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Nutrition Through The Life Cycle W/Infotrac

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780534589868

ISBN10:
0534589863
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/21/2001
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $92.66

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Table of Contents

Preface
Nutrition Basics
1(34)
Introduction
2(1)
Principles of the Science of Nutrition
2(27)
Essential and Nonessential Nutrients
3(1)
Dietary Intake Standards
3(1)
Carbohydrates
3(2)
Protein
5(1)
Fats
6(2)
Vitamins
8(3)
Other Substances in Food
11(1)
Minerals
11(8)
Water
19(10)
Nutritional Assessment
29(2)
Community-Level Assessment
29(1)
Individual-Level Nutritional Assessment
30(1)
Dietary Assessment
30(1)
Anthropometric Assessment
30(1)
Biochemical Assessment
31(1)
Public Food and Nutrition Programs
31(1)
Nationwide Priorities for Improvements in Nutritional Health
31(4)
Food Intake Recommendations
32(3)
Preconception Nutrition
35(18)
Introduction
36(1)
Preconception Overview
36(1)
2010 Nutrition Objectives for the Nation Related to the Preconceptional Period
36(1)
Reproductive Physiology
37(3)
Female Reproductive System
37(3)
Male Reproductive System
40(1)
Sources of Disruptions in Fertility
40(1)
Nutrition-Related Disruptions in Fertility
41(5)
Undernutrition and Fertility
41(1)
Body Fat, Weight, and Fertility
42(1)
Weight Loss and Fertility
42(1)
Weight Loss in Males and Infertility
43(1)
Exercise and Infertility
43(1)
Diet and Fertility
43(1)
Vegetarian Diets and Fertility
43(1)
Carotenemia and Fertility
44(1)
Caffeine and Fertility
44(1)
Alcohol and Fertility
44(1)
Other Factors Contributing to Infertility in Males
45(1)
Nutrition and Contraceptives
46(1)
Oral Contraceptives and Nutritional Status
46(1)
Contraceptive Injections
47(1)
Contraceptive Implants
47(1)
Contraceptive Patches
47(1)
Other Preconceptual Nutrition Concerns
47(2)
Very Early Pregnancy Nutrition Exposures
47(1)
Folate Status Prior to Conception and Neural Tube Defects
47(1)
Recommended Dietary Intakes for Preconceptional Women
48(1)
Herbal Remedies for Fertility-Related Problems
48(1)
Model Preconceptional Nutrition Programs
49(4)
Preconceptional Benefits of WIC
49(1)
Decreasing Iron Deficiency in Preconceptional Women in Indonesia
49(1)
Preconception Care
49(4)
Preconception Nutrition Conditions and Interventions
53(8)
Introduction
54(1)
Premenstrual Syndrome
54(1)
Caffeine Intake and PMS
54(1)
Exercise and Stress Reduction
54(1)
Magnesium, Calcium, and Vitamin B6 Supplements and PMS Symptoms
54(1)
Obesity and Fertility
55(1)
Central Body Fat and Fertility
55(1)
Eating Disorders and Fertility
56(1)
Interventions for Women with Anorexia Nervosa or Bulimia Nervosa
56(1)
Diabetes Mellitus Prior to Pregnancy
56(2)
What Is Insulin Resistance?
