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Occupied America : A History of Chicanos

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780321427380

ISBN10:
0321427386
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $72.00
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Summary

This engaging and comprehensive overview of Chicano history is passionately written and extensively researched. Equipped to accommodate the growing number of Chicano courses and enrollment, this detailed text presents coverage of the roles of race and gender in forming Mexican American identity. Written by one of the most influential and highly regarded voices of Chicano History and Ethnic Studies, Occupied America is the leading textbook for Chicano History courses. With a concise and engaged narrative, and timelines that give students a context for pivotal events in Chicano history, Occupied America illuminates the struggles and decisions that frame Chicano identity today. Mexico, Latino, Colonization, Chicano Movement, immigration, labor movements and organizations, Catholic Church, Civil rights, Education and schools, League of United Latin American Citizens, Mutualistas. Chicano, Immigration, US history and Mexican-American history courses.

Table of Contents

Preface xvi
Not Just Pyramids, Explorers, and Heroes
1(16)
The Cradles of Civilization
2(3)
The Corn People
2(1)
The Olmeca 1500 BC--500 BC
3(2)
The Maya
5(3)
Maya Hieroglyphic Writing
6(1)
Maya Society
6(1)
The Decline of Mayan Civilization
7(1)
Teotihuacan
8(1)
Urbanism and Trade
8(1)
Other Corn Civilizations
9(6)
The Tolteca
10(1)
The Tarasco
10(1)
The Azteca
11(2)
En El Norte
13(2)
Conclusion: The World System in 1519
15(2)
The Core Zones
15(1)
The Semi-Peripheral Zones
16(1)
The Mesoamerican Periphery
16(1)
The Occupation of Middle America
17(18)
Africa Begins at the Pyrenees
17(1)
The Spanish Conquest
18(4)
Faith Versus Rationality
19(1)
The Spanish Invasion of the Mexica
19(1)
The Colonization of Native Mesoamerica
20(1)
Smallpox and Other Plagues
20(1)
The Conquest of Race and Labor in Mesoamerica
20(2)
Women in Colonial Mesoamerica
22(3)
The Changing Roles of Women
22(1)
The Assimilation of Native Women
23(2)
Al Norte: God, Gold, Glory, Silver, and Slaves
25(1)
The Decline of the Indigenous Population
25(1)
The Changing Order
26(2)
The Bonanzas
27(1)
Forced Labor
27(1)
The Northern Corridor
28(2)
The Decline of the Native Population
29(1)
The Colonization of Texas
30(2)
El Paso del Norte
30(1)
The Tlaxcalan and the Castas
31(1)
The Importance of San Antonio and Links to the Rio Bravo
31(1)
The Occupation of Alta California: Paradise Lost
32(1)
Los Indios
32(1)
The Missions: Myth and Reality
33(1)
Conclusion: On the Eve of the Mexican War of Independence
33(2)
A Legacy of Hate: The Conquest of Mexico's Northwest
35(17)
Mexican Independence from Spain
35(1)
The Colonial Legacy
36(1)
The Nation-State
36(1)
Background to the Invasion of Texas
36(1)
Broken Promises
37(1)
Causes of the War
37(2)
Follow the Money: The Land Companies and Trade
38(1)
Wanna-Be Sam Adamses
38(1)
The Point of No Return
39(1)
The Invasion of Texas
39(3)
The Pretext: Myths of the Alamo
40(1)
The Defense of the Mexican Homeland
40(1)
Mexicans Win the Battles but Lose the War
41(1)
The Invasion of Mexico
42(1)
The Manufactured War
42(1)
An Unwarranted Aggression
43(1)
The Pretext for Conquest
43(1)
Religious Justifications for War
43(1)
History as Propaganda
44(1)
The Myth of a Nonviolent Nation
44(4)
Peacemakers Expose the Violence of War
45(1)
The San Patricio Battalion
46(1)
The War Crimes
46(1)
Mexicans on the Front Lines
47(1)
The Prosecution of the War
47(1)
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
48(2)
The Controversy
48(1)
The Deception
49(1)
The Honorable Man
50(1)
Conclusion
50(2)
Remember the Alamo: The Colonization of Texas
52(21)
The Years Between 1836 and 1845
53(1)
To the Victor Belong the Spoils
53(1)
The Border
54(5)
The Founding Fathers?
