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Observing Development of the Young Child,9780130271532

Observing Development of the Young Child

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130271532

ISBN10:
0130271535
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $47.00
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Summary

One of the few books that successfully combines observation techniques with child development, this user-friendly book takes an applied approach that allows students to observe, record, and interpret child development by looking at particular behavior. Using the observation data to determine the level of a child's development, plans and activities are illustrated to show readers how to help children strengthen specific areas of development. Chapter coverage discusses developmental assessment instruments--along with alternate approaches to child assessment using shadow studies, play-based assessment and child interviews, as well as digital camera photos. It also includes information on the emergence of emotions in young children, new brain research showing the importance of physical development, sharing observational data with parents, and a child skills checklist that can be used by teachers to determine children's levels of development. For early childhood teachers.

Author Biography

Janice J. Beaty, professor emerita, Elmira College, Elmira, New York, is a full-time writer of early childhood college textbooks and a consultant in early childhood education from her new location in Taos, New Mexico

Table of Contents

Assessing Children's Development Through Observation
2(38)
Assessment of Young Children
3(2)
A New Point of View
3(2)
Tests as Tools for Assessing Preschool Children
5(3)
Strengths, Not Weaknesses
7(1)
Guidelines for Developmentally Appropriate Assessment
8(2)
Alternative Approaches to Assessment of Preschool Children
10(6)
Play-Based Assessment
10(1)
Interviews
11(2)
Shadow Study Assessments
13(1)
Media Techniques
13(1)
Photographs
13(2)
Videotapes
15(1)
Audiotapes
15(1)
What Should Child Observers Look For?
16(2)
Collecting and Recording Observational Data
18(16)
Narratives
19(3)
Objective Recording of Narrative Data
22(3)
Samples
25(4)
Rating Scales
29(1)
Rating Scales Observer Errors
30(2)
Checklists
32(2)
Choosing the Method for Observing and Recording
34(2)
References
36(1)
Suggested Readings
37(1)
Children's Books
37(1)
Videotapes
37(1)
Learning Activities
38(2)
Using the Child Skills Checklist
40(26)
Becoming an Observer
41(1)
Taking Time to Observe
42(1)
Recording Information
43(2)
Learning Center Logs
44(1)
Using the Child Skills Checklist
45(12)
Using One Checklist Section at a Time
45(1)
Making a Running Record and Transferring Data to the Checklist
45(10)
Using the Entire Checklist
55(1)
Evidence
55(2)
Interpreting the Data
57(2)
Inferences
57(2)
Conclusions
59(1)
Planning for Children Based on Observations
59(4)
Learning Prescription
60(1)
Chapters to Follow
60(2)
Use of the Checklist by Preservice Teachers and Student Teachers
62(1)
Observation of Each Child
63(1)
References
63(1)
Suggested Readings
63(1)
Videotapes
64(1)
Learning Activities
64(2)
Self-Identity
66(32)
Developing a Self-Concept
67(2)
Separates from Parents Without Difficulty
69(5)
Initial Attachment
69(1)
Initial Separation
70(1)
School Separation
71(3)
Does Not Cling to Classroom Staff Excessively
74(3)
Makes Eye Contact with Adults
77(3)
Makes Activity Choices Without Teacher's Help
80(2)
Seeks Other Children to Play With
82(2)
Plays Roles Confidently in Dramatic Play
84(4)
Stands Up for Own Rights
88(2)
Displays Enthusiasm About Doing Things for Self
90(3)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Self-Identity
93(1)
References
94(1)
Suggested Readings
94(1)
Children's Books
95(1)
Videotapes
95(1)
Learning Activities
95(3)
Emotional Development
98(34)
Developing Emotions in Young Children
99(3)
Allows Self To Be Comforted During Stressful Time
102(4)
Distress
102(1)
The Teacher's Role
102(4)
Eats, Sleeps, Toilets Without Fuss Away from Home
106(5)
Fear (Anxiety)
106(2)
Eating
108(2)
Sleeping
110(1)
Toileting
110(1)
Handles Sudden Changes/Startling Situations with Control
111(2)
Surprise (Startle)
111(2)
Can Express Anger in Words Rather than Actions
