9781119969280

Odour Impact Assessment Handbook

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119969280

  • ISBN10:

    111996928X

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-01-29
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Odours have become a priority concern for facility operators, engineers and urban planners who deal with waste and industrial treatment plants. The subjectivity of smell perception, its variability due to frequency and weather conditions, and the complex nature of the substances involved, has long hampered the regulation of odour emissions. This book provides a comprehensive framework for the assessment, measurement and monitoring of odour emissions, and covers: Odour characterization and exposure effects Instruments and methods for sampling and measurement Strategies for odour control Dispersion modelling for odour exposure assessment Odour regulations and policies Procedures for odour impact assessment Case studies: Wastewater treatment, composting, industrial and CAFO plants, and landfill Intended for researchers in environmental chemistry, environmental engineering, and civil engineering, this book is also an invaluable guide for industry professionals working in wastewater treatment, environmental and air analysis, and waste management.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

Glossary and Abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction 1

V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno and T. Zarra

1.1 Origin and Definition 1

1.2 Quantifying Odour 2

1.3 Effects of Odour 3

1.4 Odour Impact Assessment Approaches 4

References 4

2 Odour Characterization and Exposure Effects 7

V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno and T. Zarra

2.1 Attribute Descriptors 7

2.1.1 Concentration 7

2.1.2 Perceptibility or Olfactive Threshold 8

2.1.3 Intensity 9

2.1.4 Diffusibility 13

2.1.5 Quality or Character 13

2.1.6 Hedonic Tone or Offensiveness 15

2.2 Chemistry and Odours 16

2.2.1 Vapour Pressure 16

2.2.2 Water Solubility 17

2.2.3 Chemical and Biological Oxidation 18

2.3 Odorous Compounds, Thresholds and Sources 19

2.4 Public Health Relevance of Odour Exposure 22

2.5 Odour Annoyance and Nuisance 24

2.5.1 Odour Exposure 26

2.5.2 People Response 27

2.5.3 Sensitivity of Receptors 27

References 28

3 Instruments and Methods for Odour Sampling and Measurement 31

Sections 3.1–3.4 31

V. Belgiorno, V. Naddeo and T. Zarra

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Sampling Techniques 32

3.2.1 Regulations and Guidelines 33

3.2.2 General Aspects 34

3.2.3 Sampling Program 36

3.3 Measurement of Odorous Substances 36

3.3.1 Gas Chromatography and Mass-Spectrometry (GC/MS) 36

3.3.2 Colorimetric Tubes 39

3.3.3 Portable Multi-Gas Detectors 39

3.3.4 Gas Analysers 40

3.4 Determination of Odour Concentration by Dynamic Olfactometry 40

3.5 Determination of Odour Concentration by the Triangular Odour Bag Method 43

T. Higuchi

3.5.1 Equipment and Apparatus 43

3.5.2 Panel 44

3.5.3 Timing for the Sensory Test 44

3.5.4 Procedures of the Sensory Test 44

3.5.5 Quality Control Framework 46

3.6 Estimation of Emission Rate 50

V. Belgiorno, V. Naddeo and T. Zarra

3.6.1 Point Sources 50

3.6.2 Area Sources 51

3.6.3 Volume Sources 58

3.6.4 Odour Emission Capacity 58

3.7 Measurement of Odour Exposure by Field Assessment 59

3.7.1 Field Inspection 59

3.7.2 Community Surveys 60

3.7.3 Odour Diaries 61

3.7.4 Plume Measurement 62

3.8 Measurement of Odour by Sensor Arrays 63

M. Dutta and M. Bhuyan

3.8.1 Odour Sensors 63

3.8.2 Electronic Noses 67

3.8.3 Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition 69

3.8.4 Artificial Neural Network 71

3.8.5 Temperature Modulation 73

3.8.6 Feature Selection 75

3.8.7 Embedded E-Noses 75

References 79

4 Strategies for Odour Control 85

R. Munoz, J.M. Estradia, R. Lebrero, G. Quijano and N.J.R. Kraakman

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Control of Odour Dispersion 87