57(1)
Management of Type 2 Diabetes
57(1)
Reducing the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
57(1)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
58(1)
Nutrition Interventions for Women with PCOS
58(1)
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
58(3)
PKU (Phenylketonuria)
58(1)
Nutrition Intervention for Women with PKU
58(1)
Celiac Disease
59(1)
Nutrition Management of Women with Celiac Disease
59(2)
Nutrition During Pregnancy
61(46)
Introduction
62(1)
The Status of Pregnancy Outcomes
62(4)
Infant Mortality
62(4)
Health Objectives for the Year 2010
66(1)
Physiology of Pregnancy
66(7)
Maternal Physiology
67(1)
Normal Physiological Changes During Pregnancy
67(4)
Common Health Problems During Pregnancy
71(1)
The Placenta
72(1)
Embryonic and Fetal Growth and Development
73(7)
Critical Periods of Growth and Development
74(2)
Fetal Body Composition
76(1)
Variation in Fetal Growth
76(2)
Nutrition, Miscarriages, and Preterm Delivery
78(1)
The Fetal Origins Hypothesis of Chronic Disease Risk
78(1)
Other Inutero Exposures That May Be Related to Later Disease Risk
79(1)
Limitations of the Fetal Origins Hypothesis
79(1)
Pregnancy Weight Gain
80(3)
Pregnancy Weight Gain Recommendations
80(1)
Composition of Weight Gain in Pregnancy
81(2)
Postpartum Weight Retention
83(1)
Nutrition and the Course and Outcome of Pregnancy
83(18)
Famine and Pregnancy Outcome
83(1)
Contemporary Prenatal Nutrition Research Results
84(1)
Energy Requirement in Pregnancy
84(2)
Carbohydrate Intake during Pregnancy
86(1)
Alcohol and Pregnancy Outcome
86(1)
Protein Requirement
87(1)
Vegetarian Diets in Pregnancy
88(1)
Maternal Intake of Essential Fatty Acids and Pregnancy Outcome
89(1)
The Need for Water during Pregnancy
89(1)
Folate and Pregnancy Outcome
90(1)
Folate and Congenital Abnormalities
90(2)
Vitamin A and Pregnancy Outcome
92(1)
Vitamin D Requirement
92(1)
Calcium Requirements in Pregnancy
92(1)
Iron Status and the Course and Outcome of Pregnancy
93(2)
Zinc Requirement in Pregnancy
95(1)
Iodine and Pregnancy Outcome
96(1)
The Need for Sodium during Pregnancy
96(1)
Caffeine Use in Pregnancy
96(1)
Healthy Diets for Pregnancy
96(1)
Effect of Taste and Smell Changes during Pregnancy on Dietary Intake
97(1)
Pica
97(1)
Assessment of Dietary Intake during Pregnancy
98(1)
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation during Pregnancy
98(1)
Herbal Remedies and Pregnancy
99(1)
Exercise and Pregnancy Outcome
100(1)
Food Safety Issues during Pregnancy
100(1)
Model Nutrition Programs for Risk Reduction in Pregnancy
101(6)
The Montreal Diet Dispensary
101(1)
The WIC Program
101(6)
Nutrition During Pregnancy Conditions and Interventions
107(28)
Introduction
108(1)
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
108(5)
Chronic Hypertension
108(1)
Gestational Hypertension
109(1)
Preeclampsia-Eclampsia
109(3)
Preeclampsia Case Presentation
112(1)
Nutritional Recommendations and Interventions for Preeclampsia
112(1)
Diabetes in Pregnancy
113(8)
Gestational Diabetes
114(1)
Consequences of Poorly Controlled Gestational Diabetes
114(1)
Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes
115(1)
Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes
115(1)
Treatment of Gestational Diabetes
116(1)
Presentation of a Case Study
116(2)
Exercise Benefits and Recommendations
118(1)
Nutritional Management of Women with Gestational Diabetes
118(2)
Consumption of Low-Glycemic-Index Foods
120(1)
Postpartum Follow-up
121(1)