113(5)
Anger
113(3)
Aggression
116(2)
Does Not Withdraw from Others Excessively
118(2)
Shyness (Shame)
118(2)
Shows Affection, Connection, Love
120(3)
Shows Interest/Attention in Classroom Activities
123(2)
Interest (Excitement)
123(2)
Smiles, Seems Happy Much of the Time
125(2)
Joy (Enjoyment)
125(2)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Emotional Development
127(1)
References
128(2)
Suggested Readings
130(1)
Videotapes
130(1)
Children's Books
130(1)
Learning Activities
131(1)
Social Play
132(30)
Developing Social Play Skills
133(1)
Early Research
134(1)
Social Play Development
135(1)
Access Rituals
136(1)
The Teacher's Role
136(1)
Spends Time Watching Others Play
137(2)
Plays by Self with Own Toys/Materials
139(2)
Plays Parallel to Others with Similar Toys/Materials
141(1)
Plays with Others in Group Play
142(3)
Makes Friends with Other Children
145(3)
Gains Access to Ongoing Play in a Positive Manner
148(3)
Maintains Role in Ongoing Play in a Positive Manner
151(3)
Resolves Play Conflicts in Positive Manner
154(3)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Social Play
157(3)
References
160(1)
Suggested Readings
160(1)
Videotapes
160(1)
Children's Books
161(1)
Learning Activities
161(1)
Prosocial Behavior
162(28)
Developing Prosocial Behavior
163(2)
Shows Concern for Someone in Distress
165(4)
Empathy
165(4)
Can Tell How Another Child Feels During Conflict
169(2)
Empathy
169(2)
Shares Something with Another
171(3)
Generosity
171(3)
Gives Something to Another
174(2)
Generosity
174(2)
Takes Turns Without a Fuss
176(3)
Cooperation
176(3)
Complies with Requests Without a Fuss
179(1)
Cooperation
179(1)
Helps Another Do a Task
180(2)
Caregiving
180(2)
Helps (Cares for) Another in Need
182(2)
Caregiving
182(2)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Prosocial Behavior
184(2)
References
186(1)
Suggested Readings
186(1)
Videotapes
187(1)
Children's Books
187(1)
Learning Activities
188(2)
Large Motor Development
190(36)
Developing Large Motor Skills
191(3)
Motor Development in Infancy
192(2)
Walks Down Steps Alternating Feet
194(3)
Three-year-olds
194(1)
Four-year-olds
195(1)
Five-year-olds
195(2)
Runs with Control over Speed and Direction
197(3)
Three-year-olds
197(1)
Four-Year-Olds
198(1)
Five-Year-Olds
199(1)
Jumps Up And Lands On Two Feet
200(4)
Three-Year-Olds
201(1)
Four-Year-Olds
202(1)
Five-Year-Olds
202(2)
Hops on One Foot
204(1)
Throws, Catches, and Kicks Balls
205(4)
Uses Climbing Equipment with Ease
209(2)
Moves Legs/Feet in Rhythm to Beat
211(6)
Creative Movement
213(4)
Moves Arms and Hands in Rhythm to Beat
217(3)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Large Motor Development
220(2)
References
222(1)
Suggested Readings
222(1)
Videotapes
223(1)
Children's Books
223(1)
Learning Activities
224(2)
Small Motor Development
226(28)
Developing Small Motor Skills
227(2)
Reflexes
227(1)
Readiness
228(1)
Shows Hand Preference (Which Is___)
229(1)
Turns with Hand Easily (Knobs, Lids, Eggbeaters)
230(5)
Pours Liquid Into Glass Without Spilling
235(1)
Unfastens and Fastens Zippers, Buttons, Velcro Tabs
236(2)
Picks Up and Inserts Objects with Ease
238(4)
Manipulative Materials
238(1)
Children's Skills
238(1)
Gender Differences
239(3)
Uses Drawing/Writing Tools with Control
242(1)
Uses Scissors with Control
243(2)
Pounds in Nails and Uses Clay with Control
245(3)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Small Motor Development
248(3)
References
251(1)
Suggested Readings
251(1)
Videotapes
251(1)
Children's Books
251(1)
Learning Activities
252(2)
Cognitive Development: Classification, Number, Time, and Space
254(42)
Developing Cognitive Concepts
255(2)
New Brain Research
257(2)
Using Play
259(1)
Stages of Exploratory Play
260(1)
Classification
261(1)
Assessing Development
261(1)
Identifies Objects by Shape
261(5)
Identifies Objects by Color
266(2)
Identifies Objects by Size
268(3)
Comparisons
269(1)
Using Opposites
269(2)
Sorts Objects by Likenesses
271(2)
Collections
272(1)
Puts Events in a Sequence; Objects in a Series
273(4)
Counts How Many Are Present
277(5)
Using Marks, Picture Symbols, Number Symbols to Record
280(2)
Knows What Happens Today
282(3)
Understanding Time
282(1)
Using the Daily Schedule
283(2)
