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Oceanography with Infotrac: An Invitation to Marine Science,9780534408879
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Oceanography with Infotrac: An Invitation to Marine Science

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534408879

ISBN10:
0534408877
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/19/2004
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 3/19/2004.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

This Fifth Edition of OCEANOGRAPHY conveys Garrison's enthusiasm for oceanography to non-science students and concentrates on maximizing student learning. Garrison brings focus and excitement to students' natural appreciation of the complexities of the ocean with integrated technology and a stunning visual program. Drawing on his more than thirty years of teaching experience, Garrison is intent on writing for how students learn best: he is the only oceanography author to consistently consult students about each new edition and incorporate their suggestions, creating a dynamic, current student focus. He provides students with a basic understanding of the scientific questions, complexities, and uncertainties involved in ocean use and the role and importance of the ocean in nurturing and sustaining life on the planet. Also, with a feel for students' excitement at discovering connections, Garrison increases the emphasis in this edition on the interdisciplinary nature of marine science, stressing its links to biology, chemistry, geology, physics, meteorology, astronomy, ecology, history, and economics. To further enrich the student experience, this edition is now fully integrated, on a concept level and with book-specific interactivities, with a FREE brand-new, student tutorial system called OceanographyNow. OceanographyNow is Web-based, assessment-driven, and completely flexible, offering a personalized learning plan based on each student's quiz results to help students focus on the concepts they don't yet understand. Enhanced illustrations, seamless integration of online resources, and a rich suite of student resources (with an optional regional emphasis) complete the Garrison learning experience. "This text is a must for any student searching for a detailed, yet easy to understand introduction to science." - Tanya Johnson, President of Associated Students at Skyline College, on Garrison's OCEANOGRAPHY.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
1 KNOWING THE OCEAN WORLD
1(36)
Science and the Story of the Ocean
1(31)
An Ocean World
1(2)
Marine Science, Oceanography, and the Nature of Science
3(3)
Early Voyaging and Discovery
6(1)
Science for Voyaging
7(9)
Alexandrian Contributions
8(1)
Box 1.1: Latitude and Longitude
9(1)
Voyages of the Oceanian Peoples
10(2)
Meanwhile, Back in Europe...
12(2)
Chinese Contributions
14(1)
The Age of Discovery: From Prince Henry to Magellan
15(1)
Voyaging for Science
16(4)
James Cook
16(2)
The Longitude Problem
18(2)
The Sampling Problem
20(1)
The First Scientific Expeditions
20(5)
The United States Exploring Expedition
20(1)
The Work of Matthew Maury
21(2)
Charles Darwin and HMS Beagle
23(1)
The Challenger Expedition
23(2)
The Rise of Modern Sea Power
25(1)
Voyages for Science in the Twentieth Century
25(4)
Polar Exploration
25(2)
Box 1.2: Marine Archaeology
27(1)
Other Twentieth-Century Voyages
28(1)
The Rise of Oceanographic Institutions
29(1)
Satellite Oceanography
29(1)
Alphabet Oceanography
30(2)
History in Progress
32(1)
Questions from Students
32(3)
Chapter in Perspective
35(1)
Key Ideas
35(2)
2 ORIGINS
37(16)
Stars and Seas
37(13)
The Origin of Earth
38(3)
Galaxies and Stars
38(1)
The Lives of Stars
39(1)
The Formation of the Solar System
39(2)
Earth and Ocean
41(3)
The Origin of Life
44(2)
The Distant Future of Earth?
