

1  (50) 

Light Waves in a Homogeneous Medium 


1  (6) 

Plane Electromagnetic Wave 


1  (3) 

Maxwell's Wave Equation and Diverging Waves 


4  (3) 

Example 1.1.1:A diverging laser beam 


7  (1) 


7  (2) 

Example 1.2.1: Relative permittivity and refractive index 


8  (1) 

Group Velocity and Group Index 


9  (2) 

Example 1.3.1: Group velocity 


11  (1) 

Example 1.3.2: Group and phase velocities 


11  (1) 

Magnetic Field, Irradiance, and Poynting Vector 


11  (3) 

Example 1.4.1: Electric and magnetic fields in light 


13  (1) 

Snell's Law and Total Internal Reflection (TIR) 


14  (2) 


16  (12) 

Amplitude Reflection and Transmission Coefficients 


16  (6) 

Example 1.6.1: Evanescent wave 


22  (1) 

Intensity, Reflectance, and Transmittance 


23  (1) 

Example 1.6.2: Reflection of light from a less dense medium 


24  (1) 

Example 1.6.3: Reflection at normal incidence. Internal and external reflection 


25  (1) 

Example 1.6.4: Antireflection coatings on solar cells 


26  (1) 

Example 1.6.5: Dielectric mirrors 


27  (1) 

Multiple Interference and Optical Resonators 


28  (4) 

Example 1.7.1: Resonator modes and spectral width 


31  (1) 

GoosHanchen Shift and Optical Tunneling 


32  (2) 

Temporal and Spatial Coherence 


34  (3) 


37  (13) 


37  (4) 

Example 1.10.1: Resolving power of imaging systems 


41  (1) 


42  (2) 


44  (6) 

Dielectric Waveguides and Optical Fibers 


50  (57) 

Symmetric Planar Dielectric Slab Waveguide 


50  (10) 


50  (5) 

Single and Multimode Waveguides 


55  (1) 


56  (1) 

Example 2.1.1: Waveguide modes 


57  (1) 

Example 2.1.2: Vnumber and the number of modes 


58  (1) 

Example 2.1.3: Mode field distance (MFD) 


59  (1) 

Modal and Waveguide Dispersion in the Planar Waveguide 


60  (3) 

Waveguide Dispersion Diagram 


60  (1) 


60  (2) 


62  (1) 


63  (6) 

Example 2.3.1: A multimode fiber 


68  (1) 

Example 2.3.2: A single mode fiber 


68  (1) 

Example 2.3.3: Single mode cutoff wavelength 


68  (1) 

Example 2.3.4: Group velocity and delay 


69  (1) 


69  (2) 

Example 2.4.1: A multimode fiber and total acceptance angle 


71  (1) 

Example 2.4.2: A single mode fiber 


71  (1) 

Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers 


71  (7) 


71  (2) 


73  (1) 

Chromatic Dispersion or Total Dispersion 


74  (1) 

Profile and Polarization Dispersion Effects 


75  (1) 

Dispersion Flattened Fibers 


76  (1) 

Example 2.5.1: Material dispersion 


77  (1) 

Example 2.5.2: Material, waveguide, and chromatic dispersion 


77  (1) 

BitRate, Dispersion, Electrical, and Optical Bandwidth 


78  (5) 


78  (3) 

Optical and Electrical Bandwidth 


81  (1) 

Example 2.6.1: Bitrate and dispersion 


82  (1) 

The Graded Index Optical Fiber 


83  (4) 

Example 2.7.1: Dispersion in a gradedindex fiber and bitrate 


85  (2) 

Light Absorption and Scattering 


87  (3) 


87  (1) 


88  (2) 

Attenuation in Optical Fibers 


90  (4) 

Example 2.9.1: Rayleigh scattering limit 


93  (1) 

Example 2.9.2: Attenuation along an optical fiber 


94  (1) 


94  (13) 


94  (2) 

Outside Vapor Deposition (OVD) 


96  (2) 

Example 2.10.1: Fiber drawing 


98  (1) 


98  (9) 

Semiconductor Science and Light Emitting Diodes 


107  (52) 

Semiconductor Concepts and Energy Bands 


107  (12) 


107  (3) 


110  (3) 


113  (3) 


116  (1) 

Degenerate and Nondegenerate Semiconductors 


117  (1) 

Energy Band Diagrams in an Applied Field 


118  (1) 

Example 3.1.1: Fermi levels in semiconductors 


118  (1) 

Example 3.1.2: Conductivity 


119  (1) 

Direct and Indirect Bandgap Semiconductors: Ek Diagrams 


119  (4) 


123  (14) 


123  (3) 


126  (5) 


131  (3) 

Depletion Layer Capacitance 


134  (1) 


135  (1) 

Example 3.3.1: A direct band gap pn junction 


136  (1) 

The pn Junction Band Diagram 


137  (2) 


137  (1) 


138  (1) 


139  (3) 


139  (2) 


141  (1) 


142  (2) 

Heterojunction High Intensity LEDs 


144  (3) 


147  (3) 

Example 3.8.1: LED output spectrum 


149  (1) 

Example 3.8.2: LED output wavelength variations 


149  (1) 

Example 3.8.3: InGaAsP on InP substrate 


150  (1) 