55(1)
The Robber Barons Become Captains of Industry
56(1)
Social and Political Ostracization and Control
57(1)
The Consolidation of Texas Wealth
58(1)
Socialization
59(3)
The Indian Savage, the Mexican Bandit
59(1)
Controlling the Mexicans
59(2)
Politics of Race and Gender
61(1)
The Resistance
62(5)
Runaway Slaves
63(1)
Trade Wars
63(1)
Social Banditry
64(1)
The Case of Juan Cortina
64(2)
The People's Revolt
66(1)
The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez
66(1)
The Transformation
67(1)
The Restructuring
67(1)
The Railroad and the Advent of Industrial Capitalism
67(1)
Mexico Comes to Texas
68(3)
Reform Politics and Mexicans
69(1)
The Growth of the Mexican Population
69(1)
The Growth of Racist Nativism
69(1)
Mexican Resistance
70(1)
Conclusion
71(2)
Freedom in a Cage: The Colonization of New Mexico
73(18)
On the Frontier
73(2)
The Santa Fe Trail: The Trojan Horse
74(1)
Anti-American Sentiment
75(1)
The Euroamerican Invasion
75(2)
The Taos Revolt
75(1)
Inventing Tradition
76(1)
The Transition
77(6)
The Illusion of Inclusion
78(1)
Gringos and Ricos
78(1)
How Was It Done?
79(1)
The Santa Fe Ring and the Land Grab
80(1)
The Lincoln County War
81(2)
Socialization
83(1)
The Americanization of the Catholic Church
83(1)
The New Mexican Diaspora
84(1)
It's the Chili
84(1)
New Mexico in Colorado
85(1)
The Resistance
85(3)
The Land Grabbers
86(1)
The Village People Defend Their Land
86(1)
More Illusions of Inclusion
87(1)
The End of the Frontier
88(2)
The Growth of Industrial Mining
88(1)
Changes in Society
89(1)
Federal Encroachment
89(1)
Conclusion
90(1)
Sonora Invaded: The Occupation of Arizona
91(15)
The Frontier
92(2)
The Gadsden Purchase
92(1)
The Silent War with Sonora
93(1)
Filibustering Expeditions into Sonora
93(1)
Mexicans in Early Arizona
94(4)
Tensions
94(1)
``All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.''
95(1)
Marrying Up!
95(1)
The Alliance of Elites
96(1)
The War Against the Apache
97(1)
The Fate of the ``Friendly Indian''
97(1)
The Land-Grab Grant
97(1)
The Transformation of Arizona
98(1)
From Adobe to Copper
98(1)
Border Conflicts
99(1)
The Industrialization of Arizona
99(2)
The Importance of Mining
99(1)
The Expansion of Capital
100(1)
Industrial Mining
100(1)
The 1890s: The De-Skilling of Mine Work
101(1)
The Pull Factor
101(2)
The Impact of Industrialization on Mexicans
101(1)
Mutual Aid Societies
102(1)
The Mexican Middle Class
102(1)
Small Favors to Women
103(1)
Miners Organize: The Emergence of Trade Unions
103(1)
It's the Water
103(1)
Conclusion
104(2)
California Lost: America for Euroamericans
106(20)
Indians Count
106(1)
The Spanish Occupation
107(1)
The Mexican Period
108(1)
The Gap Between Classes
108(1)
No Utopia! Women and the Transformation of California
109(1)
The Bear Flag
109(2)
John C. Fremont and the Bear Flag
110(1)
U.S. Invasion of California
110(1)
Gold Transforms California
111(1)
The Gold Rush Creates a Template
111(1)
Complicity of the Californios
111(1)
Legalized Theft: The Foreign Miners' Tax
112(1)
Decline of the Californios
112(2)
The Locusts
113(1)
Taxation Without Representation
113(1)
Marrying White
114(1)
