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Observation Skills for Effective Teaching,9780130618979

Observation Skills for Effective Teaching

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130618979

ISBN10:
0130618977
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $46.67
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Summary

For courses in student teaching or general methods. The author presents observation skills according to eight areas related to positive outcomes in learners which include: learning climate, classroom management, lesson clarity, instructional variety, task orientation, student engagement, student success, and higher thought processes. Observation skills are combined with patterns of effective teaching practice for each of the eight areas to help students observe what happens in the classroom and use what is learned to improve their own teaching. This book can be used as a companion volume to Borich's Effective Teaching Methods, fourth edition, as a stand-alone text for an observation course taken before or during a methods course, and as a resource during student teaching.

Table of Contents

Why Observe?
1(8)
Goal 1: To Achieve Empathy
4(1)
Goal 2: To Establish Cooperative Relationships
4(1)
Goal 3: To Become Realistic
5(1)
Goal 4: To Establish Direction
5(1)
Goal 5: To Attain Confidence
5(1)
Goal 6: To Express Enthusiasm
6(1)
Goal 7: To Become Flexible
6(1)
Goal 8: To Become Self-Reliant
6(1)
A Beginning Thought
7(1)
For More Information
7(2)
Lenses for Observing
9(14)
What Real Classrooms Are Like
11(2)
Rapidity
11(1)
Immediacy
11(1)
Interruption
12(1)
Social Dynamics
12(1)
Becoming Aware of Classroom Behavior: Lenses for Self-Improvement
13(2)
To Become Aware of Your Own Behavior
14(1)
To Discover Alternative Instructional Practices and New Solutions to Instructional Problems
14(1)
To Determine Your Personal Teaching Strengths
15(1)
To Focus Your Reflections on Important Areas of Teacher Effectiveness
15(1)
Eight Areas, or Lenses, to Focus Classroom Observation
15(2)
Area 1: Consider the Learning Climate
15(1)
Area 2: Focus on Classroom Management
16(1)
Area 3: Look for Lesson Clarity
16(1)
Area 4: Verify Variety
16(1)
Area 5: Observe Task Orientation
16(1)
Area 6: Examine Engagement
16(1)
Area 7: Measure Student Success
16(1)
Area 8: Look for Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes
16(1)
Challenges to Observing in Classrooms
17(1)
Sources of Influence on Observations from Outside Ourselves
18(2)
Student Ability and Achievement
18(1)
Classroom Characteristics
18(1)
Participatory and Cooperative Student Behavior
19(1)
Experience and Education of the Teacher
19(1)
School, Grade, and Subject Matter
19(1)
Individual and Cultural Diversity
19(1)
Sources of Influence on Observations from Within Ourselves
20(1)
Your Own Experiences in School
20(1)
Recent Influences and Training
20(1)
Who May Be Watching; Who May Find Out
21(1)
Choosing a Useful Lens: The Need to Structure Observations
21(1)
For More Information
21(2)
Making Classroom Visits
23(18)
A Classroom Dialogue
24(2)
Reactions from Observing Ms. Koker's Classroom
26(1)
Observing the Learning Climate
27(1)
Observing Classroom Management
27(1)
Observing Lesson Clarity
28(1)
Observing Instructional Variety
28(1)
Observing the Teacher's Task Orientation
29(1)
Observing Students' Engagement in the Learning Process
29(1)
Observing Student Success
30(1)
Observing Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes
31(1)
Preparing to Observe in Real Classrooms
31(1)
Activities Before the Observation
32(2)
Whom to Observe
32(1)
Introducing Yourself
32(1)
Identifying Your Goals for the Observation
33(1)
Finding Out the Day's Lesson
33(1)
Finding Out About the Students
33(1)
How to Be Introduced
33(1)
Where to Sit
33(1)
Activities During the Observation
34(1)
Activities After the Observation
34(1)
Activities
35(6)
``Seeing'' Beyond Personal Experiences and Expectations: Learning to Observe Systematically
41(22)
Why Observe Systematically?
42(1)
Methods for Observing and Recording
43(15)
Method 1: Narrative Reports
44(6)
Method 2: Rating Scales
50(4)
Method 3: Classroom Coding Systems
54(4)
Activities
58(5)
Considering the Learning Climate
63(30)
Dimensions of Learning Climate
65(1)
Teacher Concerns
66(6)
A Teacher Concerns Instrument
68(1)
Observing Teacher Concerns in the Classroom
69(3)
Warmth and Control
72(3)
Dimensions of Warmth and Control
73(1)
Behavioral Signs of Warmth and Control
74(1)
Social Environment
75(5)
Dimensions of Social Environment
76(2)
Observing the Social Environment of the Classroom
78(1)
Cultural Diversity and the Learning Climate
79(1)
For More Information
80(1)
Activities
80(13)
Focusing on Classroom Management
93(28)
Dimensions of Classroom Management
96(1)
Practice Observing Classroom Management: A Dialogue
96(2)
Reactions to the Dialogue
98(15)
Arranging the Classroom to Meet Instructional Goals
98(2)
Observing the Classroom Arrangement
100(1)
Preestablishing and Communicating Classroom Rules
101(2)
Observing Classroom Rules
103(1)
Developing and Communicating Instructional Routines
103(2)
Observing Instructional Routines
105(1)
Establishing a System of Incentives and Consequences
106(2)
Observing Incentives and Consequences
108(1)
Using Low-Profile Classroom Management
109(2)
Observing Low-Profile Classroom Management
111(1)
Cultural Diversity and Classroom Management
112(1)
For More Information
113(1)
Activities
113(8)
Looking for Lesson Clarity