46(1)
Box 2.1: Comparative Oceanography
47(3)
Questions from Students
50(1)
Chapter in Perspective
51(1)
Key ideas
51(2)
3 EARTH STRUCTURE AND PLATE TECTONICS
53(34)
Fire and Ice
53(30)
A Layered Earth
54(1)
The Evidence for Layering
54(4)
Primary and Secondary Seismic Waves
55(1)
Shadow Zones
55(1)
Alaska, 27 March 1964: The "Experiment" That Confirmed a Theory
55(2)
Box 3.1: Echoes from the Core
57(1)
Earth's Inner Structure
58(3)
Classifying the Layers by Composition
58(1)
Classifying the Layers by Physical Properties
58(1)
Isostatic Equilibrium
59(2)
Toward a New Understanding of Earth
61(7)
Sources of Internal Heat
61(1)
The Age Debate
61(1)
A Puzzling Fit
62(1)
Continental Drift
63(1)
The Idea Transformed
64(1)
The Breakthrough: From Seafloor Spreading to Plate Tectonics
65(1)
Box 3.2: Absolute and Relative Dating
66(2)
Plate Boundaries
68(7)
Divergent Plate Boundaries: Forming Ocean Basins
70(1)
Convergent Plate Boundaries: Recycling Crust, Building Island Arcs and Continents
70(4)
Transform Plate Boundaries: Fracturing Crust
74(1)
Plate Interactions-A Summary
75(1)
The Confirmation of Plate Tectonics
75(5)
Paleomagnetism
75(2)
Apparent Polar Wandering
77(1)
Mantle Plumes and Hot Spots
77(1)
The Age and Distribution of Sediments
79(1)
The Oceanic Ridges
79(1)
Terranes
80(1)
An Overview, Problems, and Implications
80(3)
Questions from Students
83(2)
Chapter in Perspective
85(1)
Key Ideas
85(2)
4 CONTINENTAL MARGINS AND OCEAN BASINS
87(28)
Going Deep
87(23)
Bathymetry
88(4)
Echo Sounding
88(2)
Multiheam Systems
90(1)
Satellite Altimetry
90(2)
The Topography of Ocean Floors
92(2)
Continental Margins
94(6)
Continental Shelves
94(3)
Continental Slopes
97(1)
Submarine Canyons
98(1)
Continental Rises
99(1)
Deep-Ocean Basins
100(8)
Oceanic Ridges
100(3)
Hydrothermal Vents
103(1)
Abyssal Plains and Abyssal Hills
104(1)
Seanounts and Guyots
105(1)
Trenches and Island Arcs
105(3)
The Grand Tour
108(2)
Box 4.1 Trieste at the Bottom
110(1)
Questions from Students
110(3)
Chapter in Perspective
113(1)
Key Ideas
113(2)
5 SEDIMENTS
115(22)
The Memory of the Ocean
115(16)
What Sediments Look Like
116(1)
Classifying Sediment by Particle Size
116(2)
Classifying Sediment by Source
118(3)
Terrigenous Sediments
118(1)
Biogenous Sediments
119(1)
Hydrogenous Sediments
119(1)
Cosmogenous Sediments
120(1)
The Distribution of Marine Sediments
121(1)
The Sediments of Continental Margins
121(2)
The Sediments of Deep-Ocean Basins
123(5)
Turhidites
123(1)
Clays
124(1)
Oozes
124(3)
Hydrogenous Materials
127(1)
Evaporites
128(1)
Oolite Sands
128(1)
Sediments: An Overview
128(1)
Studying Sediments
128(2)
Sediments As Historical Records
130(1)
Box 5.1: Deep-Ocean Cores
131(2)
The Economic Importance of Marine Sediments
133
Questions from Students
131(3)
Chapter in Perspective
134(1)
Key Ideas
135(2)
6 WATER AND OCEAN STRUCTURE
137(25)
Familiar, Abundant, and Odd
137(25)
The Water Molecule
138(1)
Water and Heat
139(7)
Heat and Temperature
139(1)
Heat Capacity
139(1)
Water Temperature and Density
140(1)
Freezing Water
141(1)
Evaporating Water
142(1)
Seawater and Pure Water
143(2)
Box 6.1: Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold?
145(1)
Global Thermostatic Effects
146(2)
Thermostatic Effects of Ice
147(1)
Thermostatic Effects of Water and Air Movement
147(1)
The Density Structure of the Ocean
148(3)
The Density Zones
148(1)
Temperature, Salinity, and Stratification
148(2)
Density Stratification and Water Masses
150(1)
Density Stratification and Vertical Water Movement
150(1)
An Overview of Ocean Surface Conditions
150(1)
Refraction, Light, and Sound
151(1)
Light in the Ocean
152(1)
Scattering and Absorption
152(1)
Water Colors
153(1)
Sound in the Ocean
153(3)
Solar Layers and Shadow Zones
155(1)
Box 6.2: Is Climate Change So far Away?