Prevention of Gestational Diabetes during Pregnancy
121(1)
Type I Diabetes during Pregnancy
121(1)
Multifetal Pregnancies
121(6)
Background Information about Multiple Fetuses
123(1)
Risks Associated with Multifetal Pregnancy
124(1)
Interventions and Services for Risk Reduction
124(1)
Nutrition and the Outcome of Multifetal Pregnancy
125(1)
Dietary Intake in Twin Pregnancy
126(1)
Nutritional Recommendations for Women with Multifetal Pregnancy
126(1)
Case Example
127(1)
HIV/Aids During Pregnancy
127(2)
Treatment of HIV/AIDS
127(1)
Consequences of HIV/AIDS during Pregnancy
127(1)
Nutritional Factors and HIV/AIDS During Pregnancy
128(1)
Nutritional Management of Women with HIV/AIDS during Pregnancy
129(1)
Eating Disorders In-Pregnancy
129(1)
Consequences of Eating Disorders in Pregnancy
129(1)
Treatment of Women with Eating Disorders during Pregnancy
130(1)
Nutritional Interventions for Women with Eating Disorders
130(1)
Nutrition and Adolescent Pregnancy
130(1)
Dietary Recommendations for Pregnant Adolescents
131(1)
Evidence-Based Practice
131(4)
Nutrition During Lactation
135(34)
Introduction
136(1)
Benefits of Breastfeeding
136(2)
Breastfeeding Benefits for Mothers
136(1)
Breastfeeding Benefits for Infants
136(2)
Breastfeeding Goals for the United States
138(1)
Lactation Physiology
139(3)
Mammary Gland Anatomy
139(1)
Functional Unit of the Mammary Gland
139(1)
Mammary Gland Development
139(1)
Lactogenesis
140(1)
Hormonal Control of Lactation
140(1)
Secretion of Milk
141(1)
The Letdown Reflex
142(1)
Breast Milk Supply and Demand
142(2)
Can Women Make Enough Milk?
142(1)
Does the Size of the Breast Limit a Woman's Ability to Nurse Her Infant?
142(1)
Is Feeding Frequency Related to the Amount of Milk a Woman Can Make?
143(1)
Pumping or Expressing Milk
144(1)
Human Milk Composition
144(4)
Colostrum
144(1)
Water
144(1)
Energy
144(1)
Lipids
145(1)
Protein
145(1)
Milk Carbohydrates
146(1)
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
146(1)
Water Soluble Vitamins
146(1)
Minerals in Human Milk
147(1)
Taste of Human Milk
147(1)
The Breastfeeding Infant
148(3)
Optimal Duration of Breastfeeding
148(1)
Reflexes
148(1)
Breastfeeding Positioning
148(1)
Identifying Hunger and Satiety
148(1)
Feeding Frequency
149(1)
Identifying Breastfeeding Malnutrition
149(1)
Infant Supplements
149(1)
Tooth Decay
150(1)
Maternal Diet
151(1)
Energy and Nutrient Needs
151(1)
Maternal Energy Balance and Milk Composition
152(2)
Weight Loss during Breastfeeding
152(1)
Exercise and Breastfeeding
152(1)
Diet Supplements
153(1)
Fluids
154(1)
Vegetarian Diets
154(1)
Herbal Preparations
154(1)
Factors Influencing Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration
154(2)
Breastfeeding Promotion, Facilitation, and Support
156(4)
Role of the Health Care System in Supporting Breastfeeding
156(3)
Lactation Support after Discharge
159(1)
The Workplace
159(1)
The Community
160(1)
Public Food and Nutrition Programs
160(2)
National Breastfeeding Policy
160(1)
USDA WIC Program
161(1)
Model Breastfeeding Promotion Programs
162(7)
WIC National Breastfeeding Promotion Project-Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work
162(1)
Wellstart International
162(1)
Conclusion
163(6)
Nutrition During Lactation Conditions and Interventions
169(22)
Introduction
170(1)
Common Breastfeeding Conditions
170(2)
Sore Nipples
170(1)
Letdown Failure
170(1)
Overactive Letdown
170(1)
Engorgement
170(2)
Plugged Duct
172(1)
Infection
172(1)
Maternal Medications
172(5)
Herbal Remedies