Can Build a Block Enclosure
285(5)
Understanding Space
285(5)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Cognitive Development
290(2)
References
292(1)
Suggested Readings
292(1)
Videotapes
293(1)
Children's Computer Programs
293(1)
Children's Books
293(1)
Learning Activities
294(2)
Spoken Language
296(32)
Developing Spoken Language
297(3)
Stages of Language Acquisition
298(1)
Preschool Stages of Language Production
299(1)
Listens But Does Not Speak
300(3)
Preproduction Stage
300(1)
Provide a Stress-Free Environment
300(3)
Gives Single-Word Answers
303(2)
Transition to Production
303(2)
Gives Short-Phrase Responses
305(2)
Early Production
305(2)
Does Chanting and Singing
307(5)
Early Production
307(5)
Takes Part in Conversations
312(2)
Early Production
312(2)
Speaks in Expanded Sentences
314(4)
Expansion of Production
314(4)
Asks Questions
318(1)
Expansion Of Production
318(1)
Can Tell a Story
319(3)
Expansion of Production
319(3)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Spoken Language
322(1)
References
323(1)
Suggested Readings
324(1)
Videotapes
324(1)
Children's Books
325(1)
Learning Activities
325(3)
Prewriting and Prereading Skills
328(32)
Developing Prewriting and Prereading Skills
329(3)
Pretends to Write with Pictures and Scribbles
332(3)
Makes Horizontal Lines of Writing Scribbles
335(2)
Includes Letterlike Forms in Writing
337(2)
Makes Some Letters, Prints Name or Initial
339(6)
Holds Book Right-Side Up; Turns Pages Right to Left
345(4)
Pretends to Read Using Pictures to Tell Story
349(2)
Retells Stories from Books with Increasing Accuracy
351(2)
Shows Awareness that Print in Books Tells the Story
353(2)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Prewriting and Prereading Development
355(2)
References
357(1)
Suggested Readings
357(1)
Videotapes
358(1)
Children's Computer Programs
358(1)
Children's Books
358(1)
Learning Activities
359(1)
Art Skills
360(24)
Developing Art Skills
361(3)
Makes Random Marks on Paper
364(2)
Makes Controlled Scribbles
366(3)
Makes Basic Shapes
369(1)
Combines Circles/Squares With Crossed Lines
370(1)
Makes Suns
371(2)
Draws Person as Sun-Face with Arms and Legs
373(2)
Draws Animals, Trees, Flowers
375(2)
Animals
375(1)
Trees, Flowers
376(1)
Draws Objects Together in a Picture
377(2)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Art Skills
379(2)
References
381(1)
Suggested Readings
381(1)
Videotapes
381(1)
Children's Books
381(1)
Learning Activities
382(2)
Imagination
384(30)
Developing Imagination
385(2)
Pretends an Action Without Taking a Role
387(3)
Assigns Roles or Takes Assigned Roles
390(4)
Takes on Characteristics and Actions of Role
394(1)
Needs Particular Props to Do Pretend Play
395(3)
Can Pretend With Imaginary Objects
398(3)
Uses Language for Creating and Sustaining the Plot
401(1)
Uses Exciting, Danger-Packed Themes
402(4)
Superhero Play
403(3)
Uses Elaborate Themes, Ideas, Details
406(2)
Observing, Recording, and Interpreting Imagination
408(2)
References
410(1)
Suggested Readings
410(1)
Children's Books
411(1)
Videotapes
411(1)
Learning Activities
411(3)
Sharing Observational Data with Parents
414(24)
Involving Parents in Their Children's Programs
415(3)
Focusing on the Child
415(2)
Using the Child Skills Checklist
417(1)
Making Parents Professionals
418(2)
Sharing Observation Results
420(12)
Communication Methods
420(1)
Interpreting Checklist Results
420(8)
Sharing Checklist Results with Staff
428(1)
Sharing Checklist Results with Parents
428(1)
Planning for the Child Based on Checklist Results
429(2)
Ongoing Observations by Parents and Staff
431(1)
Parent Observation in the Classroom
432(1)
Developing Collaborative Portfolios
432(3)
Appropriate Portfolio Items
432(3)
References
435(1)
Suggested Readings
436(1)
Videotapes
436(1)
Learning Activities
436(2)
Epilogue: The Missing Component of Child Development 438(8)
Six Principal Elements
439(1)
Is Something Missing?
439(6)
Spirit. What Is It?
440(1)
Why Overlook or Ignore Spirit?
440(1)
How Spirit Can Be Developed in the Young Child
441(1)
Unconditional Love from Others
442(1)
Love and Concern Toward Others
443(1)
Love Vibrations from Natural Beauty
443(1)
A Sixth Sense
444(1)
The Need for Silence
444(1)
References
445(1)
Index of Children's Books 446(3)
Index 449