121(28)
Dimensions of Lesson Clarity
122(13)
Informing Learners of Lesson Objectives
123(1)
Observing Lesson Objectives
124(1)
Providing Advance Organizers
124(1)
Observing Advance Organizers
125(1)
Connecting Task-Relevant Prior Knowledge to New Topics
126(1)
Observing Connections Between Task-Relevant Prior Knowledge and New Topics
127(1)
Giving Directives Clearly
127(1)
Observing Clarity of Directives
128(1)
Knowing Students' Previous Performance Levels and Teaching to Them
129(2)
Observing Level of Instruction
131(1)
Using Examples, Illustrations, and Demonstrations
132(1)
Observing Use of Examples, Illustrations, and Demonstrations
133(1)
Reviewing and Summarizing
133(1)
Observing Review and Summary Techniques
134(1)
Cultural Diversity and Lesson Clarity
134(1)
Practice Observing Lesson Clarity: A Dialogue
135(3)
Reactions to the Dialogue
138(3)
Activities
141(8)
Verifying Instructional Variety
149(32)
Dimensions of Instructional Variety
150(1)
Practice Observing Instructional Variety: A Dialogue
150(3)
Reactions to the Dialogue
153(16)
Using Attention-Gaining Devices
153(1)
Observing Attention-Gaining Devices
154(1)
Showing Enthusiasm and Animation
154(1)
Observing Enthusiasm and Animation
155(1)
Variation in Instructional Activities and Media
156(1)
Observing the Variation in Instructional Activities and Media
156(4)
Mixing Rewards and Reinforcers
160(1)
Observing the Use of Rewards and Reinforcers
161(1)
Varying Types of Questions and Probes
161(2)
Observing Types of Questions and Probes
163(2)
Using Student Ideas
165(2)
Observing the Use of Student Ideas
167(1)
Cultural Diversity and Instructional Variety
167(2)
For More Information
169(1)
Activities
169(2)
ERIC Digests and Internet Resources for Enhancing Instructional Variety
171(10)
Observing Task Orientation
181(28)
Dimensions of Task Orientation
182(1)
Practice Observing Task Orientation: A Dialogue
182(3)
Reactions to the Dialogue
185(16)
Preparing Unit and Lesson Plans That Reflect the Curriculum
185(1)
Observing How Unit and Lesson Plans Reflect the Curriculum
186(1)
Performing Administrative and Clerical Tasks Efficiently
187(2)
Observing Administrative and Clerical Tasks
189(1)
Preventing and Correcting Misbehavior
190(1)
Observing the Prevention and Correction of Misbehavior
191(2)
Selecting the Most Appropriate Strategy for the Objectives Taught
193(3)
Observing the Most Appropriate Strategy for the Objectives Taught
196(1)
Establishing Cycles of Review, Feedback, and Testing
197(1)
Observing Cycles of Review, Feedback, and Testing
198(1)
Cultural Diversity and Task Orientation
199(2)
Activities
201(8)
Examining Engagement in the Learning Process
209(24)
Dimensions of Student Engagement in the Learning Process
211(1)
Practice Observing Student Engagement in the Learning Process: A Dialogue
211(2)
Reactions to the Dialogue
213(14)
Eliciting Desired Behavior
213(2)
Observing Eliciting Activities
215(1)
Providing Feedback in a Noncritical Atmosphere
215(2)
Observing Feedback
217(1)
Using Individual and Self-Regulated Learning Activities
217(1)
Observing Individual and Self-Regulated Learning Activities
218(1)
Using Meaningful Verbal Praise
218(2)
Observing Meaningful Verbal Praise
220(1)
Monitoring and Checking
221(2)
Observing Monitoring and Checking
223(2)
Cultural Diversity and Student Engagement
225(2)
Activities
227(6)
Measuring Student Success
233(28)
Dimensions of Student Success
234(1)
Practice Observing Student Success: A Dialogue
235(2)
Reactions to the Dialogue
237(16)
Planning Unit and Lesson Content That Reflects Prior Learning
237(2)
Observing Unit and Lesson Content That Reflects Prior Learning
239(1)
Providing Mediated Feedback to Extend and Enhance Learning
240(3)
Observing Mediated Feedback to Extend and Enhance Learning
243(2)
Planning Units and Lessons at, or Slightly Above, Students' Current Level of Understanding
245(1)
Observing Instruction at, or Slightly Above, the Learners' Current Level of Understanding
246(1)
Transitions Between Lesson Content
247(2)
Observing Transitions Between Lesson Content
249(1)
Establishing Momentum That Engages Learners in the Learning Process
249(1)
Observing Momentum
250(1)
Cultural Diversity and Student Success
251(2)
Activities
253(8)
Looking for Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes
261(24)
Dimensions of Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes
262(1)
Practice Observing Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes: A Dialogue
262(3)
Reactions to the Dialogue
265(12)
Using Collaborative and Group Activities
265(2)
Observing Collaborative and Group Activities
267(1)
Demonstrating Mental Models and Strategies for Learning
267(2)
Observing Mental Models and Strategies for Learning
269(1)
Arranging for Student Projects and Demonstrations
269(1)
Observing Student Projects and Demonstrations
270(1)
Engaging Students in Oral Performance
270(1)
Observing Students in Oral Performance
271(1)
Providing Opportunities for Students to Learn from Their Mistakes
271(1)
Observing Consequential Learning Activities
272(1)
Using Portfolios and Performance Assessments of Learning
273(2)
Observing Portfolios and Performance Assessments
275(1)
Cultural Diversity and Performance Outcomes
275(2)
For More Information
277(1)
Activities
277(8)
Appendix: How to Determine Percentage of Observer Agreement for a Counting Observation System 285(2)
Glossary of Key Concepts 287(4)
References 291(8)
Author Index 299(3)
Subject Index 302(2)
Instrument Index 304