174(1)
Alcohol
175(1)
Nicotine (Smoking Cigarettes)
176(1)
Marijuana
176(1)
Caffeine
177(1)
Other Drugs of Abuse
177(1)
Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice
177(3)
Pathological Jaundice
77(101)
Normal Newborn Jaundice
178(1)
Treatment for Jaundice
178(1)
Hyperbilirubinemia and Breastfeeding
178(1)
Breast Milk Jaundice Syndrome
179(1)
Breastfeeding Multiples
180(1)
Infant Allergies
180(1)
Food Intolerance
181(1)
Human Milk and Preterm Infants
181(2)
Medical Contraindications to Breastfeeding
183(1)
Breastfeeding and HIV Infection
183(1)
Recommendations
184(1)
Human Milk Collection and Storage
184(2)
Milk Banking
185(1)
Model Programs
Loving Support for a Bright Future Breastfeeding Support Kits
186(1)
The Rush Mothers' Milk Club
186(5)
Infant Nutrition
191(30)
Introduction
192(1)
Assessing Newborn Health
192(2)
Birthweight As an Outcome
192(1)
Infant Mortality
192(1)
Combating Infant Mortality
193(1)
Standard Newborn Assessment Tests
193(1)
Infant Development
194(3)
Motor Development
194(1)
Critical Periods
195(1)
Cognitive Development
195(1)
Genetics and Development
196(1)
Digestion and Development
196(1)
Parenting
197(1)
Energy and Nutrient Needs
197(3)
Caloric Needs
197(1)
Protein Needs
197(1)
Fats
198(1)
Metabolic Rate, Calories, Fats, and Protein-How Do They All Tie Together?
198(1)
Other Nutrients
199(1)
Physical Growth
200(2)
Why Is It Important to Track Infant Growth?
200(1)
Interpretation of Growth Data
200(2)
Feeding In Early Infancy
202(1)
Breast Milk and Formula
202(1)
Cow's Milk During Infancy
203(1)
Development of Infant Feeding Skills
203(7)
The Importance of Infant Feeding Position
204(1)
Preparing for Drinking from a Cup
205(1)
Food Texture and Development
206(1)
What Infants Eat
206(2)
Water
208(1)
How Much is Enough?
209(1)
How Infants Learn Food Preferences
209(1)
Billy: A Hard-to-Feed Infant
210(1)
Nutrition Guidance
210(1)
Inappropriate and Unsafe Food Choices
210(1)
Infants and Exercise
211(1)
Supplements for Infants
211(1)
Common Nutritional Problems and Concerns
211(4)
Failure to Thrive
211(1)
FTT Nutrition Intervention
212(1)
Colic
212(1)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
213(1)
Constipation and Diarrhea
213(1)
Prevention of Baby Bottle Caries and Ear Infections
213(1)
Food Allergies and Intolerances
214(1)
How Parents Respond to Suspected Food Allergies or Intolerance
214(1)
Lactose Intolerance
214(1)
Cross-Cultural Considerations
215(1)
Vegetarian Diets
215(1)
Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction
216(5)
Model Program: Newborn Screening and Expanded Newborn Screening
216(1)
WIC
216(5)
Infant Nutrition Conditions and Interventions
221(20)
Introduction
222(1)
Infants at Risk
222(1)
Families of Infants with Special Health Care Needs
223(1)
Energy and Nutrient Needs
223(2)
Energy Needs
223(1)
Protein Requirements
223(1)
Fats
224(1)
Vitamins and Minerals
224(1)
Growth
225(2)
Growth in Preterm Infants
225(1)
Does Intrauterine Growth Predict Growth Outside?
226(1)
Interpretation of Growth
227(1)
Common Nutrition Problems
227(2)
Nutrition Risks and Development
228(1)
Preterm Infants and Infants With Special Health Care Needs
229(1)
Severe Preterm Birth
229(3)
Delivering Nutrients
230(1)
How Sick Babies Are Fed
230(1)
What to Feed Preterm Infants
231(1)
Preterm Infants and Feeding
232(1)
Infants with Chronic Illness
232(3)
Infants with Spina Bifida
234(1)
Infants with Genetic Disorders
234(1)
Feeding Problems
235(2)
Do Infant Feeding Guidelines Apply?