Excerpts

Observing Development of the Young Childpresents a unique system for observing and recording development of children ages 3 to 5 in early childhood classroom settings. It is based on a progression of children's skill development in six major areas. The text is designed for use by college students preparing to be teachers in prekindergarten programs, nursery schools, child care centers, Head Start classes, and preschools. The book can also be used in such programs by the teachers and assistant teachers who want to learn more about children in order to make individual learning plans. Staff members preparing for Child Development Associate (CDA) Assessment will also find this textbook helpful with its suggestions for classroom activities that are developmentally appropriate for young children. The text focuses on six major aspects of child development: (a) emotional, (b) social, (c) physical, (d) cognitive, (e) language, and (f) creative. It divides each of these aspects further into specific areas: self-identity and emotional development; social play and prosocial behavior; large and small motor development; cognitive development of classification, number, time, and space; spoken language and prewriting/prereading skills; art skills and imagination. THE CHILD SKILLS CHECKLIST--A PRACTICAL TOOL The six areas of child development previously identified are outlined in aChild Skills Checklistthat includes specific, observable child behaviors in the sequence in which they occur. Each of 11 chapters discusses one of these areas, using the items on the checklist as subheads for the chapter and giving ideas for classroom activities for children who have not demonstrated that specified behavior. The most recent child development research in each area is presented as background for the checklist items as they are discussed. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of an actual child observation in the particular area and an interpretation of the data gathered. The text serves college students as a guide for observing and recording development of young children in their student teaching and coursework. The book is especially well suited as a supplementary text for child development courses. It also can help in-service teachers and assistants who are upgrading their skills in observing children, as well as those who are learning to plan for individuals based on their developmental needs. Unique aspects ofObserving Development of the Young Childinclude discussions of how to observe and interpret the data recorded, and plan for children based on observations. Important topics include children's emotional development, how young children make friends, how to help children develop empathy toward others as the basis for conflict resolution, how children use exploratory play to learn, and how to develop children's creativity through dramatic play. NEW FEATURES IN THE FIFTH EDITION New developmental assessment instruments are discussed, along with alternate approaches to child assessment using shadow studies, play-based assessment and child interviews, as well as digital camera photos. New information on the emergence of emotions in young children is presented, with special attention given to affection and love in early childhood as the basis for a child's growth and development in every area. New brain research showing the importance of physical development is translated into new large motor activities such as Eric Carle's picture book From Head to Toe, motivating children into exercising every muscle in their bodies. Can preschool children complete 100-piece puzzles? Do we underestimate their skills? Read on. Teachers of children learning English as a second language will find new support in Chapter 10 on spoken language, as will teachers encouraging prewriting and prereading Skills (Chapter 11). Using picture books to assist children's development continues to pl


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