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An Observation Survey: Of Early Literacy Achievement

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780325009292

ISBN10:
0325009295
Format:
Nonspecific Binding
Pub. Date:
7/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Greenwood

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 7/1/2002.
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  • An Observation Survey: Of Early Literacy Achievement
    An Observation Survey: Of Early Literacy Achievement





Summary

An Observation Surveyhas been used in educational systems worldwide. It has introduced thousands of teachers to ways of observing children's progress in the early years of learning about literacy. It has also helped them determine which children need supplementary teaching. Now the revised Second Edition updates this important sourcework with new data, ideas, and implementations from U.S. and U.K. classrooms.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1(1)
For whom is this book written?
1(1)
Behind these observations there are theoretical rationales
2(2)
Observing change in early literacy behaviours
4(10)
An introduction to systematic observation
4(7)
Observation in classrooms
4(1)
Observing individual progress
4(1)
Measuring outcomes
5(1)
Measuring abilities
6(1)
Assessments that guide our teaching
7(1)
Observing oral language
8(1)
Observing emerging literacy
8(1)
Observing school entrants
9(2)
Standardised tests are poor measures of slow progress
11(1)
Systematic observation
12(1)
Characteristics of observation tasks
13(1)
Reading and writing: processing the information in print
14(9)
The reading process
14(4)
The writing process
18(3)
The blank page
21(1)
Seeing print from two vantage points
22(1)
Assisting young children making slow progress
23(14)
Traditional approaches
23(3)
Early intervention
26(3)
The sensitive observation of reading behaviour
29(2)
The early detection of literacy learning difficulties
31(4)
A teacher's observation of one child's progress
35(2)
Concepts About Print
37(12)
Revealing what children know
38(1)
On entry to school
38(1)
How much do children need to know about print?
39(1)
Reading to the children
40(1)
Observing progress
40(1)
Using the Concepts About Print observation task
41(6)
Administration
41(5)
Scoring
46(1)
The interpretation of Concepts About Print scores
47(1)
Achia's critique of this task
48(1)
Taking records of reading continuous texts
49(33)
Reading the messages
49(1)
Another view
49(1)
Records are taken to guide teaching
50(1)
Records are taken to assess text difficulty
51(1)
Records are taken to capture progress
51(1)
Compare two Running Records on the same text
51(1)
Taking a Running Record
52(4)
What does skilled record-taking look like?
53(1)
Two things to avoid
53(1)
Select children who will make practising easier
54(1)
Select some texts for practising
54(2)
How to record what you see and hear
56(1)
Another book read well
56(1)
Why use standard procedures?
57(6)
Conventions for recording
58(3)
Check directional movement
61(1)
Describe the reading behaviour recorded
61(1)
Assessment and comprehension
61(1)
A record before scoring
62(1)
How to score errors and self-corrections
63(3)
Some conventions for scoring the records
63(2)
Some other good practices
65(1)
How to quantify the Running Record
66(1)
Records for two competent readers
67(2)
Emma's reading
67(1)
Claire's reading
68(1)
Interpreting the Running Record
69(3)
Think about the errors in the record
69(1)
Scan the record to answer two other questions
70(1)
Now look at the self-corrections
70(1)
Consider the pattern of responses
70(1)
Some common faults
70(2)
Understanding the reading process
72(1)
In older readers look for different signs of progress
73(1)
Records of individual and group progress
74(4)
Many uses for Running Records
78(4)
School entry checks
78(1)
For teaching individuals
78(1)
For teaching groups
79(1)
Evidence of emphasis: what things get attention in your programme?
79(3)
Observation tasks for Letter Identification, Word Reading, Writing Vocabulary, and Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words
82(39)
Letter Identification
82(9)
Administration
83(1)
Scoring the record
84(3)
Interpreting Letter Identification scores
87(1)
Limited prediction from Letter Identification
88(1)
Cautions about assessing letter-sound relationships
89(1)
An early awareness of alphabetic knowledge
90(1)
Word Reading
91(6)
Administration
91(4)
What the Word Reading task does not do
95(1)
Other `first' word reading tests (Canberra, Ohio, Duncan)
95(1)
Other reading tests (Burt, Neale, STAR)
96(1)
Writing Vocabulary
97(14)
Beginning writing in school
98(1)
Writing samples
99(2)
The Writing Vocabulary task
101(3)
Administration
104(1)
Scoring Writing Vocabulary
105(2)
Interpreting the Writing Vocabulary observation
107(1)
Keeping records of writing progress
107(3)
Running records of writing progress
110(1)
Writing a story
110(1)
Spelling
111(1)
Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words
111(10)
Going from phonemic awareness to letter-sound relationships
111(2)
Administration
113(1)
Record the sentence
114(1)
Scoring standards for scoring the child's record
114(5)
Observing change over time
119(2)
Summarising the Observation Survey results
121(17)
Change over time in early literacy learning: using stanines to follow individual or group progress
121(2)
Making a summary of the Observation Survey results
123(1)
Text reading and other observation tasks
123(1)
Think about strategic activity (in-the-head activity)
123(7)
A guide to analysing the child's problem-solving
126(2)
Useful strategic activity on text
128(1)
Useful strategic activity with words
129(1)
Useful strategic activity with letters
130(1)
A completed summary sheet for an individual child
130(2)
A shorter summary might help a classroom teacher
132(4)
With reading books
132(1)
With writing
133(1)
Two examples of Survey summaries
134(2)
Multiple assessments
136(2)
The teacher and the observations
138(9)
The utility of observing reading behaviours
138(2)
The utility of monitoring writing behaviours
140(1)
Information for the education system
140(2)
Information to support an early intervention for some children
142(2)
An overview
144(3)
Appendices
147(34)
Appendix 1 New Zealand norms for the Observation Survey
148(15)
Sample characteristics
148(1)
Stanine scores for tasks
149(4)
Graphs of score distributions by age group
153(1)
Box-and-whisker plots for tasks by age group
154(2)
Observation Survey age group profiles across tasks: Percentile ranks and stanines
156(2)
Inter-correlations among tasks by age group
158(1)
Validity and reliability reports for the Observation Survey tasks (excluding Text Levels)
159(4)
Appendix 2 Historical notes on An Observation Survey
163(3)
Appendix 3 Ohio Word Test --- Administration Sheet
166(4)
Ohio Word Test Score Sheet
167(1)
Duncan Word Test --- Administration Sheet
168(1)
Duncan Word Test Score Sheet
169(1)
Appendix 4 US norms for the Observation Survey
170(11)
Letter Identification
173(1)
Concepts About Print
174(1)
Ohio Word Test
175(1)
Writing Vocabulary
176(1)
Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words
177(1)
Text Reading Level
178(1)
Correlations
179(1)
Summary of US stanine scores
180(1)
References 181(4)
Index 185


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