The Whitening of California
114(3)
Legitimization of Violence
115(1)
The Mexican Prostitute
115(1)
The American Dream, The Lugos Trial
116(1)
The Disillusionment
117(3)
El Clamor Publico
117(2)
Class Divisions
119(1)
Social Banditry
120(1)
Tiburcio Vasquez
120(1)
Mexicans in a Changing Society
121(3)
Becoming a Minority
122(1)
The Church's Role
122(1)
Labor
123(1)
The Exclusion of the Other
123(1)
Colonias
123(1)
Conclusion
124(2)
Immigration, Labor, and Generational Change
126(19)
Overview
126(1)
The Transformation
127(2)
The Push
127(1)
The Pull
128(1)
Opposition to Diaz
129(3)
The Pinos Altos Strike
129(1)
Precursors to Revolution
129(1)
The Triangle
130(2)
Teresa de Urrea
132(1)
Disciplining Mexicans: Forty Blonde Babies
132(1)
The Mexican Diaspora
132(3)
Exploitation Begets Resistance
133(1)
The Struggle for Equal Education
134(1)
The Mexican Revolution
135(2)
A Changing Society
137(4)
Mexican Workers Under Siege
137(2)
Pancho Villa Drives the Gringos Crazy
139(1)
The Hysteria: The Plan of San Diego
140(1)
World War I: The Big Shift
141(2)
Shifts in Political Consciousness
141(1)
Mexican Responses to Industrial Transformation
142(1)
The Failure of American Brotherhood
143(1)
The Westward Movement of King Cotton
143(1)
Conclusion
144(1)
The 1920s: The Effects of World War I
145(22)
Americanization: A Study of Extremes
145(4)
Protestant Churches and Americanization of the Mexican
147(1)
Catholic Churches React to Americanization
147(1)
Nationalism Versus Americanization
148(1)
Mexicans and Mexican Americans
148(1)
The Influence of World War I on Becoming Mexican American
149(3)
The League of United Latin American Citizens
150(2)
The Move to the Cities
152(6)
San Antonio's West Side
152(1)
Los Angeles: ``Where Only the Weeds Grow''
153(3)
Mexicans in the Midwest and Points East
156(2)
Mexican Labor in the 1920s
158(4)
Importance of the Sugar-Beet Industry
159(1)
Mexicans in the Northwest
160(1)
Mexicans in Texas
161(1)
Mexicans in the Midwest
161(1)
The Growth of California Agribusiness
162(1)
Mexican Unions
162(2)
Greasers Go Home
164(2)
Keeping America Blond and White
164(2)
Conclusion
166(1)
Mexican American Communities in the Making: The Depression Years
167(30)
The Great Depression: La Crisis
168(1)
Stresses and Strains During La Crisis
169(1)
Life During the Great Depression
169(4)
The Importance of Being San Antonio
172(1)
Nativist Deportations of the 1930s
173(2)
Repatriation Texas-Style
174(1)
The Fate of the Deportee in Mexico
174(1)
Factories in the Fields
175(1)
Texas Farms
175(1)
Renting Mexicans
176(1)
The Farm Workers' Revolt
176(8)
The El Monte Strike
177(1)
The Tagus Ranch
178(1)
The San Joaquin Valley Cotton Strike
178(2)
The Imperial Valley, 1934
180(1)
CUCOM and Mexican Strikes
180(1)
The Congress of Industrial Organizations
181(1)
Rural Workers in the Lone Star State
182(1)
Colorado and the Manitos
183(1)
The City
184(5)
Los Angeles Mexican Women Garment Workers
184(1)
San Antonio Mexicana Workers
185(1)
La Pasionaria, the Pecan Shellers' Strike, and San Antonio
186(1)
Unionization in Los Angeles
187(1)
Labor in the Midwest: Chicago
188(1)
