)
Proteins and Exercise
186(6)
Are proteins used for energy during exercise?
186(1)
Does exercise increase protein losses in other ways?
187(1)
What effect does exercise training have upon protein metabolism?
187(1)
Do individuals in strenuous physical training, including the developing adolescent athlete, need more protein in the diet?
188(2)
What are some general recommendations relative to dietary protein intake for athletes?
190(2)
Protein: Ergogenic Aspects
192(10)
Are special protein supplements necessary?
192(1)
Are amino acid, amine, and related nitrogen-containing supplements effective ergogenic aids?
193(9)
Dietary Protein: Health Implications
202(1)
Does a deficiency of dietary protein pose any health risks?
202(1)
Does excessive protein intake pose any health risks?
202(1)
Does the consumption of individual amino acids pose any health risks?
203(1)
References
203(5)
7 Vitamins: The Organic Regulators
208(33)
Introduction
209(1)
Basic Facts
209(2)
What are vitamins and how do they work?
209(1)
What vitamins are essential to human nutrition?
210(1)
In general, how do deficiencies or excesses of vitamins influence health or physical performance?
211(1)
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
211(6)
Vitamin A (retinol)
211(3)
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
214(1)
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)
215(2)
Vitamin K (phylloquinone; menoquinone)
217(1)
Water-Soluble Vitamins
217(9)
Thiamin (vitamin B1)
217(2)
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
219(1)
Niacin
220(1)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
221(1)
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
221(1)
Folic acid (folate)
222(1)
Pantothenic acid
223(1)
Biotin
224(1)
Vitamin B complex
224(1)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
225(1)
Vitamin Supplements: Ergogenic Aspects
226(5)
Should physically active individuals take vitamin supplements?
227(1)
Can the antioxidant vitamins prevent muscle damage during training?
227(1)
How effective are the special vitamin supplements marketed for athletes?
228(3)
What's the bottom line regarding vitamin supplements for athletes?
231(1)
Vitamin Supplements: Health Aspects
231(5)
Can I obtain the vitamins I need through my diet?
232(1)
Why are vitamin supplements often recommended?
232(1)
Why do individuals take vitamin megadoses?
233(1)
Do foods rich in antioxidant vitamins help deter disease?
234(1)
Do antioxidant vitamin supplements help deter disease?
234(1)
Are vitamin megadoses harmful?
235(1)
If I want to take a vitamin-mineral supplement, what are some prudent guidelines?
236(1)
References
236(5)
8 Minerals: The Inorganic Regulators
241(33)
Introduction
242(1)
Basic Facts
242(2)
What are minerals, and what is their importance to humans?
242(1)
What minerals are essential to human nutrition?
242(1)
In general, how do deficiencies or excesses of minerals influence health or physical performance?
243(1)
Macrominerals
244(10)
Calcium (Ca)
244(7)
Phosphorus (P)
251(2)
Magnesium (Mg)
253(1)
Trace Minerals
254(13)
Iron (Fe)
254(6)
Copper (Cu)
260(1)
Zinc (Zn)
261(1)
Chromium (Cr)
262(2)
Selenium (Se)
264(1)
Boron (B)
265(1)
Vanadium (V)
266(1)
Other trace minerals
267(1)
Mineral Supplements: Exercise and Health
267(2)
Does exercise increase my need for minerals?
267(1)
Can I obtain the minerals I need through my diet?
268(1)
Should physically active individuals take mineral supplements?
268(1)
Are mineral megadoses harmful?
269(1)
References
269(5)
9 Water, Electrolytes, and Temperature Regulation
274(40)
Introduction
275(1)
Water
276(3)
How much water do you need per day?
276(1)
Where is water stored in the body?
276(1)
How is body water regulated?
277(2)
What are the major functions of water in the body?
279(1)
Electrolytes
279(3)
What is an electrolyte?
279(1)
Sodium (Na)
279(2)
Chloride (Cl)
281(1)
Potassium (K)
281(1)
Regulation of Body Temperature
282(5)
What is the normal body temperature?
282(1)
What are the major factors that influence body temperature?
283(1)
How does the body regulate its own temperature?
