Organic and Biological Chemistry

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1/13/2009
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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GENERAL, ORGANIC, AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY'S clear explanations, engaging and useful visual support, and powerful teaching elements combine to make this book the ideal choice. Author Stephen Stoker wisely revised the biochemistry chapters first and then tailored the general and organic sections to support that presentation. And, Stoker also appropriately restricts the coverage of mathematics to point-of-use as needed.

Table of Contents

Organic Chemistry
Saturated Hydrocarbons Organic and Inorganic Compounds
Bonding Characteristics of the Carbon Atom
Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Derivatives
Alkanes: Acyclic Saturated Hydrocarbons
Structural Formulas
Alkane Isomerism
Conformations of Alkanes
IUPAC Nomenclature for Alkanes
Line-Angle Formulas for Alkanes
Classification of Carbon Atoms
Branched-Chain Alkyl Groups
IUPAC Nomenclature for Cycloalkanes
Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
Sources of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Chemical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Chemistry at a Glance: Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Nomenclature and Properties of Halogenated Alkanes
Chemical Connections
The Occurrence of Methane
The Physiological Effects of Alkanes
Chlorofluorocarbons and the Ozone Layer
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Characteristics of Alkenes and Cycloalkenes
Names for Alkenes and Cycloalkenes
Line-Angle Formulas for Alkenes
Isomerism in Alkenes
Naturally Occurring Alkenes
Physical Properties of Alkenes
Chemical Reactions of Alkenes
Polymerization of Alkenes: Addition Polymers
Chemistry at a Glance: Chemical Reactions of Alkenes
Chemistry at a Glance: IUPAC Nomenclature for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Names for Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Physical Properties and Sources
Chemical Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Fused-Ring Aromatic Compounds
Chemical Connections
Ethene: A Plant Hormone and High-Volume Industrial Chemical
Cis-Trans Isomerism and Vision
Carotenoids: A Source of Color
Fused-Ring Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cancer
Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers Bonding Characteristics of Oxygen Atoms in Organic Compounds
Structural Characteristics of Alcohols
Nomenclature for Alcohols
Isomerism for Alcohols
Important Commonly Encountered Alcohols
Physical Properties of Alcohols
Preparation of Alcohols
Classification of Alcohols
Chemical Reactions of Alcohols
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Alcohols
Polymeric Alcohols
Structural Characteristics of Phenols
Nomenclature for Phenols
Physical and Chemical Properties of Phenols
Occurrence of and Uses for Phenols
Structural Characteristics of Ethers
Nomenclature for Ethers
Isomerism for Ethers
Physical and Chemical Properties of Ethers
Cyclic Ethers
Sulfur Analogs and Alcohols
Sulfur Analogs of Ethers
Chemical Connections
Menthol: A Useful Naturally Occurring Terpene Alcohol
Ethers as General Anesthetics
Marijuana: The Most Commonly Used Illicit Drug
Garlic and Onions: Odiferous Medicinal Plants
Aldehydes and Ketones
The Carbonyl Group
Structure of Aldehydes and Ketones
Nomenclature for Aldehydes
Nomenclature for Ketones
Isomerism for Aldehydes and Ketones
Selected Common Aldehydes and Ketones
Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
Oxidation and Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones with Alcohols
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Aldehydes and Ketones
Formaldehyde-Based Polymers
Sulfur-Containing Carbonyl Groups
Chemical Connections
Lachrymatory Aldehydes and Ketones
Melanin: A Hair and Skin Pigment
Diabetes, Aldehyde Oxidation, and Glucose Testing
Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Other Acid Derivatives
Structure of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
IUPAC Nomenclature for Carboxylic Acids
