The Eighth Edition of Organizational Behavior in Education continues to analyze educational leadership in clear and realistic terms while considering how readers can effectively participate in school reform. Readers are challenged throughout the text to develop and act upon a game plan for implementing school reform. Issues arising from the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 receive major emphasis in this edition. The author continues to examine aspects of organizational behavior such as organizational culture, diversity, leadership, motivation, change, conflict, and decision-making while maintaining high standards of scholarship and a readily accessible writing style. New to this Edition: New Chapter 1, "In Search of a Paradigm," discusses the major shift that was triggered by the No Child Left Behind Act and its emphasis on scientific research. Major revision of Chapter 2, "Toward a Theory of Practice," adds discussion of new ideas about educational equality and how these relate to our assumptions about concepts such as the nature of intelligence and multiple intelligences. Chapter 8, "Adaptive Leadership," explains how adaptive leaders can be effective in times of rapid change, uncertainty, and ambiguity. All research and references have been meticulously updated to provide the most current and useful information to readers. Visit the EdLeadership Supersite for this text at www.ablongman.com/edleadership where you will find important Organizational Behavior and Development links! Related titles: Ethics for Educational Leaders: A Guide for Decision-Makers, 1/e Weldon Beckner ISBN# 0-205-36091-2 Better Policies, Better Schools: Theories and Applications, 1/e Bruce S. Cooper Lance D. Fusarelli E. Vance Randall ISBN# 0-205-32152-6 Administrators Solving the Problems of Practice: Decision-Making Concepts, Cases, and Consequences, 2/e Wayne K. Hoy John C. Tarter ISBN# 0-205-38080-8 Educational Leadership: Changing Schools, Changing Roles, 1/e Judy Reinhartz Don M. Beach ISBN# 0-205-34103-9 Educational Goverance and Administration, 5/e Thomas J. Sergiovanni Paul Kelleher Martha McCarthy Fred Wirt ISBN# 0-205-38086-7
Each chapter concludes with “Conclusion,” “Working on Your Game Plan,” and “Suggested Reading.”
1. In Search of a Paradigm.
Assumptions, Beliefs, Behaviors.
Modernist and Structuralist Thought.
Post Modernism and Post structuralism.
The Nature of Scientific Progress.
Sociological and Psychological Points of View.
The Relevance of School Leadership Today.
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Research Methods in Education.
Leadership as Coaching.
The Game Plan.
2. Toward a Theory of Practice.
Two Principal Sources of Conflict.
The “Great Debate” : Traditional versus Progressive Education.
The Beginnings of the Great Educational Debate.
The Backlash of the 1950s.
The Neoprogressives Emerge in the 1960s.
The Contemporary Debate on Schooling.
A Paradigm Shift in Education.
A Passion for Equality.
The Traditional Paradigm of Intelligence.
The Bell Curve.
A New Paradigm of Intelligence or the Lake Wobegon Syndrome.
Multiple Intelligences Theory.
Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory (MIT).
Perkins' Learnable Intelligence Theory.
The Debate Continues.
The National “Summit Meetings” on Educational Standards.
Theory of Action.
Theory of Practice.
The Game Plan: A Coaching Metaphor.
3. Mainstreams of Organizational Thought.
Organization and Behavior.
Why Study Organizational Behavior?
Why Study the History of Organizational Behavior?
Why Study Theory?
Public Administration as a Beginning.
Impact of the Industrial Revolution.
Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management.
The Beginning of Modern Organizational Theory.
Emergence of Bureaucratic Organizational Theory.
The Rise of Classical Organizational Theory.
Scientific Management versus Classical Organizational Theory.
Organizational Concepts of Classical Theory.
The Ideas of Mary Parker Follett.
Classical and Neoclassical Administrative Concepts.
The Human Relations Movement.
The Western Electric Studies.
The Organizational Theory Movement.
Human Relations and Organizational Behavior.
4. Organizational Theory in the Modern Period.
Theory Defined and Described.
Two Major Perspectives on Educational Organizations.
Human Resources Development Views.
Theory X and Theory Y.
Organizational Structure and People.
General Systems Theory.
Basic Concepts of System.
Social Systems Theory.
A Contextual Approach.
Functional Roles in a Group.
Role Related to Social Systems Theory.
Sociotechnical Systems Theory.
Rational Planning Models.
Open System Related to Contingency Theory.
Response to Technological Change.
Interactions with External Environment.
Contingency Theory and Organizational Behavior in Schools.
5. The Human Dimension of Organization.
Reconceptualizing the Nature of Organizations.
A New Paradigm of Organizational Theory.
Rise in Qualitative Research Methods.
Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems.
Educational Organizations as Dual Systems.
Building Human Capital.
Human Resources as Assets.
Organizational Culture as a Bearer of Authority.
Five Basic Assumptions of Effective Schools.
Turmoil in School Reform.
Three Approaches to School Reform.
6. Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate.
Human Resources Development.
Defining and Describing Organizational Culture and Climate.
Research on Organizational Culture.
Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate Compared and Contrasted.
How Organizational Culture is Created.
Symbolism and Culture.
The Affective Aspects of Culture and Climate.
How Organizational Climate is Created.
Concept of Behavior Settings.
Describing and Assessing Organizational Culture in Schools.
Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness.
Cause and Effect.
The Problem of Measuring School Effectiveness.
Describing and Assessing Organizational Climate in Schools.
Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ).
Organizational Climate Index (OCI).
Four Management Systems.
7. Organizational Change.
School Reform and Change.
Power Relationships and School Restructuring.
Aims of Educational Reform.
The Tradition of Change in American Education.
Natural Diffusion Processes.
Sociological Views of Diffusion.
Planned, Managed Diffusion.
Three Strategies of Planned Change.
Empirical-Rational Strategies of Change.
Research, Development, and Diffusion (R, D, and D).
The “Agricultural Model.”
Assumptions and Implications of KPU Approaches to Change.
Other Empirical-Rational Strategies.
Power-Coercive Strategies of Change.
A Third Strategy: Organizational Self-Renewal.
The Rand Study of Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change.
A Normative Reeducative Strategy.
The Learning Organization.
A Sociotechnical View.
Research on the Effectiveness of OD.
8. Adaptive Leadership.
Power and Leadership.
Leadership Different from Command.
Two-Factor Leadership Theory Abandoned.
Leadership as a Relationship with Followers.
Your Understanding of Human Nature is Critical.
Bureaucratic View of Leadership.
Transforming Leadership Compared and Contrasted with Transactional Leadership.
A Process of Growth and Development.
Leadership and Vision.
Whose Vision Is It, Anyway?
Manipulation and Empowerment.
Leadership and Management.
Empowerment and Leadership.
A Moral or Ethical Problem.
Leadership and la Diffirence.
9. Decision Making.
Individual versus Organizational Decision Making.
Rationality in Decision Making.
Rational Decision Making Models.
Limits on Rationality in Decision Making.
The Gap Between Theory and Practice.
Five Leadership Styles.
Seven Situation Issues.
Decision Process Flowchart.
The Nature of Managerial and Administrative Work.
How Administrators Think.
The Influence of Organizational Culture on Decision Making.
Closing the Gap Between Theory and Practice.
Theory of Practice.
Human Resources Development.
Participative Decision Making.
Participative Decision Making and Empowerment.
Participative or Democratic?
An Explicit Decision Making Process.
Who Identifies the Problem?
Emergent and Discrete Problems.
Who Should Participate?
Desire of Individuals to Participate.
Participation Requires High Level of Skills.
A Paradigm for Decision Making.
10. Conflict in Organizations.
The Nature of Conflict in Organizations.
Definition of Conflict.
Conflict Different from Attacks.
Contemporary Views of Conflict.
Effects of Organizational Conflict.
The Criterion: Organizational Performance.
The Dynamics of Organizational Conflict.
A Contingency View.
A Process View of Conflict.
A Structural View of Conflict.
An Open-Systems View of Conflict.
Approaches to Organizational Conflict.
The Win-Lose Orientation to Conflict.
The Contingency approach to Conflict.
A Contingency Approach to Diagnosis of Conflict.
The Meaning and Patterns of Motivation.
First Pattern: Direction in Making Choices.
Second Pattern: Persistence.
Third Pattern: Intensity.
The Extrinsic-Intrinsic Debate.
Extrinsic, or Behaviorist, Views.
Intrinsic Views of Motivation.
Individual and Group Motivation.
The Western Electric Studies Revisited.
The Illumination Studies.
The Relay Inspection Group Studies.
Central Findings of the Studies.
Impact of the Studies.
Contemporary Views of the Western Electric Studies.
In Praise of Diversity.
Gardner's Seven Dimensions of Intelligence.
Temperament and Organizational Behavior.
The Four Psychological Types.
Four Basic Dimensions of Human Personality.
Sensation-Intuition and Thinking-Feeling.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
A Dimension, Rather Than Either-Or.
Cognitive Views of Motivation.
McClelland and the “Spirit of Capitalism.”
Fear of Success.
The Humanistic Perspective.
Abraham Maslow: Motivation as a Hierarchy of Needs.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation.
Integration of Herzberg's and Maslow's Theories.
12. School Reform.
Market-Based School Reform.
Economic Theory and School Reform.
School Reform as Investment Opportunity.
Education Management Organizations.
Contracting versus Privatization.
Standards-Based School Reform.
Increasing School Autonomy.
Support for School Leaders.
Coalition of Essential Schools.
Comer School Development Program.
An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform.
Teacher Education and School Reform.
National Network for Educational Renewal (NNER).
The American Council on Education Initiative.
The Flexner Report on Medical Education as Precedent.