156(9)
Sonar
156(3)
Questions from Students
159(1)
Chapter in Perspective
160(1)
Key Ideas
160(2)
7 SEAWATER CHEMISTRY
162(15)
Cooking Up the Recipe for Water
162(12)
The Dissolving Power of Water
163(2)
Seawater
165(6)
Salinity: Dissolved Solids and Water Together
165(1)
The Components of Salinity
165(1)
The Source of the Ocean's Salts
166(1)
The Principle of Constant Proportions
167(1)
Determining Salinity
167(1)
Chemical Equilibrium and Residence Times
168(1)
Mixing Time
169(1)
Conservative and Nonconservative Constituents
169(1)
Box 7.1: Recycling on a Grand Scale
170(1)
Dissolved Gases
171(1)
Nitrogen
171(1)
Oxygen
171(1)
Carbon Dioxide
171(1)
Acid-Base Balance
172(2)
Questions from Students
174(1)
Chapter in Perspective
175(1)
Key Ideas
175(2)
8 CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
177(23)
Riding the Wind
177(19)
Atmosphere and Ocean
178(1)
Composition and Properties of the Atmosphere
178(1)
Atmospheric Circulation
179(6)
Uneven Solar Heating and Latitude
179(1)
Uneven Solar Heating and the Seasons
180(2)
Uneven Solar Heating and Atmospheric Circulation
182(1)
The Coriolis Effect
182(2)
The Coriolis Effect and Atmospheric Circulation Cells
184(1)
Wind Patterns
185(3)
Cell Circulation: Ideal Versus Actual
186(1)
Monsoons
187(1)
Sea Breezes and Land Breezes
188(1)
Storms
188(12)
Air Masses
190(1)
Extratropical Cyclones
190(1)
Tropical Cyclones
191(4)
Box 8.1: The Galveston Disaster, 1900
195(1)
Questions from Students
196(1)
Chapter in Perspective
197(1)
Key Ideas
198(2)
9 CIRCULATION OF THE OCEAN
200(28)
Palms Trees in Britain?
200(25)
Surface Currents
201(10)
Flow Within a Gyre
201(3)
Geostrophic Gyres
204(1)
Currents Within Gyres
204(3)
Box 9.1: Streaming Along
207(3)
Countercurrents and Undercurrents
210(1)
Exceptional Surface Currents
211(1)
Gyres: A Final Word
211(1)
Effects of Surface Currents on Climate
211(1)
Upwelling and Downwelling
212(2)
Equatorial Upwelling
213(1)
Coastal Upwelling
213(1)
Downwelling
213(1)
Langmuir Circulation
214(1)
El Niņo and La Niņa
214(3)
Thermohaline Circulation
217(1)
Water Masses
217(5)
The Temperature-Salinity Diagram
218(1)
Formation and Downwelling of Deep Water
218(1)
Thermohaline Circulation Patterns and Water Masses
219(2)
Convergence Zones and the Surface and Central Water Masses
221(1)
Thermohaline Flow and Surface Flow: The Global Heat Connection
221(1)
Studying Currents
222(3)
Questions from Students
225(1)
Chapter in Perspective
225(1)
Key Ideas
226(2)
10 WAVES 228(29)
Surfing
22(231)
Ocean Waves
229(1)
Classifying Waves
230(2)
Disturbing Force
231(1)
Free Waves, Forced Waves
231(1)
Restoring Force
231(1)
Wavelength
231(1)
Deep-Water Waves, Shallow-Water Waves
232(2)
Wind Waves
234(5)
Swell Formation and Dispersion
234(2)
Factors That Affect Wind Wave Development
236(1)
Box 10.1: Theory Meets Experience on the Crest of a Wave
237(1)
Wind Wave Height
238(1)
Wavelength Records
238(1)
Interference and Rogue Waves
239(1)
Wind Waves Approaching Shore
240(4)
Wave Refraction
241(1)
Wave Diffraction
242(1)
Wave Reflection
243(1)
Internal Waves
244(1)
A Word About "Tidal Waves"
244(1)
Storm Surges
245(2)
Seiches
247(1)
Tsunami and Seismic Sea Waves
247(10)
Origins
248(1)
Speed
248(2)
Encountering Tsunami
250(1)
Tsunami in History
250(2)
The Tsunami Warning Network
252(1)
Questions from Students
253(2)
Chapter in Perspective
255(1)
Key Ideas
255(2)
11 TIDES 257(18)
Tidal Bores
257(15)
Tides and the Forces That Generate Them
258(1)
The Equilibrium Theory of Tides
259(4)
The Moon and Tractive Forces
259(3)
The Sun's Role
262(1)
Sun and Moon Together
262(1)
The Dynamic Theory of Tides
263(7)
Tidal Patterns and Amphidromic Points
264(3)
Tidal Datum
267(1)
Tides in Confined Basins
267(1)
Tidal Currents
268(1)
Box 11.1: Maelstrom!
269(1)
Tidal Friction
270(1)
Predicting and Studying Tides
270(1)
Tides and Marine Organisms
270(1)
Power from the Tides
271(1)
Questions from Students
272(1)
Chapter in Perspective
273(1)
Key Ideas
273(2)
12 COASTS 275(29)
"...the finest harbour in the world."
