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Ideal for any practicing or future organic chemist or biochemist,Organic Structural Spectroscopypresents the fundamentals of all four principal spectroscopic methods: nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Each topic is examined in depth by an experienced author who is a practicing expert in that area. The material begins at the most elementary level and progresses to the level required for organic research. Among many other enhancements, theSecond Editionoffers an entirely new discussion of mass spectrometry, with comprehensive coverage of new ionization and fragmentation methods, and treatment of NMR from the basics to advanced 2D methods.
Joseph B. Lambert has been Clare Hamilton Hall Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and soon will become Professor of Chemistry at Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas. He has been recognized for his work in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, organosilicon chemistry, and archaeological chemistry, and for his teaching of chemistry. His honors include the American Chemical Society 2004 Sidney M. Edelstein Award for Outstanding Achievements in the History of Chemistry, the American Chemical Society 1998 Frederic Stanley Kipping Award in Silicon Chemistry, and the Chemical Manufacturers Association 1993 National Catalyst Award. He is the author of over 360 publications, including 13 books, and he is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry.
Scott Gronert is Professor of Chemistry at Virginia Commonwealth University. He has been recognized for his research in mass spectrometry, proteomics, and gas-phase ion chemistry, and for his teaching of chemistry. His honors include a Northern California Phi Beta Kappa Teaching Excellence Award and a Wilsmore Fellowship at the University of Melbourne. He is author of over 100 publications, several book chapters, and presently is on the editorial board of the Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry.
Herbert F. Shurvell is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry and Adjunct Professor in the Art Conservation Program at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. He has been recognized for research in infrared and Raman spectroscopy and for his teaching of chemistry. His honors include a D.Sc. degree from Exeter University, Honorary Membership in the Spectroscopy Society of Canada, and an Award for Excellence in Teaching from the Arts and Science Undergraduate Society of Queen’s University. He is author of more than 200 publications, including four books, and he is a former Editor of Canadian Spectroscopic News.
David A. Lightner is R.C. Fuson Professor of Chemistry, Adjunct Professor of Biochemistry, and Regents Research Professor at the University of Nevada, Reno. He has been recognized for distinguished contributions in relating chiroptical properties to stereochemistry and for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of phototherapy for neonatal jaundice. His honors include University of Nevada Foundation Professor (1987), the first recipient of the Outstanding Research Award for the State of Nevada (1992), and election as Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1996). He is the author of more than 350 research publications and 12 books or book chapters, a former associate editor of Photochemistry and Photobiology, and currently on the editorial advisory board of Monatshefte für Chemie.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
1-1 The Spectroscopic Approach to Structure Determination
1-2 Contributions of Different Forms of Spectroscopy
1-3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
1-4 Molecular Weight and Molecular Formula
1-5 Structural Isomers and Stereoisomers
Part I NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY
Chapter 2 Introduction
2-1 Magnetic Properties of Nuclei
2-2 The Chemical Shift
2-3 Excitation and Relaxation
2-4 Pulsed Experiments
2-5 The Coupling Constant
2-6 Quantification and Complex Splitting
2-7 Commonly Studied Nuclides
2-8 Dynamic Effects
2-9 Spectra of Solids
2-10 Experimental Methods
Tips on Solving NMR Problems
Chapter 3 The Chemical Shift
3-1 Factors That Influence Proton Shifts
3-2 Proton Chemical Shifts and Structure
3-3 Medium and Isotope Effects
3-4 Factors That Influence Carbon Shirts
3-5 Carbon Chemical Shifts and Structure
3-6 Tables of Chemical Shifts
Further Tips on Solving NMR Problems
Chapter 4 The Coupling Constant
4-1 First-Order Spectra
4-2 Chemical and Magnetic Equivalence
4-3 Signs and Mechanisms
4-4 Couplings over One Bond
4-5 Geminal Couplings
4-6 Vicinal Couplings
4-7 Long-Range Couplings
4-8 Spectral Analysis
4-9 Second-Order Spectra
4-10 Tables of Coupling Constants
Chapter 5 Further Topics in One-Dimensional NMR
5-1 Spin-Lattice and Spin-Spin Relaxation
5-2 Reactions on the NMR Time Scale
5-3 Multiple Resonance
5-4 The Nuclear Overhauser Effect
5-5 Spectral Editing
5-6 Sensitivity Enhancement
5-7 Carbon Connectivity
5-8 Phase Cycling, Composite Pulses, and Shaped Pulses
Chapter 6 Two-Dimensional NMR
6-1 Proton-Proton Correlation Through Coupling
6-2 Proton-Heteronucleus Correlation
6-3 Proton-Proton Correlation Through Space or Chemical Exchange
6-4 Carbon-Carbon Correlation
6-5 Higher Dimensions
6-6 Pulsed Field Gradients
6-7 Summary of Two-Dimensional Methods
Part II MASS SPECTROMETRY
Chapter 7 Instrumentation and Theory
7-2 Ionization Methods
7-3 Mass Analysis
7-4 Sample Preparation
Chapter 8 Ion Activation and Fragmentation
8-1 Basic Principles
8-2 Methods and Energetics
8-3 Functional Groups
Chapter 9 Structural Analysis
9-1 Molecular Weights
9-2 Molecular Formula
9-3 Structures from Fragmentation Patterns
Chapter 10 Quantitative Applications
10-1 Quantification of Analytes
Part III VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY
Chapter 11 Introduction
11-2 Vibrations of Molecules
11-3 Infrared and Raman Spectra
11-4 Units and Notation
11-5 Infrared Spectra: Dispersive and Fourier Transform
11-6 Sampling Methods for Infrared Transmission Spectra
11-7 Raman Spectroscopy
11-8 Raman Sampling Methods
11-9 Depolarization Measurements
11-10 Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy
Chapter 12 Group Frequencies
12-2 Factors Affecting Group Frequencies
12-3 Infrared Group Frequencies
12-4 Raman Group Frequencies
12-5 Preliminary Analysis
12-6 The CH Stretching Region (3340-2700 cm-1)
12-7 The Carbonyl Stretching Region (1850-1650 cm-1)
12-8 Aromatic Compounds
12-9 Compounds Containing Methyl Groups
12-10 Compounds Containing Methylene Groups
12-11 Unsaturated Compounds
12-12 Compounds Containing Oxygen
12-13 Compounds Containing Nitrogen
12-14 Compounds Containing Phosphorus and Sulfur
12-15 Heterocyclic Compounds
12-16 Compounds Containing Halogens
12-17 Boron, Silicon, Tin, Lead, and Mercury Compounds
12-18 Isotopically Labeled Compounds
12-19 Using the Literature on Vibrational Spectroscopy
Part IV ELECTRONIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY
Chapter 13 Introduction and Experimental Methods
13-2 Measurement of Ultraviolet-Visible Light Absorption
13-3 Quantitative Measurements
13-4 Electronic Transitions
13-5 Experimental Aspects
Chapter 14 Structural Analysis
14-1 Isolated Chromophores
14-2 Conjugated Chromophores
14-3 Aromatic Compounds
14-4 Important Naturally Occurring Chromophores
14-5 The Woodward-Fieser Rules
14-6 Steric Effects
14-7 Solvent Effects and Dynamic Equilibria
14-8 Hydrogen Bonding Studies
14-10 Charge Transfer Band
14-11 Worked Problems
Chapter 15 Integrated Problems