Common Names for Carboxylic Acids
Polyfunctional Carboxylic Acids
"Metabolic" Acids
Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic Acid Salts
Structure of Esters
Preparation of Esters
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of the "H Versus R" Relationship for Pairs of Hydrocarbon Derivatives
Nomenclature for Esters
Selected Common Esters
Isomerism for Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Physical Properties of Esters
Chemical Reactions of Esters
Sulfur Analogs of Esters
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Acid Chlorides and Acid Anhydrides
Esters and Anhydrides of Inorganic Acids
Chemical Connections
Nonprescription Pain Relievers Derived from Propanoic Acid
Carboxylic Acids and Skin Care
Nitroglycerin: An Inorganic Triester
Amines and Amides
Bonding Characteristics of Nitrogen Atoms in Organic Compounds
Structure and Classification of Amines
Nomenclature for Amines
Isomerism for Amines
Physical Properties of Amines
Basicity of Amines
Amine Salts
Heterocyclic Amines
Selected Biochemically Important Amines
Structure and Classification of Amides
Nomenclature for Amides
Selected Amides and Their Uses
Properties of Amides
Preparation of Amides
Hydrolysis of Amides
Polyamides and Polyurethanes
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Amines and Amides
Chemical Connections
Caffeine: The Most Widely Used Central Nervous System Stimulant
Amphetamines: Central Nervous System Stimulants
Alkaloids Present in Chocolate
Acetaminophen: A Substituted Amide
Biological Chemistry
Biochemistry--An Overview
Occurrence and Functions of Carbohydrates
Classification of Carbohydrates
Chirality: Handedness in Molecules
Stereoisomerism: Enantiomers and Diastereomers
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projections
Chemistry at a Glance: Constitutional Isomers and Stereoisomers
Properties of Enantiomers
Classification of Monosaccharides
Biochemically Important Monosaccharides
Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides
Haworth Projection Formulas
Reactions of Monosaccharides
Chemistry at a Glance: "Sugar Terminology" Associated with Monosaccharides and Their Derivatives
General Characteristics of Polysaccharides
Storage Polysaccharides
Structural Polysaccharides
Chemistry at a Glance: Types of Glycosidic Linkages for Common Glucose-Containing Di- and Polysaccharides
Acidic Polysaccharides
Glycolipids and Glycoproteins
Dietary Considerations and Carbohydrates
Chemical Connections
Blood Types and Monosaccharides
Lactose Intolerance and Galactosemia
Artifical Sweeteners; "Good and Bad Carbs": The Glycemic Index
Structure and Classification of Lipids
Fatty Acids: Lipid Building Blocks
Physical Properties of Fatty Acids
Energy-Storage Lipids: Triacylglycerols
Dietary Considerations and Triacylglycerols
Chemical Reactions of Triacylglycerols
Chemistry at a Glance: Classification Schemes for Fatty Acid Residues Present in Triacylglycerols
Membrane Lipids: Phospholipids
Membrane Lipids: Sphingoglycolipids
Chemistry at a Glance: Terminology for and Structural
Relationships Among Various
Types of Fatty-Acid-Containing Lipids
Membrane Lipids: Cholesterol
Cell Membranes
Emulsification Lipids: Bile Acids
Messenger Lipids: Steroid Hormones
Messenger Lipids: Eicosanoids
Protective-Coating Lipids: Biological Waxes
Chemistry at a Glance: Types of Lipids and How They Function
Chemical Connections
The Fat Content of Tree Nuts and Peanuts
Artificial Fat Substitutes
The Cleansing Action of Soap
Trans Fatty Acids and Blood Cholesterol Levels
Steroid Drugs in Sports
The Mode of Action for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Proteins Characteristics of Proteins
Amino Acids: The Building Blocks for Proteins
Chirality and Amino Acids
Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids
Cysteine: A Chemically Unique Amino Acid
Peptide Formation
Biochemically Important Small Peptides
General Structural Characteristics of Proteins
Primary Structure of Proteins
Secondary Structure of Proteins
Tertiary Structure of Proteins
Quaternary Structure of Proteins
Fibrous and Globular Proteins
Chemistry at a Glance: Protein Structure