235(2)
Nutrition Interventions
237(1)
Nutrition Services
238(3)
Toddler and Preschooler Nutrition
241(28)
Introduction
242(1)
Definitions of the Life Cycle Stage
242(1)
Importance of Nutrition
242(1)
Tracking Toddler and Preschooler Health
242(1)
Healthy People 2010
242(1)
Normal Growth and Development
242(2)
The 2000 CDC Growth Charts
243(1)
Common Problems with Measuring and Plotting Growth Data
244(1)
Physiological and Cognitive Development
244(6)
Toddlers
244(3)
Preschool Age Children
247(2)
Temperament Differences
249(1)
Food Preference Development, Appetite, and Satiety
249(1)
Energy and Nutrient Needs
250(2)
Energy Needs
251(1)
Protein
251(1)
Vitamins and Minerals
252(1)
Common Nutrition Problems
252(3)
Iron Deficiency Anemia
252(1)
Dental Caries
253(1)
Constipation
254(1)
Lead Poisoning
254(1)
Food Security
255(1)
Food Safety
255(1)
Prevention of Nutrition-Related Disorders
255(3)
Overweight and Obesity in Toddlers and Preschoolers
255(1)
Prevention and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity
256(1)
Nutrition and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Toddlers and Preschoolers
256(1)
Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
257(1)
Herbal Supplements
257(1)
Dietary and Physical Activity Recommendations
258(6)
Dietary Guidelines
258(1)
Food Guide Pyramid
258(1)
Recommendations for Intake of Iron, Fiber Fat, and Calcium
259(1)
Fluids
260(1)
Recommended vs. Actual Food Intake
261(1)
Cross-Cultural Considerations
262(1)
Vegetarian Diets
262(1)
Child Care Nutrition Standards
263(1)
Physical Activity Recommendations
263(1)
Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction
264(1)
Model Program
264(1)
Public Food and Nutrition Programs
WIC
264(1)
WIC's Farmers' Market Nutrition Program
265(1)
Head Start and Early Head Start
265(1)
Food Stamps
265(4)
Toddler and Preschooler Nutrition Conditions and Interventions
269(14)
Introduction
270(1)
Who Are Children with Special Health Care Needs?
270(1)
Nutrition Needs of toddlers and Preschoolers with Chronic Conditions
271(1)
Growth Assessment
272(1)
Feeding Problems
273(1)
Behavioral Feeding Problems
273(1)
Nutrition-Related Conditions
274(4)
Failure to Thrive
275(1)
Toddler Diarrhea and Celiac Disease
275(1)
Muscle Coordination Problems
275(2)
Pulmonary Problems
277(1)
Developmental Delay and Evaluations
277(1)
Food Allergies and Intolerance
278(1)
Dietary Supplements and Herbal Remedies
278(1)
Sources of Nutrition Services
279(4)
Child and Preadolescent Nutrition
283(24)
Introduction
284(1)
Definitions of the Life Cycle Stage
284(1)
Importance of Nutrition
284(1)
Tracking Child and Preadolescent Health
284(1)
Healthy People 2010
284(1)
Normal Growth and Development
285(1)
The 2000 CDC Growth Charts
285(1)
Physiological and Cognitive Development of School-Age Children
286(4)
Physiological Development
286(1)
Cognitive Development
287(1)
Development of Feeding Skills
288(2)
Energy and Nutrient Needs of School-Age Children
290(1)
Energy Needs
290(1)
Protein
290(1)
Vitamins and Minerals
290(1)
Common Nutrition Problems
290(1)
Iron Deficiency
290(1)
Dental Caries
290(1)
Prevention of Nutrition-Related Disorders in School-Age Children
291(4)
Overweight and Obesity in School-Age Children
291(3)
Nutrition and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in School-Age Children
294(1)
The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH)
294(1)
The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)
294(1)
Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
295(1)
Dietary Recommendations
295(3)
Recommendations for Intake of Iron, Fiber Fat, and Calcium
295(2)
Recommended vs. Actual Food Intake
297(1)
Cross-Cultural Considerations
298(1)
Vegetarian Diets
298(1)
Physical Activity Recommendations
298(2)
Recommendations vs. Actual
298(1)
Determinants of Physical Activity
299(1)
Organized Sports
300(1)
Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction
300(1)
Nutrition Education
300(1)
Nutrition Integrity in Schools
301(1)
Model Programs
301(1)
Public Food and Nutrition Programs
301(6)
The National School Lunch Program
302(1)
School Breakfast Program
303(1)
Summer Food Service Program
304(1)
Nutrition Education and Training Program (NET)
304(3)
Child and Preadolescent Nutrition Conditions and Interventions
307(18)
Introduction
308(1)
``Children are Children First''-What Does That Mean?