Excerpts

People in all walks of life want to know how they can acquire the skills and competencies to become a professional in their field. All of us want to become experts orprofessionals,but we know that it requires more than simply a desire to be good at what we do. This book focuses on one of the primary means by which you can become a professional--by observing others and incorporating what you see and hear into your own behavior. To be sure, this process requires more than simply watching others who are competent in their jobs. To become competent at teaching, you must know what to look for, and you must have a framework or structure by which what is observed can be made meaningful for your own behavior. Other skills are needed, too. You must be psychologically ready and physically prepared to observe, have tools for categorizing and recording what you see, and have a knowledge of content and methods. But even this is not enough: To become a professional, you must understand the patterns and sequences of effective teaching that make all of the parts work as a whole. Where do effective teachers learn to make the parts work as a whole? How do they bring their natural abilities, knowledge of content and teaching methods, and professional goals together into a harmonious pattern of intelligent behavior to become a professional? It isn't from books or training sessions alone--these can focus on only a small number of activities. It isn't from teaching experience, either--the hectic pace of the classroom makes it impossible for many teachers to reflect on their own patterns of behavior. Only through observing more experienced teachers can all of these ingredients be brought together into a meaningful pattern to be modeled in your own classroom. These patterns of practice--not individual techniques, strategies, or methods alone--make teachers effective. As we will see in this text, the purpose of observation is to improve yourself. Plans for self-improvement are realistic when they are based on your own unique strengths and challenges and on the school context in which they are to occur. The importance of this latter point is not always recognized: A teaching activity that is effective in one school or classroom may not be effective in another. No amount of student teaching, experience or formal instruction can prepare you to teach in every classroom context. Although student teaching and instruction can point you in the right direction to maximize your growth, the realities of a specific classroom and the students within it will determinewhatandhow muchyou learn and grow as a teacher. This is the unique function of classroom observation: to understand teaching within specific classrooms of learners, and to develop a program of self-improvement based on that understanding. In short, the dimensions of effective teaching ultimately must be defined by the qualities and characteristics of those who must be taught. This is why classroom observation is so important: It reveals the patterns of practice by which real teachers--professionals--refine and match the dimensions of effective teaching most appropriate to a specific population of learners. To accomplish this goal, this book presents effective teaching practices that can be observed during three stages of your career-preteaching, student teaching, and induction- (first-) year teaching. At each of these stages this text provides competencies for preparing you to observe, learning how to . observe, and knowing what to observe. ORGANIZATION OF THIS TEXT Chapter 1 focuses on the close and necessary relationship between personal attributes for successful living and professional competence. It explores the characteristics that make an individual successful as a person as well as a professional--characteristics that you will learn from classroom observation. Chapt


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