Protein Hydrolysis
Protein Denaturation
Chemical Connections
The Essential Amino Acids
Substitutes for Human Insulin
Protein Structure and the Color of Meat
Denaturation and Human Hair
Cyclosporine: An Antirejection Drug
Lipoproteins and Heart Attack Risk
Enzymes and Vitamins
General Characteristics of Enzymes
Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes
Enzyme Structure
Models of Enzyme Action
Enzyme Specificity
Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity
Chemistry at a Glance: Enzyme Activity
Enzyme Inhibition
Regulation of Enzyme Activity: Allosteric Enzymes
Chemistry at a Glance: Enzyme Inhibition
Regulation of Enzyme Activity: Zymogens
Antibiotics That Inhibit Enzyme Activity
Medical Uses of Enzymes
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Chemical Connections
H. pylori and Stomach Ulcers
Enzymatic Browning: Discoloration of Fruits and Vegetables
Heart Attacks and Enzyme Analysis
Nucleic Acids
Types of Nucleic Acids
Nucleotides: Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids
Primary Nucleic Acid Structure
The DNA Double Helix
Replication of DNA Molecules
Overview of Protein Synthesis
Ribonucleic Acids
Chemistry at a Glance: DNA Replication
Transcription: RNA Synthesis
The Genetic Code
Anticodons and tRNA Molecules
Translation: Protein Synthesis
Chemistry at a Glance: Protein Synthesis
Nucleic Acids and Viruses
Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering
The Polymerase Chain Reaction
DNA Sequencing
Chemical Connections
Use of Synthetic Nucleic Acid Bases in Medicine
Antibiotics That Inhibit Bacterial Protein Synthesis
Biochemical Energy Production
Metabolism and Cell Structure
Important Intermediate Compounds in Metabolic Pathways
High-Energy Phosphate Compounds
An Overview of Biochemical Energy Production
The Citric Acid Cycle
Chemistry at a Glance: Simplified Summary of the Four Stages of Biochemical Energy Production
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of the Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle
The Electron Transport Chain
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of the Flow of Electrons
Through the Four Complexes of the Electron Transport Chain
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Chemistry at a Glance: Summary of the Common Metabolic Pathway
ATP Production for the Common Metabolic Pathway
The Importance of ATP
Non-ETC Oxygen-Consuming Reactions
Chemical Connections
Cyanide Poisoning
Brown Fat, Newborn Babies, and Hibernating Animals
Flavonoids: An Important Class of Dietary Antioxidants
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Fates of Pyruvate
ATP Production for the Complete Oxidation of Glucose
Glycogen Synthesis and Degradation
Gluconeogenesis and the Cori Cycle
Terminology for Glucose Metabolic Pathways
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Chemistry at a Glance: Glucose Metabolism
Hormonal Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism
Chemical Connections
Lactate Accumulation
Diabetes Mellitus
Lipid Metabolism
Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
Triacylglycerol Storage and Mobilization
Glycerol Metabolism
Oxidation of Fatty Acids
ATP Production from Fatty Acid Oxidation
Ketone Bodies
Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids: Lipogenesis
Biosynthesis of Cholesterol
Chemistry at a Glance: Interrelationships
Between Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
Relationships Between Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism
Chemical Connections
High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Workouts
Statins: Drugs That Lower Plasma Levels of Cholesterol
Protein Metabolism Protein Digestion and Absorption
Amino Acid Utilization. ransamination and Oxidative Deamination
The Urea Cycle
Amino Acid Carbon Skeletons
Amino Acid Biosynthesis
Hemoglobin Catabolism
Chemistry at a Glance: Interrelationships
Among Lipid, Carbohydrate, and Protein Metabolism
Interrelationships Among Metabolic Pathways
Chemical Connections: The Chemical Composition of Urine
Arginine, Citrulline, and the Chemical Messenger Nitric Oxide
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