4.3 Control of Odour Effects on an Exposed Community 90

4.4 Control of Odour Emission 92

4.4.1 Physical/Chemical Technologies 92

4.4.2 Biological Technologies 101

4.4.3 Technology Comparison Based on Case Studies 117

References 119

5 Dispersion Modelling for Odour Exposure Assessment 125

M. Piringer and G. Schauberger

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 Odour Perception 126

5.2.1 Odour Intensity 126

5.2.2 Temporal Dimension 128

5.3 Overview on Types of Odour Dispersion Models 132

5.4 Algorithms to Estimate Short-Term Odour Concentrations 135

5.5 Annoyance 144

5.6 Odour Impact Criteria for Use in Dispersion Modelling 146

5.7 Meteorological Input to Odour Dispersion Models 152

5.7.1 Wind Information 153

5.7.2 Information on Atmospheric Stability 155

5.7.3 Information on the Mixing Height 161

5.8 Evaluation of Odour Dispersion Models 166

References 169

6 Odour Regulation and Policies 177

S. Sironi, L. Capelli, L. Dentoni and R. Del Rosso

6.1 Introduction 177

6.2 Regulation Based on Air Quality Standards and Limit Values 179

6.3 Regulation Based on Direct Exposure Assessment 180

6.4 Regulation Based on ‘No Annoyance’ 182

6.5 Regulation Based on Application of Best Practice 183

6.6 Comparison of Different Regulatory Approaches 185

References 185

7 Procedures for Odour Impact Assessment 189

V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno and T. Zarra

7.1 Introduction 189

7.2 Factors Contributing to Odour Impact 189

7.2.1 Frequency of Detection 190

7.2.2 Intensity and Duration of Odour 190

7.2.3 Offensiveness 190

7.2.4 Location 191

7.2.5 Other Factors 191

7.3 Odour Impact Assessment from Exposure Measurement 192

7.3.1 Field Sniff Testing 193

7.3.2 Complaints and Odour Diaries 194

7.3.3 Community Surveys 194

7.3.4 Continuous Monitoring By E-Noses 194

7.4 Odour Impact Assessment from Sources 195

7.4.1 Odour Sources 195

7.4.2 Odour Emission Rate 196

7.4.3 Meteorological Conditions 197

7.4.4 Receptors and Sensitivity 197

7.4.5 Dispersion Modelling 198

7.4.6 Odour Impact Assessment 198

7.5 Mitigation of Odour Impact 199

7.5.1 Responses to Driving Forces 200

7.5.2 Responses to Pressures 201

7.5.3 Responses to State 202

7.5.4 Responses to Impact 202

7.6 Odour Monitoring 203

7.6.1 Monitoring Plan 204

7.6.2 Monitoring Report 204

References 205

8 Case Studies for Assessment, Control and Prediction of Odour Impact 207

8.1 Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant 207

J. Lehtinen

8.1.1 Motivation for the Study 207

8.1.2 Description of the Situation 208

8.1.3 Specific Objectives of the Study 209

8.1.4 Methodology and Data Collection 210

8.1.5 Results and Discussion 212

8.1.6 Conclusions, Recommendations and Outcomes 218

References 220

8.2 Composting Plant 221

M. Kranert, M. Reiser, V. Naddeo, T. Zarra and S. Giuliani

8.2.1 Motivation for the Study 221

8.2.2 Material and Methods 222

8.2.3 Results and Discussion 227

8.2.4 Conclusions, Recommendations and Outcome 228

References 230

8.3 Landfill of Solid Waste 232

A.C. Romain and J. Nicolas

8.3.1 Motivation for the Study 232

8.3.2 Description of the Situation 232

8.3.3 Specific Objectives of the Study 234

8.3.4 Methodology 235

8.3.5 Data Collection 240

8.3.6 Results and Discussion 241

8.3.7 Conclusions, Recommendations and Outcomes 249

References 250

8.4 Industrial Activities 251

I. Sowka

8.4.1 Motivation for the Study 251

8.4.2 Identification of Industrial Odour Emission Sources 252

8.4.3 The Use of Selected Methods for Assessing the Odour Quality of Air 256

8.4.4 Conclusions, Recommendations and Outcomes 259

References 259

8.5 Concentrated Animal Deeding Operation (CAFO) Plants 261

K. Wang

8.5.1 Motivation for the Study 261

8.5.2 Methodology 262

8.5.3 Dispersion Modeling Methodology 266

8.5.4 Results and Discussion 266

8.5.5 Conclusions, Recommendations and Outcomes 268

References 270

8.6 Assessment, Control and Management of Odour in Sensitive Areas 271

N. Kalogerakis and M. Lazaridis

8.6.1 Motivation for the Study 271

8.6.2 Description of the Situation 271

8.6.3 Specific Objectives of the Study 273

8.6.4 Methodology 273

8.6.5 Data Collection 273

8.6.6 Results and Discussion 275

8.6.7 Conclusions, Recommendations and Outcomes 283

References 284

Index 000

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