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The Ocean Basins: Their Structure and Evolution

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780750639835

ISBN10:
0750639830
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/14/1998
Publisher(s):
Elsevier Science
List Price: $65.95

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Summary

This is an invaluable textbook, prepared by the Open University team and designed so that it can be read on its own or as part of the OU course. This second edition has been fully revised and updated including new colour illustrations increasing the striking spread of full colour diagrams throughout the book. The clarity of the text has been improved, providing comprehensive coverage of the evolution of ocean basins and their structure in a clear, concise manner aimed specifically at the student market. In this second edition the technological advances in fields as diverse as: - deep-towed instruments for 'sniffing' hydrothermal plumes - mapping the sea-floor by sophisticated sonar techniques - three-dimensional imaging of crustal structure by seismic tomography - the use of satellites for navigation, and for making precise measurements of the height of the sea-surface The first chapters describe the processes that shape the ocean basins, determine the structure and composition of oceanic crust and control the major features of continental margins. How the 'hot springs' of the oceanic ridges cycle chemical elements between seawater and oceanic crust is then explored. Sediment distributions are examined next, to demonstrate how sediments can preserve a record of past climatic and sea-level changes. Finally, the role of the oceans as an integral part of global chemical changes is reviewed. High quality full colour diagrams Substantial chapter summaries ideal for revision Answers, hints and notes for questions at back of the book

Table of Contents

About this Volume 3(1)
About this Series 3(2)
Introduction
Mapping the Oceans
5(8)
Navigation
9(2)
Depth measurement
11(2)
Mapping the Ocean Floors
13(9)
Bathymetry from satellites
18(4)
Underwater Geology
22(3)
Summary of Chapter 1
25(4)
The Shape of Ocean Basins
The Main Features of Ocean Basins
29(1)
Continental Margins
30(5)
Aseismic continental margins
31(2)
Seismic continental margins and island arcs
33(2)
Ocean Ridges
35(3)
Ridge topography
36(1)
Age--depth relationships across ridges
37(1)
Transform Faults and Fracture Zones
38(3)
The Deep Ocean Floor
41(4)
Abyssal plains
41(1)
Seamounts
42(1)
The distribution of submarine volcanoes
43(2)
Aseismic ridges
45(1)
Satellite Bathymetry -- A Case Study
45(7)
Summary of Chapter 2
52(3)
The Evolution of Ocean Basins
The Evolution of Ocean Basins
55(3)
The Birth of an Ocean
58(4)
The Red Sea
59(3)
The Major Ocean Basins
62(5)
The Mediterranean
66(1)
Summary of Chapter 3
67(4)
The Structure and Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere
The Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere
71(12)
Pillow lavas: the top of the oceanic crust
74(2)
Why a median valley?
76(1)
Formation of the volcanic layer: two case studies
77(6)
Segmentation of Oceanic Spreading Axes
83(9)
Second- and third-order segmentation of fast-spreading axes
84(3)
Second- and third-order segmentation of slow-spreading axes
87(1)
A plausible model for lithospheric growth
88(1)
Changes in spreading pattern
89(1)
Crustal abnormalities
89(3)
Seamounts and Volcanic Islands
92(2)
Summary of Chapter 4
94(4)
Hydrothermal Circulation in Oceanic Crust
The Nature of Hydrothermal Circulation
98(2)
Heat flow, convection and permeability
99(1)
Chemical Changes During Hydrothermal Circulation
100(6)
Changes in the rocks
101(2)
Changes in seawater
103(2)
Variability in hydrothermal systems
105(1)
Black Smokers -- An Exercise in Prediction
106(6)
Black smokers, white smokers and warm-water vents
107(3)
The lifetimes of hydrothermal systems
110(1)
Anatomy of a vent field
111(1)
The Extent of Hydrothermal Activity
112(8)
The biological significance of hydrothermal vent systems
115(1)
Hydrothermal plumes
115(2)
Event plumes
117(1)
Off-axis hydrothermal circulation
118(2)
The extent of hydrothermal metamorphism
120(1)
Mass Transfer by Hydrothermal Circulation
120(2)
Summary of Chapter 5
122(2)
Palaeoceanography and Sea-Level Changes
The Distribution of Sediments
124(5)
Sediments and palaeoceanography
127(2)
Changes in Sea-Level
129(20)
Different time-scales in sea-level changes
130(1)
Using satellites to monitor sea-level changes
131(4)
The post-glacial rise in sea-level
135(1)
Measuring Quaternary changes in sea-level
136(4)
The growth of an ice-sheet: Antarctica
140(2)
The salinity crisis in the Mediterranean
142(4)
The migration of climatic belts
146(1)
The effect of plate-tectonic processes on sea-level
147(1)
Major transgressions and regressions
148(1)
Summary of Chapter 6
149(2)
The Broader Picture
The Global Cycle
151(6)
Changes in components of the cycle
154(1)
Some effects of short-term changes
155(1)
The steady-state ocean
156(1)
Some Rates Compared
157(1)
Summary of Chapter 7
158(2)
Appendix The Stratigraphic Column 160(1)
Suggested Further Reading 161(1)
Answers and Comments to Questions 162(17)
Acknowledgements 179(2)
Index 181


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