The Mexican American Miners' Revolt
189(1)
The Mexican-Origin Community
190(5)
The Los Angeles Community
191(1)
The Mexican American Movement
192(1)
El Congreso de los Pueblos de Habla Espanol
192(1)
Fighting Segregation
193(1)
The Manitos
194(1)
Move to the Windy City: Chicago
195(1)
Conclusion
195(2)
World War II: The Betrayal of Promises
197(24)
Changing Identities
197(1)
World War II and the Mexican
198(3)
El Soldado Raso
198(1)
The Case of Guy Gabaldon
199(1)
The Story of Company E: The All-Mexican Unit
199(1)
Racism at Home and Abroad
200(1)
Chicanas Go to War
200(1)
The Home Front
201(6)
A Profile of Courage
201(1)
Finding Scapegoats
201(1)
The Sleepy Lagoon Trial
202(2)
Mutiny in the Streets of Los Angeles
204(1)
Mexicanas Support the War Effort
205(1)
Rosita the Riveter
206(1)
The Federal Employment Practices Commission
207(2)
The Making of the Cold War: The Politics of Control
209(1)
Control of Labor
209(1)
The Communists Are Coming
210(1)
Postwar Opportunities
210(3)
Toward a Civil Rights Agenda
212(1)
The American G.I. Forum
212(1)
A Transitional Period
213(6)
Police and Institutional Brutality
213(2)
Controlling Mexican Labor
215(1)
The Return of Farm Labor Militancy
215(2)
Importing Mexicans
217(2)
Conclusion
219(2)
``Happy Days'': Chicano Communities Under Siege
221(21)
The Cold War
222(4)
The Korean War: Historical Amnesia
222(1)
Keeping America American
223(2)
Militarization of the Immigration and Naturalization Service
225(1)
The Diaspora: An American Odyssey
226(4)
The Cities
227(3)
Seduced by the Game
230(4)
New Mexico: The Illusion of It All
330
Los Angeles
231(2)
San Antonio
233(1)
El Paso
233(1)
Civil Rights
234(3)
The ``Salt of the Earth''
234(1)
Toward Equality
235(1)
California
236(1)
National Spanish-Speaking Council
237(1)
The Struggle to Preserve the Barrios
237(4)
The FHA Mortgage-Loan and the G.I. Bill
238(1)
Urban Renewal: The Day of the Bulldozer
238(1)
The Dodgers and Chavez Ravine
239(1)
Gentrification in the Midwest
240(1)
Conclusion: The Importance of 1959
241(1)
Goodbye, America: The Chicano in the 1960s
242(29)
The Early 1960s
243(3)
Inequality
243(2)
Harvest of Shame
245(1)
High Hopes: Illusions of the Sleeping Giant
246(2)
San Antonio
246(1)
Los Angeles
247(1)
Organizing in Chicago
248(1)
The Building of a Civil Rights Coalition
248(3)
Viva Johnson
249(1)
Building the Great Society
249(1)
The Walkout
250(1)
The Black--White Syndrome
250(1)
The Illusion Fades
251(1)
Impact of the War on Poverty
252(1)
Magnetization of the Border
252(4)
The Immigration Act of 1965
253(1)
Mexican American Reaction to the Memories of Nativism
253(1)
The Road to Delano
254(1)
Echoes of Delano
255(1)
The Road to Brown Power
256(10)
The Making of a Movement
257(1)
The Formation of Core Groups
258(1)
The East LA. Walkouts
258(2)
Chicana/o Student Militancy Spreads
260(1)
The Brown Berets
260(1)
Tlatelolco, Mexico
261(1)
``Wild tribes of . . . the inner mountains of Mexico''
261(1)
Gringos and Tejanos
262(1)
The Land Struggle
263(1)
The Crusade for Justice
264(1)
Chicanas Speak!
265(1)
Other Voices
266(1)
The Chicano Youth Movement Gains Steam
266(4)
Where Is God?