308(1)
Nutrition Requirements of Children with Special Health Care Needs
308(2)
Energy Needs
309(1)
Protein Needs
309(1)
Other Nutrients
309(1)
Growth Assessment
310(1)
Growth Assessment and Interpretation in Children with Chronic Conditions
310(1)
Body Composition and Growth
310(1)
Nutrition Recommendations
311(3)
Methods of Meeting Nutritional Requirements
312(1)
Fluids
313(1)
Nutrition-Related Conditions
314(5)
Eating and Feeding Problems in Children with Special Health Care Needs
314(5)
Dietary Supplements and Herbal Remedies
319(1)
Sources of Nutrition Services
319(6)
Child Nutrition Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
319(1)
Material and Child Health Block Program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
319(1)
Public Schools Regulations: 504 Accommodation and IDEA
320(1)
Nutrition Intervention Model Program
321(4)
Adolescent Nutrition
325(30)
Introduction
326(1)
Nutritional Needs in a time of Change
326(1)
Normal Physical Growth and Development
326(3)
Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Skeletal Mass
328(1)
Normal Psychosocial Development
329(1)
Health and Eating-Related Behaviors During Adolescence
330(4)
Vegetarian Diets
332(1)
Dietary Intake and Adequacy among Adolescents
333(1)
Energy and Nutrient Requirements of Adolescents
334(6)
Energy
335(1)
Protein
336(1)
Carbohydrates
336(1)
Dietary Fiber
336(1)
Fat
337(1)
Calcium
337(1)
Iron
338(1)
Zinc
339(1)
Folate
339(1)
Vitamin A
340(1)
Vitamin E
340(1)
Vitamin C
340(1)
Nutrition Screening Assessment and Interventions
340(6)
Nutrition Education and Counseling
345(1)
Physical Activity and Sports
346(2)
Factors Affecting Physical Activity
346(2)
Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors
348(3)
Effective Nutrition Messages for Youth
348(1)
Parent Involvement
349(1)
School Programs
349(2)
Community Involvement in Nutritionally Supportive Environments
351(1)
Model Nutrition Program
351(1)
Discussion Points
351(4)
Adolescent Nutrition Conditions and Interventions
355(28)
Introduction
356(1)
Overweight and Obesity
356(1)
Health Implications of Adolescent Overweight
356(1)
Special Concerns Among Adolescent Athletes
357(3)
Fluids and Hydration
357(2)
Special Dietary Practices
359(1)
Dietary Supplements
360(1)
Adolescent Pregnancy
360(3)
Energy and Nutrient Needs
361(1)
Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
362(1)
Pregnancy Weight Gain
362(1)
Substance Use
363(1)
Dietary Supplements
364(1)
Vitamin-Mineral Supplements
364(1)
Herbal Remedies
364(1)
Iron Deficiency anemia
365(1)
Hypertension
365(1)
Hyperlipidemia
366(1)
Eating Disorders
367(6)
The Continuum of Eating Concerns and Disorders
367(1)
Prevalence of Eating Disorders
367(1)
Anorexia Nervosa
367(1)
Bulimia Nervosa
367(1)
Binge Eating Disorder
368(1)
Other Disordered Eating Behaviors
369(1)
Dieting Behaviors
370(1)
Body Dissatisfaction
370(1)
Etiology of Eating Disorders
370(2)
Treating Eating Disorders
372(1)
Preventing Eating Disorders
372(1)
Eating Disorders Among Adolescents: Summing Things Up
373(1)
Children and Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions
373(10)
Adult Nutrition
383(26)
Introduction
384(1)
Definition of Adulthood in the Lifecycle
