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Optoelectronics and Photonics : Principles and Practices,9780201610871
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Optoelectronics and Photonics : Principles and Practices

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780201610871

ISBN10:
0201610876
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/23/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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  • Optoelectronics and Photonics : Principles and Practices
    Optoelectronics and Photonics : Principles and Practices





Summary

This book takes a fresh look at the last three decades and enormous developments in the new electo-optic devices and associated materials. General Treatment and various proofs are at a semiquantitative level without going into detailed physics. Contains numerous worked examples and solved problems.Chapter topics include wave nature of light, dielectric waveguides and optical fibers, semiconductor science and light emitting diodes, photodetectors, photovoltaic devices, and polarization and modulation of light.For the study of optoelectronics by electrical engineers.

Author Biography

SAFA KASAP is currently a Professor of Electronic Materials and Devices in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. He obtained the B.S.E.E. (1976), M.S. (1978), and Ph.D. (1983) degrees from Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of London, specializing in amorphous semiconductors and optoelectronics. In 1996 he was awarded the D.Sc. (Engineering) degree from London University for his research contributions to materials science in electrical engineering. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Materials. His research interests are in amorphous semiconductors, noise in electronic devices, photoconductors, photodetectors, X-ray image detectors, laser-induced transient photocnductivity and related topics, with more than 100 refereed journal publications in these areas.

