9780750668576

Open Channel Hydraulics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780750668576

  • ISBN10:

    0750668571

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 3/6/2006
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

"This book introduces and explains all the main topics required for courses on open channel flows, using numerous worked examples to illustrate the key points."--BOOK JACKET.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
CHAPTER: 1 Fundamentals of open-channel flow 1(23)
1.1 Geometric elements of open channels
1(1)
1.2 Velocity and discharge
2(1)
1.3 Hydrostatic pressure
2(5)
1.4 Mass, momentum and energy transfer in open-channel flow
7(3)
1.4.1 Mass transfer
7(1)
1.4.2 Momentum transfer
7(1)
1.4.3 Energy transfer
8(2)
1.5 Open-channel flow classification
10(1)
1.6 Conservation laws
11(9)
1.6.1 Conservation of mass
11(1)
1.6.2 Conservation of momentum
12(2)
1.6.3 Conservation of energy
14(3)
1.6.4 Steady flow equations
17(1)
1.6.5 Steady spatially-varied flow equations
18(2)
1.6.6 Comparison and use of momentum and energy equations
20(1)
Problems
20(3)
References
23(1)
CHAPTER 2 Energy and momentum principles 24(43)
2.1 Critical flow
24(4)
2.1.1 Froude number
24(1)
2.1.2 Calculation of critical depth
25(3)
2.2 Applications of energy principle for steady flow
28(19)
2.2.1 Energy equation
28(3)
2.2.2 Specific energy diagram for constant discharge
31(9)
2.2.3 Discharge diagram for constant specific energy
40(1)
2.2.4 Specific energy in rectangular channels
41(4)
2.2.5 Choking of flow
45(2)
2.3 Applications of momentum principle for steady flow
47(17)
2.3.1 Momentum equation
47(2)
2.3.2 Specific momentum diagram for constant discharge
49(4)
2.3.3 Discharge diagram for constant specific momentum
53(1)
2.3.4 Hydraulic jump
54(4)
2.3.5 Specific momentum in rectangular channels
58(3)
2.3.6 Hydraulic jump in rectangular channels
61(2)
2.3.7 Choking and momentum principle
63(1)
Problems
64(2)
References
66(1)
CHAPTER 3 Normal flow 67(30)
3.1 Flow resistance
67(7)
3.1.1 Boundary layer and flow resistance
68(2)
3.1.2 The Darcy–Weisbach equation
70(1)
3.1.3 The Chezy equation
71(1)
3.1.4 The Manning formula
72(2)
3.2 Normal flow equation
74(2)
3.3 Normal depth calculations in uniform channels
76(4)
3.4 Normal depth calculations in grass-lined channels
80(3)
3.5 Normal depth calculations in riprap channels
83(3)
3.6 Normal flow in composite channels
86(2)
3.7 Normal flow in compound channels
88(4)
Problems
92(4)
References
96(1)
CHAPTER 4 Gradually-varied now 97(60)
4.1 Classification of channels for gradually-varied flow
98(1)
4.2 Classification of gradually-varied flow profiles
99(2)
4.3 Significance of Froude number in gradually-varied flow calculations
101(3)
4.4 Qualitative determination of expected gradually-varied flow profiles
104(6)
4.5 Gradually-varied flow computations
110(11)
4.5.1 Direct step method
111(7)
4.5.2 Standard step method
118(3)
4.6 Applications of gradually-varied flow
121(20)
4.6.1 Locating hydraulic jumps
121(3)
4.6.2 Lake and channel problems
124(6)
4.6.3 Two-lake problems
130(4)
4.6.4 Effect of choking on water surface profile
134(7)
4.7 Gradually-varied flow in channel systems
141(3)
4.8 Gradually-varied flow in natural channels
144(7)
Problems
151(5)
References
156(1)
CHAPTER 5 Design or open channels 157(43)
5.1 General design considerations
157(2)
5.2 Design of unlined channels
159(15)
5.2.1 Maximum permissible velocity method
159(4)
5.2.2 Tractive force method
163(9)
5.2.3 Channel bends
172(2)
5.3 Design of channels with flexible linings
174(14)
5.3.1 Design of channels lined with vegetal cover
175(4)
5.3.2 Design of riprap channels
179(7)
5.3.3 Temporary flexible linings
186(2)
5.4 Design of rigid boundary channels
188(6)
5.4.1 Experience curve approach
189(2)
5.4.2 Best hydraulic section approach
191(1)
5.4.3 Minimum lining cost approach
192(2)
5.5 Channel design for non-uniform flow
194(3)
Problems
197(1)
References
198(2)
CHAPTER 6 Hydraulic structures 200(66)
6.1 Flow measurement structures
200(12)
6.1.1 Sharp-crested weirs
200(7)
6.1.2 Broad-crested weirs
207(2)
6.1.3 Flumes
209(3)
6.2 Culverts
212(13)
6.2.1 Inlet control flow
214(6)
6.2.2 Outlet control flow
220(5)
6.2.3 Sizing of culverts
225(1)
6.3 Overflow spillways
225(7)
6.3.1 Shape for uncontrolled ogee crest
226(1)
6.3.2 Discharge over an uncontrolled ogee crest
227(3)
6.3.3 Discharge over gate-controlled ogee crests
230(2)
6.4 Stilling basins
232(12)
6.4.1 Position of hydraulic jump
232(6)
6.4.2 Hydraulic jump characteristics
238(1)
6.4.3 Standard stilling basin designs
239(5)
6.5 Channel transitions
244(17)
6.5.1 Channel transitions for subcritical flow
244(8)
6.5.2 Channel transitions for supercritical flow
252(9)
Problems
261(3)
References
264(2)
CHAPTER 7 Bridge hydraulics 266(49)
7.1 Modeling bridge sections
266(28)
7.1.1 Cross-section locations
266(3)
7.1.2 Low-flow types at bridge sites
269(1)
7.1.3 Low-flow calculations at bridge sites
269(15)
7.1.4 High-flow calculations at bridge sites
284(10)
7.2 Evaluating scour at bridges
294(17)
7.2.1 Contraction scour
296(7)
7.2.2 Local scour at piers
303(5)
7.2.3 Local scour at abutments
308(3)
Problems
311(3)
References
314(1)
CHAPTER 8 Introduction to unsteady open-channel flow 315(46)
8.1 Governing equations
315(3)
8.2 Numerical solution methods
318(24)
8.2.1 Explicit finite difference schemes
319(2)
8.2.2 Implicit finite difference schemes
321(17)
8.2.3 Special considerations
338(3)
8.2.4 Channel systems
341(1)
8.3 Approximate unsteady-flow models
342(5)
8.3.1 Diffusion-wave model for unsteady flow
342(1)
8.3.2 Finite difference equations
343(1)
8.3.3 Solution of finite difference equations
344(3)
8.4 Simple channel-routing methods
347(10)
8.4.1 The Muskingum method
347(4)
8.4.2 The Muskingum–Cunge method
351(6)
Problems
357(1)
References
358(3)
Index 361

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