275(26)
Classifying Coasts
276(1)
Erosional Coasts
277(3)
Features of Erosional Coasts
278(1)
Shore Straightening
278(1)
Coasts Shaped by Land Erosion
278(1)
Coasts Shaped by Volcanism and Earth Movements
278(2)
Depositional Coasts and Their Beaches
280(7)
Beaches
281(1)
The Composition and Slope of Beaches
281(1)
Beach Shape
282(2)
Minor Beach Features
284(1)
Longshore Transport
284(1)
Rip Currents
285(2)
Coastal Cells
287(1)
Other Large-Scale Features of Depositional Coasts
287(5)
Sand Spits and Bay Mouth Bars
287(1)
Barrier Islands and Sea Islands
287(2)
Box 12.1: Very Carefully!
289(1)
Deltas
290(2)
Coasts Formed by Biological Activity
292(3)
Coral Reefs
292(1)
Coral Reef Types
292(2)
Mangrove Coasts
294(1)
Estuaries
295(2)
Classification of Estuaries
295(1)
Characteristics of Estuaries
295(1)
The Value of Estuaries
296(1)
Lagoons and Wetlands
297(1)
Characteristics of U.S. Coasts
297(1)
The Pacific Coast
297(1)
The Atlantic Coast
298(1)
The Gulf Coast
298(1)
Human Interference in Coastal Processes
298(3)
Questions from Students
301(1)
Chapter in Perspective
301(1)
Key Ideas
302(2)
13 LIFE IN THE OCEAN 304(28)
The Ideal Place for Life
304(24)
Being Alive
305(1)
Life, Energy, and Food
305(1)
Converting Energy to Food
306(1)
Primary Productivity
306(3)
Feeding (Trophic) Relationships
308(1)
The Elements of Life
309(1)
Elements in Cycles
309(6)
Carbon
310(2)
Nitrogen
312(1)
Phosphorus and Silicon
313(1)
Iron and Other Trace Metals
313(2)
Physical and Biological Factors That Affect Marine Life
315(5)
Light
315(1)
Temperature
315(2)
Dissolved Nutrients
317(1)
Salinity
317(1)
Dissolved Gases
317(1)
Acid-Base Balance
318(1)
Hydrostatic Pressure
318(1)
Diffusion, Osmosis, and Active Transport
318(2)
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
320(1)
Limiting Factors
320(5)
Classifications of the Marine Environment
321(1)
Evolution and Life in the Ocean
322(1)
The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
322(1)
Box 13.1: Mass Extinctions
323(2)
Evolution in the Marine Environment
325(1)
Classification of Oceanic Life
325(7)
Systems of Classification
325(2)
Names
327(1)
Questions from Students
328(1)
Chapter in Perspective
329(1)
Key Ideas
330(2)
14 PLANKTON, ALGAE, AND PLANTS 332(23)
Glowing Steps
332(20)
Plankton: Ocean Wanderers
333(1)
Collecting and Studying Plankton
333(1)
Phytoplankton: The Autotrophs
333(8)
Types of Phytoplankton
333(6)
Box 14.1: HABs Can Be Trouble!
339(1)
Measuring Primary Productivity
340(1)
Box 14.2: Picoplankton!
341(4)
Factors That Limit Productivity
342(1)
Compensation Depth
343(1)
Global Distribution of Plankton Productivity
343(2)
Plankton Productivity Through the Seasons
345(1)
Zooplankton: The Heterotrophs
345(2)
Larger Marine Producers
347(8)
Accessory Pigments
347(1)
Structure of Seaweeds
348(1)
Classification of Seaweeds
349(1)
Seaweed Zonation
350(1)
Marine Angiosperms
350(2)
Commercial Importance
352(1)
Questions from Students
352(1)
Chapter in Perspective
353(1)
Key Ideas
353(2)
15 MARINE ANIMALS 355(35)
Masters of the Storm
355(31)
The Origin of Animals
356(1)
Introducing the Invertebrates
357(4)
Phylum Porifera
357(1)
Phylum Cnidaria
358(2)
The Worm Phyla
360(1)
The Advanced Invertebrates
361(7)
Phylum Mollusca
361(1)
Box 15.1: If It Moves, Don't Eat It!