Table of Contents

Wave Nature of Light
1(50)
Light Waves in a Homogeneous Medium
1(6)
Plane Electromagnetic Wave
1(3)
Maxwell's Wave Equation and Diverging Waves
4(3)
Example 1.1.1:A diverging laser beam
7(1)
Refractive Index
7(2)
Example 1.2.1: Relative permittivity and refractive index
8(1)
Group Velocity and Group Index
9(2)
Example 1.3.1: Group velocity
11(1)
Example 1.3.2: Group and phase velocities
11(1)
Magnetic Field, Irradiance, and Poynting Vector
11(3)
Example 1.4.1: Electric and magnetic fields in light
13(1)
Snell's Law and Total Internal Reflection (TIR)
14(2)
Fresnel's Equations
16(12)
Amplitude Reflection and Transmission Coefficients
16(6)
Example 1.6.1: Evanescent wave
22(1)
Intensity, Reflectance, and Transmittance
23(1)
Example 1.6.2: Reflection of light from a less dense medium
24(1)
Example 1.6.3: Reflection at normal incidence. Internal and external reflection
25(1)
Example 1.6.4: Antireflection coatings on solar cells
26(1)
Example 1.6.5: Dielectric mirrors
27(1)
Multiple Interference and Optical Resonators
28(4)
Example 1.7.1: Resonator modes and spectral width
31(1)
Goos-Hanchen Shift and Optical Tunneling
32(2)
Temporal and Spatial Coherence
34(3)
Diffraction Principles
37(13)
Fraunhofer Diffraction
37(4)
Example 1.10.1: Resolving power of imaging systems
41(1)
Diffraction grating
42(2)
Questions and Problems
44(6)
Dielectric Waveguides and Optical Fibers
50(57)
Symmetric Planar Dielectric Slab Waveguide
50(10)
Waveguide Condition
50(5)
Single and Multimode Waveguides
55(1)
TE and TM Modes
56(1)
Example 2.1.1: Waveguide modes
57(1)
Example 2.1.2: V-number and the number of modes
58(1)
Example 2.1.3: Mode field distance (MFD)
59(1)
Modal and Waveguide Dispersion in the Planar Waveguide
60(3)
Waveguide Dispersion Diagram
60(1)
Intermodal Dispersion
60(2)
Intramodal Dispersion
62(1)
Step Index Fiber
63(6)
Example 2.3.1: A multimode fiber
68(1)
Example 2.3.2: A single mode fiber
68(1)
Example 2.3.3: Single mode cut-off wavelength
68(1)
Example 2.3.4: Group velocity and delay
69(1)
Numerical Aperture
69(2)
Example 2.4.1: A multimode fiber and total acceptance angle
71(1)
Example 2.4.2: A single mode fiber
71(1)
Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers
71(7)
Material Dispersion
71(2)
Waveguide Dispersion
73(1)
Chromatic Dispersion or Total Dispersion
74(1)
Profile and Polarization Dispersion Effects
75(1)
Dispersion Flattened Fibers
76(1)
Example 2.5.1: Material dispersion
77(1)
Example 2.5.2: Material, waveguide, and chromatic dispersion
77(1)
Bit-Rate, Dispersion, Electrical, and Optical Bandwidth
78(5)
Bit-Rate and Dispersion
78(3)
Optical and Electrical Bandwidth
81(1)
Example 2.6.1: Bit-rate and dispersion
82(1)
The Graded Index Optical Fiber
83(4)
Example 2.7.1: Dispersion in a graded-index fiber and bit-rate
85(2)
Light Absorption and Scattering
87(3)
Absorption
87(1)
Scattering
88(2)
Attenuation in Optical Fibers
90(4)
Example 2.9.1: Rayleigh scattering limit
93(1)
Example 2.9.2: Attenuation along an optical fiber
94(1)
Fiber Manufacture
94(13)
Fiber Drawing
94(2)
Outside Vapor Deposition (OVD)
96(2)
Example 2.10.1: Fiber drawing
98(1)
Questions and Problems
98(9)
Semiconductor Science and Light Emitting Diodes
107(52)
Semiconductor Concepts and Energy Bands
107(12)
Energy Band Diagrams
107(3)
Semiconductor Statistics
110(3)
Extrinsic Semiconductors
113(3)
Compensation Doping
116(1)
Degenerate and Nondegenerate Semiconductors
117(1)
Energy Band Diagrams in an Applied Field
118(1)
Example 3.1.1: Fermi levels in semiconductors
118(1)
Example 3.1.2: Conductivity
119(1)
Direct and Indirect Bandgap Semiconductors: E-k Diagrams
119(4)
pn Junction Principles
123(14)
Open Circuit
123(3)
Forward Bias
126(5)
Reverse Bias
131(3)
Depletion Layer Capacitance
134(1)
Recombination Lifetime
135(1)
Example 3.3.1: A direct band gap pn junction
136(1)
The pn Junction Band Diagram
137(2)
Open Circuit
137(1)
Forward and Reverse Bias
138(1)
Light Emitting Diodes
139(3)
Principles
139(2)
Device Structures
141(1)
LED Materials
142(2)
Heterojunction High Intensity LEDs
144(3)
LED Characteristics
147(3)
Example 3.8.1: LED output spectrum
149(1)
Example 3.8.2: LED output wavelength variations
149(1)
Example 3.8.3: InGaAsP on InP substrate
150(1)
LEDs for Optical Fiber Communications
150(9)
Questions and Problems
153(6)
Stimulated Emission Devices Lasers
159(58)
Stimulated Emission and Photon Amplification
159(3)
Stimulated Emission Rate and Einstein Coefficients
162(2)
Optical Fiber Amplifiers
164(2)
Gas Laser: The He-Ne Laser
166(4)
Example 4.4.1: Efficiency of the He-Ne laser
169(1)
Example 4.4.2: Laser beam divergence
170(1)
The Output Spectrum of a Gas Laser
170(4)
Example 4.5.1: Doppler broadened linewidth
173(1)
LASER Oscillation Conditions
174(7)
Optical Gain Coefficient g
174(2)
Threshold Gain gth
176(2)
Phase Condition and Laser Modes
178(3)
Example 4.6.1: Threshold population inversion for the He-Ne laser
181(1)
Principle of the Laser Diode
181(4)
Heterostructure Laser Diodes
185(5)
Example 4.8.1: Modes in a laser and the optical cavity length
189(1)
Elementary Laser Diode Characteristics
190(2)
Example 4.9.1: Laser output wavelength variations
192(1)
Steady State Semiconductor Rate Equation
192(3)
Light Emitters for Optical Fiber Communications
195(1)
Single Frequency Solid State Lasers
196(3)
Example 4.12.1: DFB Laser
198(1)
Quantum Well Devices
199(4)
Example 4.13.1: A GaAs quantum well
202(1)
Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)
203(2)
Optical Laser Amplifiers
205(1)
Holography
206(11)
Questions and Problems
209(8)
Photodetectors
217(37)
Principle of the pn Junction Photodiode
217(2)
Ramo's Theorem and External Photocurrent
219(2)
Absorption Coefficient and Photodiode Materials
221(3)
Quantum Efficiency and Responsivity
224(1)
The pin Photodiode
225(5)
Example 5.5.1: Operation and speed of a pin photodiode
228(1)
Example 5.5.2: Photocarrier diffusion in a pin photodiode
228(1)
Example 5.5.3: Responsivity of a pin photodiode
229(1)
Avalanche Photodiode
230(4)
Example 5.6.1: InGaAs APD Responsivity
234(1)
Example 5.6.2: Silicon APD
234(1)
Heterojunction Photodiodes
234(3)
Separate Absorption and Multiplication (SAM) APD
234(2)
Superlattice APDs
236(1)
Phototransistors
237(2)
Photoconductive Detectors and Photoconductive Gain
239(3)
Noise In Photodetectors
242(12)
The pn Junction and the pin Photodiodes
242(2)
Example 5.10.1: NEP of a Si pin photodiode
244(1)
Example 5.10.2: Noise of an ideal photodetector
244(1)
Example 5.10.3: SNR of a receiver
245(1)
Avalanche Noise in the APD
246(1)
Example 5.10.4: Noise in an APD
246(1)
Questions and Problems
247(7)
Photovoltaic Devices
254(21)
Solar Energy Spectrum
254(3)
Example 6.1.1: Solar energy conversion
256(1)
Photovoltaic Device Principles
257(4)
Example 6.2.1: The photocurrent Iph
260(1)
pn Junction Photovoltaic I-V Characteristics
261(4)
Example 6.3.1: A solar cell driving a resistive load
264(1)
Example 6.3.2: Open circuit voltage and illumination
264(1)
Series Resistance and Equivalent Circuit
265(3)
Example 6.4.1: Solar cells in parallel
267(1)
Temperature Effects
268(1)
Solar Cells Materials, Devices, and Efficiencies
269(6)
Question and Problems
272(3)
Polarization and Modulation of Light
275(48)
Polarization
275(5)
State of Polarization
275(3)
Example 7.1.1: Elliptical and circular polarization
278(1)
Malu's Law
279(1)
Light propagation in an Anisotropic Medium: Birefringence
280(7)
Optical Anisotropy
280(1)
Uniaxial Crystals and Fresnel's Optical Indicatrix
281(4)
Birefringence of Calcite
285(1)
Dichroism
286(1)
Birefringent Optical Devices
287(5)
Retarding Plates
287(1)
Example 7.3.1: Quartz half-wave plate
288(1)
Example 7.3.2: Circular polarization from linear polarization
289(1)
Soleil-Babinet Compensator
289(2)
Birefringent Prisms
291(1)
Optical Activity and Circular Birefringence
292(2)
Electro-Optic Effects
294(7)
Definitions
294(1)
Pockels Effect
295(4)
Example 7.5.1: Pockets Cell Modulator
299(1)
Kerr Effect
300(1)
Example 7.5.2: Kerr effect modulator
301(1)
Integrated Optical Modulators
301(6)
Phase and Polarization Modulation
301(2)
Mach-Zehnder Modulator
303(1)
Coupled Waveguide Modulators
304(3)
Example 7.6.1: Modulated directional coupler
307(1)
Acousto-Optic Modulator
307(3)
Example 7.7.1: Modulated Directional Coupler
309(1)
Magneto-Optic Effects
310(1)
Non-Linear Optics and Second Harmonic Generation
311(12)
Questions and Problems
314(9)
Notation and Abbreviations 323(9)
Index 332
CD-ROM: Optoelectronics and Photonics Contents

