9780534379810

Organic Laboratory Techniques

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780534379810

  • ISBN10:

    0534379818

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/12/2000
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole

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Summary

This highly effective and practical manual is designed to be used as a supplementary text for the organic chemistry laboratory course - and with virtually any main text - in which experiments are supplied by the instructor or in which the students work independently. Each technique contains a brief theoretical discussion. Steps used in each technique, along with common problems that might arise. These respected and renowned authors include supplemental or related procedures, suggested experiments, and suggested readings for many of the techniques. Additionally, each chapter ends with a set of study problems that primarily stress the practical aspects of each technique, and microscale techniques are included throughout the text, as appropriate. Additional exercises, reference material, and quizzes are available online.

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction to the Organic Laboratory 1(1)
Safety in the Laboratory
1(7)
The Laboratory Notebook
8(4)
Laboratory Equipment
12(11)
Crystallization
23(16)
Solvents for Crystallization
24(2)
Steps in Crystallization
26(7)
Supplemental Procedures
33(6)
Melting Points
39(10)
Characteristics of Melting Points
39(3)
Melting-Point Apparatus
42(1)
Steps in Determining a Melting Point
43(2)
Supplemental Procedures
45(4)
Extraction
49(22)
Immiscible Liquids
50(1)
Distribution Coefficients
51(2)
Extraction Solvents
53(1)
Chemically Active Extraction
54(4)
Steps in Extraction
58(4)
Additional Techniques Used in Extractions
62(4)
Other Extraction Techniques
66(5)
Drying Organic Solutions
71(6)
Extraction with Aqueous Sodium Chloride
71(1)
Solid Inorganic Drying Agents
71(1)
Procedure for Using Solid Inorganic Drying Agents
72(1)
Azeotropic Drying
73(4)
Simple Distillation
77(16)
Characteristics of Distillation
77(7)
Steps in a Simple Distillation
84(4)
Microscale and Semi--Microscale Distillation
88(5)
Fractional Distillation
93(6)
Efficiency of the Fractionation Column
93(2)
Steps in Fractional Distillation
95(1)
Microscale Fractional Distillation
96(3)
Vacuum Distillation
99(8)
Boiling Point and Pressure
99(1)
Apparatus for Simple Vacuum Distillation
100(4)
Steps in Vacuum Distillation
104(3)
Steam Distillation
107(4)
Characteristics of Steam Distillation
107(1)
Amount of Water Needed in a Steam Distillation
108(1)
Apparatus for Steam Distillation
109(2)
Sublimation
111(4)
Atmospheric Sublimation
112(1)
Vacuum Sublimation
113(2)
Refractive Index
115(4)
Correcting for Temperature Differences
116(1)
Steps in Using a Refractometer
117(2)
Column Chromatography
119(14)
Gravity Column Chromatography
120(6)
Flash Chromatography (Macroscale)
126(2)
Flash Chromatography (Microscale)
128(2)
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
130(3)
Thin-Layer Chromatography
133(8)
The Rf Value
133(2)
Equipment for TLC
135(1)
Steps in a TLC Analysis
136(2)
A Related Technique: Paper Chromatography
138(3)
Gas Chromatography
141(12)
Gas Chromatography
141(2)
The Gas Chromatograph
143(4)
Steps in a GC Analysis
147(1)
Problems Encountered in GC
148(1)
Uses of Gas Chromatograms
149(4)
Carrying Out Typical Reactions
153(10)
Stirring
153(1)
Heating Reaction Mixtures
154(2)
Controlling Exothermic Reactions
156(1)
Adding Reagents to a Reaction Mixture
157(1)
Excluding Moisture from a Reaction Mixture
158(1)
Setting Up a Three-Neck Reaction Flask
159(2)
Hydrogen Halide Gas Traps
161(2)
Infrared Spectroscopy
163(16)
The Infrared Spectrum
163(1)
Absorption of Infrared Radiation
164(1)
Interpreting Infrared Spectra
164(1)
Identifying Types of Compounds
165(8)
Preparing a Sample for an Infrared Spectrum
173(3)
Instrumentation
176(3)
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
179(18)
The NMR Spectrum
179(2)
Interpreting NMR Spectra
181(10)
Use of Deuterium in Proton NMR Spectroscopy
191(1)
NMR Spectra of Unknowns
192(1)
The NMR Spectrometer
192(1)
Preparing Samples for NMR Spectra
193(4)
The Chemical Literature
197(6)
Introduction to the Chemical Literature
197(1)
Secondary Literature
198(3)
Primary Literature
201(2)
Appendix I Commonly Used Calculations 203(6)
1 Molarity
203(1)
2 Normality
204(1)
3 Dilutions
205(1)
4 Percent Concentrations
205(1)
5 Percent Yields and Theoretical Yields
206(3)
Appendix II Elemental Analyses 209(4)
1 Determining the Empirical Formula
209(1)
2 Determining the Molecular Formula
210(1)
3 Interpreting the Results of Elemental Analysis
211(1)
4 Degree of Unsaturation
211(2)
Appendix III Health Hazards of Compounds Used in Organic Chemistry 213
1 Where to Find Chemical Hazard Information
213
2 Understanding Health Hazard Warnings
216

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