283(2)
What environmental conditions may predispose an athletic individual to hyperthermia?
285(1)
How does exercise affect body temperature?
285(1)
How is body heat dissipated during exercise?
286(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Losses
287(3)
How does environmental heat affect physical performance?
287(1)
How do dehydration and hypohydration affect physical performance?
288(1)
How fast may an individual dehydrate while exercising?
288(1)
How can I determine my sweat rate?
288(1)
What is the composition of sweat?
289(1)
Is excessive sweating likely to create an electrolyte deficiency?
290(1)
Fluid, Carbohydrate, and Electrolyte Replacement
290(9)
Which is most important to replace during exercise in the heat--water, carbohydrate, or electrolytes?
290(1)
What are some sound guidelines for maintaining water (fluid) balance during exercise?
291(3)
What factors influence gastric emptying and intestinal absorption?
294(1)
How should carbohydrate be replaced during exercise in the heat?
295(1)
How should electrolytes be replaced during or following exercise?
296(1)
Are salt tablets or potassium supplements necessary?
297(1)
What are some prudent guidelines relative to fluid replacement while exercising under warm or hot environmental conditions?
298(1)
Ergogenic Aspects?
299(4)
Does glycerol supplementation enhance endurance performance during exercise under warm environmental conditions?
301(1)
Does sodium bicarbonate, or soda loading, enhance physical performance?
302(1)
Health Aspects: Heat Injuries and High Blood Pressure
303(7)
What are the potential health hazards of excessive heat stress imposed on the body?
303(1)
What are the symptoms and treatment of heat injuries?
304(1)
Do some individuals have problems tolerating exercise in the heat?
304(2)
How can I reduce the hazards associated with exercise in a hot environment?
306(1)
How can I become acclimatized to exercise in the heat?
307(1)
What is high blood pressure, or hypertension?
307(1)
How is high blood pressure treated?
308(1)
What dietary modifications may help reduce or prevent hypertension?
309(1)
Can exercise help prevent or treat hypertension?
310(1)
References
310(4)
10 Body Weight and Composition for Health and Sport
314(30)
Introduction
315(1)
Body Weight and Composition
315(8)
What is the ideal body weight?
315(1)
What are the values and limitations of height-weight charts and the BMI?
316(1)
What is the composition of the body?
316(2)
What techniques are available to measure body composition and how accurate are they?
318(3)
What problems may be associated with rigid adherence to body fat percentages in sport?
321(1)
How much should I weigh or how much body fat should I have?
322(1)
Body Composition and Health
323(14)
How does the human body normally control its own weight?
323(3)
What is the cause of obesity?
326(2)
How is fat deposited in the body?
328(1)
What health problems are associated with obesity?
328(3)
What health problems are associated with excessive weight losses?
331(3)
What are the major eating disorders?
334(1)
What eating problems are associated with sports?
335(2)
Body Composition and Physical Performance
337(2)
What effect does excess body weight have on physical performance?
337(1)
Does excessive weight loss impair physical performance?
338(1)
References
339(5)
11 Weight Maintenance and Loss Through Proper Nutrition and Exercise
344(44)
Introduction
345(1)
Basics of Weight Control
346(3)
How many Calories are in a pound of body fat?
346(1)
Is the caloric concept of weight control valid?
346(1)
How many Calories do I need per day to maintain my body weight?
347(1)
How much weight can I lose safely per week?
348(1)
How can I determine the amount of body weight I need to lose?
348(1)
Behavior Modification
349(3)
What is behavior modification?
349(1)
How do I apply behavior-modification techniques in my weight-control program?
349(3)
Dietary Modifications
352(10)
How can I determine the number of Calories needed in a diet to lose weight?
352(1)
How can I predict my body-weight loss through dieting?
352(1)
Why does a person usually lose the most weight during the first week on a reducing diet?
352(1)
Why does it become more difficult to lose weight after several weeks or months on a diet program?
353(1)
What are the major characteristics of a sound diet for weight control?
354(1)
Is it a good idea to count Calories when attempting to lose body weight?
354(1)
What is the Food Exchange System?