Excerpts

PrefaceThis textbook represents a first course in optoelectronic materials and devices suitable for a half- or one-semester semester course at the undergraduate level in electrical engineering, engineering physics, and materials science and engineering departments. It can also be used at the graduate level as an introductory course by including some of the selected topics in the CD-ROM. Normally, the students would not have covered Maxwell's equations. Although Maxwell's equations are mentioned in the text to alert the students they are not used in developing the principles. It is assumed that the students would have taken a basic first- or second-year physics course, with modern physics, and would have seen rudimentary concepts in geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction, but not Fresnel's equations and concepts, such as group velocity and group index. Typically, an optoelectronics course would either be given after a semiconductor devices course or concurrently. Students would have been exposed to elementary quantum mechanical concepts, perhaps in conjunction with a basic semiconductor science course.I tried to keep the general treatment and various proofs at a semiquantitative level without going into detailed physics. Most topics are initially introduced through intuitive explanations to allow the concept to be grasped first before any mathematical development. The mathematical level is assumed to include vectors, complex numbers, and partial differentiation, but excludes Fourier transforms. On the one hand, we are required to cover as much as possible and, on the other hand, professional engineering accreditation requires students to solve numerical problems and carry out "design calculations." In preparing the text, I tried to satisfy engineering degree accreditation requirements in as much breadth as possible. Obviously one cannot solve numerical problems, carry out design calculations, and derive each equation at the same time without expanding the size of the text to an unacceptable level. I have missed many topics but I have also covered many; though, undoubtedly, my own biased selection.The book has a CD-ROM that contains the figures as large color diagrams in a common portable document format (PDF). They can be printed on nearly any color printer to make overhead projector transparencies for the instructor and class-ready notes for the students so they do not have to draw the diagrams during the lectures. The diagrams have been also put into PowerPoint for directly delivering the lecture material from a computer. In addition, there are numerous selected topics and other educational features on the CD-ROM that follows a web-format. Both instructors and students will find the selected topics very useful. These selected topics have been prepared by various authors and specialists in optoelectronics as stand-alone chapters, and they cover a wide range of topics. Although some of these topics are treated at the graduate level and review a particular area, there are also numerous selected topics at the elementary level for undergraduate students. In addition, some of these topics appear as color reprints of interesting articles taken, with permission, from various educational journals such asPhysics Today, Physics World, IEEE Spectrum, American Journal of Physics, Laser Focus, Photonics,and various other magazines and journals.A number of colleagues took time to read portions of the manuscripts and provided many useful suggestions that made this a better book. My special thanks go to Professor Charbel Tannous (Brest University, France) and Dr. Yann Boucher (RESO Laboratory, Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Brest, France), both of whom kept challenging me with their incisive criticisms and dedication to accuracy. It's a pleasure to thank Professors Dave Dodds (University of Saskatchewan), Jai Singh (Northern Territory University, Australia), Harry Ruda (University of T


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