362(2)
Phylum Arthropoda
364(2)
Phylum Echinodermata
366(2)
The Chordates
368(1)
Invertebrate Chordates
368(1)
Vertebrate Chordates
368(1)
Vertebrate Evolution and Classification
369(1)
Fishes
369(4)
Class Agnatha
370(1)
Class Chondrichthyes
371(1)
Class Osteichthves
372(1)
The Problems of Fishes
373(4)
Movement, Shape, and Propulsion
373(1)
Maintenance of Level
374(1)
Gas Exchange
375(1)
Osmotic Considerations
375(1)
Feeding and Defense
376(1)
Amphibians
377(1)
Marine Reptiles
377(1)
Sea Turtles
378(1)
Marine Crocodiles
378(1)
Marine Birds
378(2)
The Tubenoses
379(1)
The Pelicans and Their Relatives
379(1)
The Gulls
379(1)
The Penguins
379(1)
Marine Mammals
380(10)
Order Cetacea
380(1)
Order Carnivora
381(4)
Order Sirenia
385(1)
Questions from Students
386(1)
Chapter in Perspective
387(1)
Key Ideas
387(3)
16 MARINE COMMUNITIES 390(23)
The Resourceful Hermit
390(20)
Marine Communities
391(1)
Organisms Within Communities
392(2)
The Influence of Physical and Biological Factors
392(1)
Competition
392(1)
Growth Rate and Carrying Capacity
393(1)
Distribution of Organisms
394(1)
Change in Marine Communities
394(1)
Examples of Marine Communities
395(14)
Rocky Intertidal Communities
395(2)
Seaweed Communities
397(1)
Sand Beach and Cobble Beach Communities
398(2)
Box 16.1: Steinbeck, Ricketts, and Communities
400(1)
Salt Marshes and Estuaries
400(3)
Coral Reef Communities
403(1)
The Open Ocean
404(1)
The Deep-Sea Floor
405(1)
Deep Rock Communities
406(1)
Hydrothermal Vent and Cold Seep Communities
407(2)
Whale Fall Communities
409(1)
Symbiotic Interactions
409(1)
Questions from Students
410(1)
Chapter in Perspective
411(1)
Key Ideas
411(2)
17 MARINE RESOURCES 413(24)
An Endless Supply?
413(21)
Marine Economics, Marine Resources
414(1)
Physical Resources
414(5)
Petroleum and Natural Gas
414(1)
Methane Hydrate
415(1)
Sand and Gravel
416(1)
Magnesium and Magnesium Compounds
417(1)
Salts
417(1)
Manganese Nodules
418(1)
Phosphorite Deposits
418(1)
Metallic Sulfides and Muds
418(1)
Fresh Water
418(1)
Marine Energy
419(2)
Wind
419(1)
Waves and Currents
420(1)
Thermal Gradient
420(1)
Biological Resources
421(9)
Fish, Crustaceans, and Mollusks
421(3)
Fishery Mismanagement
424(2)
"Madhouse Economics"
426(1)
Whaling
426(2)
Fur-Bearing Mammals
428(1)
Botanical Resources
428(1)
Aquaculture and Mariculture
428(1)
Drugs
429(1)
Nonextractive Resources
430(1)
The Law of the Sea
430(7)
The United Nations and the International Law of the Sea
431(1)
Box 17.1: Containers, World Economics, and Your Shoes
432(1)
The United States Exclusive Economic Zone
432(2)
Questions from Students
434(1)
Chapter in Perspective
435(1)
Key Ideas
435(2)
18 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS 437(25)
A Cautionary Tale
437(22)
Marine Pollution
438(12)
Characteristics of a Pollutant
439(1)
Oil
439(3)
Heavy Metals
442(1)
Box 18.1: Minarnata's Tragedy
443(1)
Synthetic Organic Chemicals
443(2)
Eutrophication
445(2)
Solid Waste
447(1)
Sediment
448(1)
Sewage
448(1)
Waste Heat
449(1)
Introduced Species
449(1)
The Costs of Pollution
450(1)
Habitat Destruction
450(1)
Bays and Estuaries
450(1)
Coral Reefs
451(1)
Other Habitats
451(1)
Marine Sanctuaries
451(1)
Global Changes
452(4)
Ozone Layer Depletion
452(1)
Global Warming
453(3)
What Can Be Done?
456(3)
Questions from Students
459(1)
Chapter in Perspective
460(1)
Key Ideas
460(2)
Afterword 462(1)
Appendix I/Measurements and Conversions 463(3)
Appendix II/Geological Time 466(1)
Appendix III/Latitude and Longitude, Time, and Navigation 467(3)
Appendix IV/ Maps and Charts 470(4)
Appendix V/The Coriolis Effect 474(1)
Appendix VI/Taxonomic Classification of Marine Organisms 475(2)
Appendix VII/Calculating the Tide-Generating Force 477(1)
Appendix VIII/Periodic Table of the Elements 478(1)
Appendix IX/Working in Marine Science 479(4)
Glossary 483(20)
Acknowledgments 503(4)
Index 507


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