355(1)
How can I determine the number of Calories I eat daily?
355(2)
What are some general guidelines I can use in the selection and preparation of foods to reduce caloric intake?
357(3)
How can I plan a nutritionally balanced, low-Calorie diet?
360(2)
Are very-low-Calorie diets effective and desirable means to lose body weight?
362(1)
Is it harmful to overeat occasionally?
362(1)
Exercise Programs
362(19)
What role does exercise play in weight reduction and weight maintenance?
362(4)
Does exercise affect the appetite?
366(1)
Does exercise affect the set point?
366(1)
What types of exercise programs are most effective for losing body fat?
366(3)
Is resistance training recommended during a weight-loss program?
369(1)
If I am inactive now, should I see a physician before I initiate an exercise program?
369(1)
What other precautions would be advisable before I start an exercise program?
370(1)
What is the general design of exercise programs for weight reduction?
370(1)
What is the stimulus period of exercise?
371(1)
What is an appropriate level of exercise intensity?
372(3)
How can I determine the exercise intensity needed to achieve my target HR range?
375(1)
How can I design my own exercise program?
375(1)
From what parts of the body does the weight loss occur during an exercise weight-reduction program?
376(1)
Should I do low-intensity exercises to burn more fat?
377(2)
Is spot reducing effective?
379(1)
Is it possible to exercise and still not lose body weight?
379(2)
What about the five or six pounds a person may lose during an hour of exercise?
381(1)
Comprehensive Weight-Control Programs
381(4)
Which is more effective for weight control--dieting or exercise?
381(1)
If I wanted to lose weight through a national or local weight-loss program, what should I look for?
382(1)
What type of weight-reduction program is advisable for young athletes?
383(1)
What is the importance of prevention in a weight-control program?
384(1)
References
385(3)
12 Weight Gaining Through Proper Nutrition and Exercise
388(28)
Introduction
389(1)
Basic Considerations
389(2)
Why are some individuals underweight?
389(1)
What steps should I take if I want to gain weight?
389(1)
What about the use of hormones or drugs to gain body weight?
390(1)
Exercise Considerations
391(19)
What are the primary purposes of resistance training?
392(1)
What are the basic principles of resistance training?
393(1)
What is an example of a resistance-training program that may help me to gain body weight as lean muscle mass?
394(11)
How does the body gain weight with a resistance training program?
405(1)
Is any one type of resistance-training program or equipment more effective than others for gaining body weight?
405(2)
If exercise burns Calories, won't I lose weight on a resistance-training program?
407(1)
Are there any contraindications to resistance training?
407(1)
Are there any health benefits associated with resistance training?
408(2)
Can I combine aerobic and resistance-training exercises into one program?
410(1)
Nutritional Considerations
410(3)
How many Calories are needed to form one pound of muscle?
410(1)
How can I determine the amount of Calories I need daily to gain one pound per week?
410(1)
Is protein supplementation necessary during a weight-gaining program?
411(1)
Are dietary supplements necessary during a weight-gaining program?
411(1)
What is an example of a balanced diet that will help me gain weight?
412(1)
Would such a high-Calorie diet be ill advised for some individuals?
412(1)
References
413(3)
Appendixes 416(66)
A-1 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances 416(4)
A-2 Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians 420(2)
B Units of Measurement: English System--Metric System Equivalents 422(3)
C Approximate Caloric Expenditure Per Minute for Various Physical Activities 425(7)
D Self-Test on Drinking Habits and Alcoholism 432(1)
E Determination of Healthy Body Weight 433(8)
F Exchange Lists for Meal Planning 441(12)
G Calories, Percent Fat, and Cholesterol in Selected Fast-Food Restaurant Products 453(3)
H A Cardiac Risk Index 456(1)
I Rate Your Diet 457(4)
J American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Adults 461(6)
K Energy Pathways of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein 467(4)
L American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement 471(8)
M Healthy People 2000: Objectives for Physical Activity and Nutrition 479(1)
N Internet Sources of Reliable Information on Nutrition as Related to Health, Exercise and Sports 480(2)
Glossary 482(13)
Index 495


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