384(1)
Importance of Nutrition
384(1)
Year 2010 Health Objectives
384(1)
Physiological Changes Overall
384(3)
Physiological Changes in Males: Climacteric
385(1)
Physiological Changes in Females: Menopause
385(1)
Nutritional Remedies for Symptoms of Menopause
385(1)
Benefits of Phytoestrogens in Soy Foods
386(1)
Disadvantages of Adding Soy to the Diet
387(1)
Other Alternatives
387(1)
Common Nutritional Concerns: Maintaining A Healthy Body
387(4)
Energy for Weight Management
387(1)
Determining Energy Needs
388(1)
Calculations for Body Weight
389(1)
Energy for Weight Change
389(1)
Actual Energy Intake
389(1)
Achieving Wellness: Linking Food, Nutrition, and Disease
389(2)
Diet and Health
391(1)
Dietary Recommendations
391(6)
Dietary Recommendations to Combat Nutritional Concerns
392(1)
Food Advice
392(1)
The Pyramid
393(1)
Food Advice Reflects Cultural Food Patterns
394(1)
Alcohol: Food, Drug, and Nutrient
394(1)
Fluids
395(1)
Diuretic Effects of Caffeine and Alcohol
396(1)
International Guidance Related to Fluids
396(1)
Nutrient Recommendations
397(6)
Nutrients of Public Health Concern
397(2)
Actual Intake of Food
399(1)
Supplements: Vitamins and Minerals
399(1)
Supplements: Herbal Products
399(1)
Cross-Cultural Considerations
400(1)
Cross-Cultural Dietary Guidance
401(1)
Vegetarian Diets
402(1)
Physical activity Recommendations
403(1)
Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction
403(6)
A Model Health-Promotion Program
403(1)
Public Food and Nutrition Programs
404(1)
Nutrition and Health Promotion
404(5)
Adult Nutrition Conditions and Interventions
409(12)
Introduction
410(1)
Importance of Nutrition
410(1)
Heart Disease/cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)
411(6)
Definition
411(1)
Prevalence
411(1)
Etiology
411(1)
Effects
412(1)
Risk Factors
412(1)
Nutritional Remedies
413(4)
Overweight and Obesity
417(4)
Definition
417(1)
BMI Charts
417(1)
Prevalence
418(1)
Etiology
418(1)
Effects
418(1)
Nutrition-Related Risk Factors
418(3)
Nutrition and the Elderly
421(30)
Introduction
422(1)
What Counts As Old?
422(1)
Food Matters: Nutrition Contributes to a Long and Healthy Life
422(1)
A Picture of the Aging Population: Relevant Vital Statistics
423(2)
Global Population Trends: Life Expectancy and Life Span
423(1)
Nutrition: A Component of Health Objectives for the Older Adult Population
424(1)
Theories of Aging
425(1)
Programmed Aging
425(1)
Wear and Tear Theories of Aging
425(1)
Calorie Restriction and Longevity
426(1)
Physiological Changes
426(3)
Body Composition Changes
426(2)
Changing Sensual Awareness: Taste and Small Appetite and Thirst
428(1)
Nutritional Risk Factors
429(2)
Dietary Recommendations
431(2)
Food-based Guidance: The Pyramid
431(1)
Actual Food Group Intake
431(1)
Eating Occasions
432(1)
Nutrient Recommendations
433(1)
Energy Intake: A Measure of Macronutrients
433(1)
Nutrient Recommendations: Macro-and Micronutrients of Concern
433(1)
Macronutrients
433(3)
Recommendations for Fluid
436(1)
Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals
436(1)
Age-Associated Changes in Metabolism: Nutrients of Concern
436(2)
Low Dietary Intake: Nutrients of Concern
438(1)
Micronutrient Supplements: Why, When, What?