LEDs for Optical Fiber Communications 


150  (9) 


153  (6) 

Stimulated Emission Devices Lasers 


159  (58) 

Stimulated Emission and Photon Amplification 


159  (3) 

Stimulated Emission Rate and Einstein Coefficients 


162  (2) 


164  (2) 

Gas Laser: The HeNe Laser 


166  (4) 

Example 4.4.1: Efficiency of the HeNe laser 


169  (1) 

Example 4.4.2: Laser beam divergence 


170  (1) 

The Output Spectrum of a Gas Laser 


170  (4) 

Example 4.5.1: Doppler broadened linewidth 


173  (1) 

LASER Oscillation Conditions 


174  (7) 

Optical Gain Coefficient g 


174  (2) 


176  (2) 

Phase Condition and Laser Modes 


178  (3) 

Example 4.6.1: Threshold population inversion for the HeNe laser 


181  (1) 

Principle of the Laser Diode 


181  (4) 

Heterostructure Laser Diodes 


185  (5) 

Example 4.8.1: Modes in a laser and the optical cavity length 


189  (1) 

Elementary Laser Diode Characteristics 


190  (2) 

Example 4.9.1: Laser output wavelength variations 


192  (1) 

Steady State Semiconductor Rate Equation 


192  (3) 

Light Emitters for Optical Fiber Communications 


195  (1) 

Single Frequency Solid State Lasers 


196  (3) 

Example 4.12.1: DFB Laser 


198  (1) 


199  (4) 

Example 4.13.1: A GaAs quantum well 


202  (1) 

Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) 


203  (2) 


205  (1) 


206  (11) 


209  (8) 


217  (37) 

Principle of the pn Junction Photodiode 


217  (2) 

Ramo's Theorem and External Photocurrent 


219  (2) 

Absorption Coefficient and Photodiode Materials 


221  (3) 

Quantum Efficiency and Responsivity 


224  (1) 


225  (5) 

Example 5.5.1: Operation and speed of a pin photodiode 


228  (1) 

Example 5.5.2: Photocarrier diffusion in a pin photodiode 


228  (1) 

Example 5.5.3: Responsivity of a pin photodiode 


229  (1) 


230  (4) 

Example 5.6.1: InGaAs APD Responsivity 


234  (1) 

Example 5.6.2: Silicon APD 


234  (1) 

Heterojunction Photodiodes 


234  (3) 

Separate Absorption and Multiplication (SAM) APD 


234  (2) 


236  (1) 


237  (2) 

Photoconductive Detectors and Photoconductive Gain 


239  (3) 


242  (12) 

The pn Junction and the pin Photodiodes 


242  (2) 

Example 5.10.1: NEP of a Si pin photodiode 


244  (1) 

Example 5.10.2: Noise of an ideal photodetector 


244  (1) 

Example 5.10.3: SNR of a receiver 


245  (1) 

Avalanche Noise in the APD 


246  (1) 

Example 5.10.4: Noise in an APD 


246  (1) 


247  (7) 


254  (21) 


254  (3) 

Example 6.1.1: Solar energy conversion 


256  (1) 

Photovoltaic Device Principles 


257  (4) 

Example 6.2.1: The photocurrent Iph 


260  (1) 

pn Junction Photovoltaic IV Characteristics 


261  (4) 

Example 6.3.1: A solar cell driving a resistive load 


264  (1) 

Example 6.3.2: Open circuit voltage and illumination 


264  (1) 

Series Resistance and Equivalent Circuit 


265  (3) 

Example 6.4.1: Solar cells in parallel 


267  (1) 


268  (1) 

Solar Cells Materials, Devices, and Efficiencies 


269  (6) 


272  (3) 

Polarization and Modulation of Light 


275  (48) 


275  (5) 


275  (3) 

Example 7.1.1: Elliptical and circular polarization 


278  (1) 


279  (1) 

Light propagation in an Anisotropic Medium: Birefringence 


280  (7) 


280  (1) 

Uniaxial Crystals and Fresnel's Optical Indicatrix 


281  (4) 


285  (1) 


286  (1) 

Birefringent Optical Devices 


287  (5) 


287  (1) 

Example 7.3.1: Quartz halfwave plate 


288  (1) 

Example 7.3.2: Circular polarization from linear polarization 


289  (1) 

SoleilBabinet Compensator 


289  (2) 


291  (1) 

Optical Activity and Circular Birefringence 


292  (2) 


294  (7) 


294  (1) 


295  (4) 

Example 7.5.1: Pockets Cell Modulator 


299  (1) 


300  (1) 

Example 7.5.2: Kerr effect modulator 


301  (1) 

Integrated Optical Modulators 


301  (6) 

Phase and Polarization Modulation 


301  (2) 


303  (1) 

Coupled Waveguide Modulators 


304  (3) 

Example 7.6.1: Modulated directional coupler 


307  (1) 


307  (3) 

Example 7.7.1: Modulated Directional Coupler 


309  (1) 


310  (1) 

NonLinear Optics and Second Harmonic Generation 


311  (12) 


314  (9) 
Notation and Abbreviations 

323  (9) 
Index 

332  
CDROM: Optoelectronics and Photonics Contents 