267(1)
Violence at Home
267(1)
Chicanas/os Under Siege
268(2)
Conclusion
270(1)
The 1970s and 1980s: The Deconstruction of the Sixties
271(24)
Redefining Racism
273(1)
Government Legitimizes Racism
273(1)
The Politics of Cynicism: Nixon's Hispanic Strategy
273(1)
Dismantling the War on Poverty
274(1)
Chicano Power
274(3)
La Raza Unida Party
275(1)
Failure to Build a National Third Party
276(1)
The Last Days of La Raza Unida
277(1)
Inequality from Within
277(4)
Chicana Voices
277(1)
Inevitable Factions
278(1)
Las Hermanas
279(1)
Sterilization
280(1)
The Road to Delano
281(1)
The Farah Strike: The Breaking of Labor
281(1)
Sin Fronteras
282(3)
Nativism Is Racism
282(1)
Centro de Accion Social Autonoma-Hermandad de General de Trabajadores
283(1)
Get the Mexican Bandits
283(1)
The Media Perpetuates Racist Nativism
284(1)
Getting Away with Terrorism
284(1)
In Defense of the Foreign Born
285(1)
The Growth of the Chicano Middle Class
285(3)
Chicanos as Commodities
286(1)
Redefinition of the Political Middle
286(1)
Political Gains
287(1)
Education: the Stairway to the American Dream
288(4)
Education Equality
289(1)
Importance of the EOPs
289(1)
Expanding Political Vocabularies
290(1)
The ``Pochoization'' of the Vocabulary
291(1)
The Myth of a Color-Blind Society
291(1)
Legacy Admits
292(1)
Why Progressive Organizations Fail
292(1)
Violence as an Instrument of Control
293(1)
Conclusion
293(2)
Becoming a National Minority: 1980--2001
295(30)
The Tyranny of Words and Actions
295(1)
Shared Space
296(2)
El Salvador
297(1)
Nicaragua
297(1)
Guatemala
298(1)
Mexico
298(1)
Manufacturing the Crisis
298(1)
The Militarization of the Border
299(1)
Organizing Immigrant Workers
299(4)
The Hotel and Restaurant Workers
300(1)
The Janitors
300(1)
From Autos to Buses
301(1)
The Miners
301(1)
Boycott Levis---and Dockers, Too!
302(1)
Cesar Chavez and the UFW
302(1)
The Movement for Inclusion
303(4)
The Sleeping Giant
304(1)
Texas: The Lone Star
304(1)
Chicago: Where the Wind Blows
305(1)
New Mexico: The Illusion
306(1)
Colorado
306(1)
The Glass Ceiling
307(3)
A Profile of Chicanas
307(1)
Bucking the Glass Ceiling
307(1)
The Tejana Gender Gap
308(1)
Immigrant Women Workers
309(1)
The 1990s: A Portrait of Inequality
310(2)
Can You Smell the Refried Beans?
310(1)
Tejano Population Boom
310(1)
California: Political Gains
311(1)
Under the Influence of the Illusion
311(1)
The North American Free Trade Agreement
312(1)
The Zapatistas
313(1)
``Don't Mourn, Organize!''
313(2)
The Political Refugees
314(1)
Forging Communities
314(1)
The Idealists
315(1)
The Backlash
315(3)
It Didn't Happen by Accident
316(1)
Proposition 187: The American Way
316(1)
Proposition 209 and the Color-Blind Society
317(1)
Proposition 227: If You Speak One Language, You're American
318(1)
The National Scene: Census 2000
318(4)
The Big Three
319(1)
The California Revolution
319(1)
Texas: Gringos Speaking Spanish
320(1)
Chicago
320(1)
The Northwest: The Spread of the Tortilla Curtain
321(1)
The Age of the Believers
322(1)
Unsettled Scores
322(1)
Conclusion
323(2)
EPILOGUE: IS ANTONIO BANDERAS A CHICANO?
325(13)
Identity and Interests
326(5)
Where Are the Other Latinos?
328(1)
Not an Identifiable Minority
328(2)
Is There a Latino Identity?
330(1)
Identifiable Inequality
331(5)
Immigration
331(1)
The Search for Equality
332(2)
The Poor
334(1)
``Be all that you can be''
334(1)
What's in the Future?
334(2)
The Search for Inclusion
336(1)
Conclusion
336(2)
The Map Room 338(2)
Creating a Timeline 340(1)
Book Notes 341(58)
Index 399


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