439(1)
Dietary Supplements and Functional Foods
440(1)
``Non-nutrient'' Intakes: Special Interest for Older Adults
441(1)
Nutrient Recommendations: Using the Food Label
441(1)
Cross-cultural Considerations in Making Dietary Recommendations
442
Physical Activity Recommendations
433(11)
Exercise Guidelines
443(1)
Nutrition Policy and Intervention for Risk Reduction
444(2)
Nutrition Education
444(1)
Model Programs Exemplify Intervention Goals
445(1)
Community Food and Nutrition Programs
446(5)
Elderly Nutrition Programs
446(1)
Senior Nutrition Program
446(1)
The Promise of Prevention: Health Promotion
447(4)
Nutrition and the Elderly Conditions and Interventions
451(30)
Introduction
452(1)
Importance of Nutrition
452(1)
Nutrition and Health
452(1)
Nutrition-Related Conditions
452(3)
Heart Disease
452(1)
Stroke
453(1)
Hypertension
454(1)
Cancers
455(2)
Definition
455(1)
Prevalence
455(1)
Etiology
455(1)
Effects
455(1)
Risk Factors
456(1)
Nutritional Remedies
456(1)
Diabetes
457(3)
Definition
457(1)
Prevalence
457(1)
Etiology
457(1)
Effects
458(1)
Risk Factors
458(1)
Nutritional Remedies
458(2)
Insulin Resistance Syndrome (Metabolic Syndrome)
460(1)
Definition
460(1)
Prevalence
460(1)
Etiology
460(1)
Effects
460(1)
Risk Factors
460(1)
Nutritional Remedies
461(1)
Osteoporosis
461(4)
Definition
461(1)
Prevalence
461(1)
Etiology
462(1)
Effects
462(1)
Risk Factors
463(1)
Nutritional Remedies
463(1)
Other Issues Impacting Nutritional Remedies
464(1)
Oral Health
465(1)
Definition
465(1)
Prevalence
465(1)
Etiology and Effects
465(1)
Risk Factors
465(1)
Nutritional Remedies
466(1)
Gastrointestinal Diseases
466(3)
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
466(1)
Constipation
466(1)
Inflammatory Diseases
467(2)
Complementary and Traditional Medications
469(1)
Mental Health and Cognitive Disorders
469(1)
Definition
469(1)
Prevalence
469(1)
Etiology
469(1)
Effects
470(1)
Nutritional Remedies
470(1)
Obesity and Low Body Weight/Underweight
470(1)
Obesity
470(1)
Low Body Weight/Underweight
470(1)
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
471(2)
Definition and Etiology
471(1)
Pernicious Anemia
471(1)
Inadequate Dietary Intake or Absorption (Protein-bound Vitamin B12 Deficiency)
472(1)
Foodborne Illness and Food Safety
473(1)
Definition
473(1)
Prevalence
473(1)
Etiology/Effects
473(1)
Risk Factors
473(1)
Nutrition at Remedies
474(1)
Dehydration
474(2)
Definition
474(1)
Prevalence
474(1)
Etiology
474(1)
Effects
475(1)
Dehydration at End-of Life
475(1)
Nutritional Remedies
475(1)
Bereavement
476(5)
Appendix A: CDC Growth Charts 481(8)
Appendix B: BMI Charts for Adults with Silhouettes 489(1)
Appendix C: Nutrient Intakes of Adults Aged 70 and Older 490(1)
Glossary 491(8)
Index 499


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